Lab 11 Mitosis Lab Report;Scroll to the bottom and click on Procedure for Experiment;1: Observation of Mitosis in a Plant Cell;Table 1: Mitosis Predictions;Stages Hours in each stage;Interphase;Prophase;Metaphase;Anaphase;Telophase;Cytokinesis;After observing the onion root tips, count the number of cells in each stage and report below;Table 2: Mitosis Data;Stages Number of Cells counted in Each Stage % of cells in each stage;(# cells in stage/total# cells in field times 100) Hours in each stage;(24 x %)*;Interphase;Prophase;Metaphase;Anaphase;Telophase;Cytokinesis;Total cells counted;*(Note to multiply by a % you divide the % by 100);Table 3: Stage Drawings;Cell Stage: Describe what is happening in each stage, include a picture if you want.;Interphase;Prophase;Metaphase;Anaphase;Telophase;Cytokinesis;Answer the following questions;1. Label the arrows in the slide image below;Labels from the diagram above;A.;B.;C.;D.;E.;F.;2. In what stage were most of the onion root tip cells in? Based on what you know about cell cycle division, does this make sense? Explain why or why not.;3. Were there any stages of the cell cycle that you did not observe? How can you explain this using evidence from the cell cycle?;4. As a cell grows, what happens to its surface area: volume ratio? (Hint: Think of a balloon being blown up). How does this ratio change with respect to cell division?;5. What is the function of mitosis in a cell that is about to divide?;6. What would happen if mitosis were uncontrolled?;7. How accurate were your time predication for each stage of the cell cycle?;8. Discuss one observation that you found interesting while looking at the onion root tip cells.;Experiment 2: Tracking Chromosomal DNA Movement through Mitosis;Complete the experiment 2, tracking Chromsomal DNA Movement through Mitosis complete the following tables and questions;Table 1;Cell Cycle Division: Mitosis Beads Diagram or pictures of your beads;Prophase;Metaphase;Anaphase;Telophase;Cytokinesis;Questions;1. How many chromosomes did each of your daughter cells contain?;2. Why is it important for each daughter cell to contain information identical to the parent cell?;3. How often do human skin cells divide? Why might that be? Compare this rate to how frequently human neurons divide. What do you notice?;4. Hypothesize what would happen if the sister chromatids did not split equally during anaphase of mitosis.;Experiment 3.;1. In a species of mice, brown fur color is dominant to white fur color. When a brown mouse is crossed with a white mouse all of their offspring have brown fur. Why did none of the offspring have white fur?;2. Can a person?s genotype be determined by their phenotype? Why or why not?;3. Are incomplete dominant and co-dominant patterns of inheritance found in human traits? If yes, give examples of each.;4. Consider the following genotype: Yy Ss Hh. We have now added the gene for height: Tall (H) or Short (h). How many different gamete combinations can be produced?;Procedure;1. Set up and complete Punnett squares for each of the following crosses: (remember Y = yellow, and y = blue);Y Y and Y y;Gamete alleles Y Y;Y;y;Now you do this one Y Y and y y;a) What are the resulting phenotypes?;b) Are there any blue kernels? How can you tell?;2. Set up and complete a Punnett squares for a cross of two of the F1 from 1b above;a) What are the genotypes of the F2 generation?;b) What are their phenotypes?;c) Are there more or less blue kernels than in the F1 generation?;Part 2 and 3 Section A. Monohybrid cross;? Pour the 50 yellow (Y) and 50 blue (y) beads into a beaker. Without looking randomly take 50 beads from the beaker and place them in the smaller 100 ml beaker. Label this as beaker #1;? Do not make a beaker 2 as we are not completing the dihybrid part of the experiment.;Questions;1. What is the gene pool of beaker #1? (colors);Answer;2. What is the gene frequency of beaker #1, (example 26 blue: yellow, you?ll have to count yours);Answer;Directions: Randomly (without looking) take 2 beads out of #1.;? This is the genotype of individual #1, record this information on table below. Do not put those beads back into the beaker.;? Repeat this for individual #2. These two genotypes are your parents for the next generation. Set up a Punnett square and determine the genotypes and phenotypes for this cross.;? Repeat this process 4 times (5 total). Put the beads back in their respective beakers when finished.;Trial Parent 1;bead color;genotype;Parent 2;bead color;genotype Offspring from cross;yellow#/blue#;phenotypes;Example;(Note examples of your answers in green) Beads;Yellow, Yellow;genotype: YY Beads;Yellow,blue;Genotype;Yy Genotypes from your Punnett square;YY,YY,Yy,Yy;Phenotypes;All yellow;Trial 1;Trial 2;Trial 3;Trail 4;Trial 5;a) How much genotypic variation do you find in the randomly picked parents of your crosses?;b) How much in the offspring?;c) How much phenotypic variation?;d) Is the ratio of observed phenotypes the same as the ratio of predicted phenotypes? Why or Why not?;e) Pool all of the offspring from our 5 replicates. How much phenotype variation do you find?;f) What is the difference between genes and alleles?;g) How might protein synthesis execute differently if a mutation occurs?;h) Organisms heterozygous for a recessive trait are often called carriers of that trait, what does that mean?;i) In peas, green pods (G) are dominant over yellow pods. If a homozygous dominant plant is crossed with a homozygous recessive plant, what will be the phenotype(appearance) of the F1 generation? If two plants from the F1 generation are crossed, what will the phenotype of their offspring be?;Looking at 2 traits instead of just one;3. Identify the four possible gametes produced by the following individuals;a) YY Ss;b) Yy Ss;c) Create a Punnett square using these gametes as P and determine the genotypes of the F1;d) What are the phenotypes of this generation? What is the ratio of those phenotypes?;Additional Requirements;Other Requirements: I will one more time apreciate your time in answearing this if you can. good tip available.
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