? When one is conducting business research the most important factor is developing a reasonable researchable question? _____True ____False ? Business research should always begin with an alternate hypothesis? ____True ____False ? The number of widgets produced by 9 employees in an eight hour shift is recorded below. Find the mean number of widgets produced. 135, 120, 116, 119, 121, 125, 135, 131, 123 ? What is the range of widgets produced given in problem presented above? ? What is the mode of the number of widgets produced presented above? ? What is the median of the number of widgets produced presented above? ? The mean price of 5 items is $7.00. The prices of the first four items are $6.50, $8.00, $5.50 and $6.00. How much does the fifth item cost? ? The range of a set of numbers is 1,362. The greatest number is 2,172. What is the least number? ? The mean of a set of 7 numbers is 13. What is the sum of the numbers? ? Find the mode of the following test scores: 89, 78, 91, 82, 75, 89, 84, 95, 89, 93 ? The mean of a set of data is 174.25 and the sum of the data is 1,394. How many numbers are in the set? ? The grade point averages of 10 students are listed below. Find the median grade point average. 3.15, 3.62, 2.54, 2.81, 3.97, 1.85, 1.93, 2.63, 2.50, 2.80 ? A large mass of data can best be summarized pictorially by means of: a. the range b. a histogram c. the frequency table d. mean and standard deviation ? For a symmetric distribution, the mean and median are a. the same b. always different c. possibly the same, possibly different d. insufficient information. ? A distribution of 7 scores has a median of 21. If the highest score increases 3 points, the median will become ___________. a. 21 b. 21.5 c. 24 d. Cannot be determined without additional information. e. none of these ? If you are told a population has a mean of 25 and a variance of 0, what must you conclude? a. Someone has made a mistake. b. There is only one element in the population. c. There are no elements in the population. d. All the elements in the population are 25. e. None of the above. ? Which of the following measures of central tendency tends to be most influenced by an extreme score? a. median b. mode c. mean ? Which of the following is not a measure of central tendency? a. mean d. standard deviation b. median e. none of these c. mode ? The following data represent scores of 50 students in an applied business statistics test. 72 72 93 70 59 78 74 65 73 80 57 67 72 57 83 76 74 56 68 67 74 76 79 72 61 72 73 76 67 49 71 53 67 65 100 83 69 61 72 68 65 51 75 68 75 66 77 61 64 74 a. Prepare the frequency distribution table and the frequency histogram for this data set. b. Compute the sample mean, sample median X(M), sample range, and sample variance. c. Does the data set represent a sample or a population? If it is a sample, describe the population from which it has been drawn. ? Two workers on the same job show the following results over a long period of time. Worker Worker A B ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Mean time of completing the job (minutes) 30 25 Standard deviation (minutes) 6 4 a. Which worker appears to be more consistent in the time he requires to complete the job? Explain. ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ b. Which worker appears to be faster in completing the job? Explain. _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? Suppose the manager of a plant is concerned with the total number of man-hours lost due to accidents for the past 12 months. The company statistician has reported the mean number of man-hours lost per month but did not keep a record of the total sum. Should the manager order the study repeated to obtain the desired information? Explain your answer clearly. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________. ? Explain why histograms and frequency polygons are used in business statistics. ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ? A graphical presentation may accomplish ALL BUT which of the following objectives? a) Illustrate the amount of variation in the data. b) Illustrate approximately where the mean is. c) Allow comparison with similar data. d) Will have the exact same shape regardless of what units are used on the axes. ? A coach in a large high school thinks that ballet training will improve the batting performance of his baseball team. He decides to have a randomly selected half of the team take six weeks of ballet training before the baseball season begins, while the other half does not take such training. He will then compare the season batting averages of group A (those with ballet training) and group B (those without ballet training) by comparing the mean of group A with the mean of group B. An independent variable is: a. ballet training b. batting average c. runs batted in d. the size of the school e. the grades the players make in the ballet school ? Explain the differences between longitudinal and cross sectional business research studies. _________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ? Which two types of probability sampling are best suited for business research and statistical data analysis, and why? ____________________________________________________ ? What are the three main types of non-probability sampling used in business research? ____________________________________________________________ ? What type of t test seeks to determine whether or not a relationship exists in one sample over two conditions? _______________ ? The null hypothesis states that a difference, effect or relationship exists in a research situation? ______True _____False ? The confidence level expresses the degree of certainty that an interval will include the actual value of the population parameter? ____True ____False ? What is the difference between a null hypothesis and an alternate hypothesis? _______________________________________________________________ ? Explain what is meant by the critical value of a statistical value. _______________________________________________________________ ? If a production manager wanted to determine whether or not the first shift was processing more widgets than the second shift, what type of statistical process would be used? _____________________________________________ ? What is the difference between a t test for independent means and a correlated t test? ___________________________________________________________ ? Explain the .05 confidence level. ________________________________________________________________ ? In a situation with a confidence level .01 what percent of the measurement results are left to chance? _____________________________________ ? What is the most important ingredient in a statistical testing procedure? _______________________________. ? Describe each of the following statistical terms, and where applicable, define with the appropriate equation: a. Range _______________________________________________ b. Variance _____________________________________________ c. Standard Deviation ______________________________________ ? Given the following raw scores, calculate the following values, show your calculations: Scores: 9, 7, 8, 4, 8, 8,7, 8, 9, 6, 3 a. Range _____________________ b. Variance ____________________ c. Standard Deviation _____________________ ? Give a brief definition and an example of the following: a. Descriptive Statistics b. Inferential Statistics ? Levels of Measurement/Scaling?Identify which level of scaling is present in the examples below N = Nominal, O = Ordinal, I = Interval, R = Ratio _____ A high temperature of 83 degrees Fahrenheit _____ A survey result that 24 students work full time, 36, part time. _____ Bill is consistently rated most effective communicator of his group. _____ Gallup says that 60% of the voters support the incumbent. _____ Pick up three pounds of ground beef please. _____ Patty acts as expected based on her first-born family position. _____ Seattle at an altitude of 67 feet is higher than Death Valley at an altitude of ? 120. _____ The door is 37 inches wide, the door frame is 36 inches wide. ? Place an ?X? in front of those issues that only relate to selecting a specific statistical test. (Do not put an ?X? in front of items common to all tests or not applying to statistical tests.) _____ The distribution (shape) of the population (e.g., normal, skewed, flat, etc.) _____ The measurement scale/nature of the data being evaluated (nominal, ordinal, interval or ratio) _____ The size of the population (assuming it is much larger than any samples) _____ The level of significance (_) you wish to place on the test results _____ Whether you have matched/related or unmatched/unrelated samples _____ The degrees of freedom (sample size) associated with your sample(s) _____ The statement of the null and research hypotheses _____ Whether the sample was stratified or not ? For the following list, place a ?P? beside the items which apply to Populations and an ?S? beside the items which apply to Samples. (P = Populations S = Samples) _____ A parameter _____ ?Roman? letters, i.e.: x, s _____ A bounded, defined complete group (people, objects, etc.) having something in common to be described in its totality _____ ?Greek? letters, i.e.: ?, ? _____ One or more subsets of a larger defined group, used to represent the larger group _____ 170 Republicans selected randomly from King County voter records _____ All Democrats in the state of Washington (totality) ? What does the correlation coefficient r describe? What about r squared? ? Research Design Considerations a. Describe some of the issues or concerns (at least three) which would be addressed in deciding how to perform a statistical test of a hypothesis: b. As an Argosy student, you are designing a training program to help develop team cohesiveness in a healthcare facility. You have a before and after test which measures behaviors indicating team cohesiveness. For this scenario, match the appropriate hypothesis symbol to the statements/examples below: Place an ?N? in front of those items representing the Null Hypothesis and an ?R? in front of those items representing the Research Hypothesis _____ H1 _____ There is no significant difference in the teaming behavior before and after the training. _____ H0 _____ There is a significant difference in the teaming behavior before and after the training. ? Discuss the implications of: magnitude (from 0 to 1); sign ( + or -); and probability versus causality for the Correlation Coefficient (also known as the Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient). ? Describe how you would develop a random sample from among Argosy students.
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