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Human Biology




Experiment;GENETIC INHERITANCE;Genetic;Inheritance;Margaret E. Vorndam, M.S. Version 42-006100-01;LAB REPORT ASSISTANT;This document is not meant to be a substitute for a formal laboratory report. The Lab;Report Assistant is simply a summary of the experiments questions, diagrams if;needed, and data tables that should be addressed in a formal lab report. The intent is to;facilitate students writing of lab reports by providing this information in an editable file;which can be sent to an instructor.;Data Table 1: Punnett Square for F1 Cross Expected Genetic;Outcomes;F1 Parent, genes;(student to fill in the;blanks);alleles >;alleles v;F1;Parent, g e n e s;(student fill in blank);Data Table 2: Results of F1 Cross;Observed Phenotypes of F2 Progeny;# green plants =;Petri Dish 1 >;Petri Dish 2 >;Total;m;# white plants =;242;Hands-On Labs;Total # plants;Experiment;GENETIC INHERITANCE;Data Table 3: Dihybrid Cross in Corn Results of P Cross;P = purple, p = yellow;S = smooth, s = wrinkled;(student to fill in all blanks;Generation;P>;dominant x recessive;Expected Alleles;Expected Alleles;ppss;F1 Progeny >;Frequency >;m;243;Hands-On Labs;Experiment;GENETIC INHERITANCE;Data Table 3A: Punnett Square for F1 Dihybrid Cross;Expected Genotypic Outcomes;(student to fill in);Parent 1 F1 can produce these gametes;(student to fill in);Parent 2 F1 can;produce these gametes;Shaded portion above represents the F2;progeny;genotype and phenotype. Student to fill in.;m;244;Hands-On Labs;Experiment;GENETIC INHERITANCE;Data Table 4: Dihybrid Cross in Corn Results of F1 Cross in F2;Progeny;Phenotype of;Progeny;(What they;look like;word;descriptio;n);Genetic;Designations;possible for;this;Phenotype;Number of;Predicted Allelic this;Frequency;Phenotype;Total;(Expected Ratio) Counted;e.g., PPSS;100;(Observe;Actual Allelic;Frequency;(Observed;Ratio)*;e.g.;ppss;Yellow;* Actual Allelic Frequency (Observed Ratio);= Number of this Phenotype Total Counted 100 kernels total counted;m;245;Hands-On Labs;Experiment;GENETIC INHERITANCE;Data Table 5: 2 Goodness of Fit Test for F Phenotypic Results from F Corn;Cross;Phenotype;Description;of F2;Progeny;from Table;Observe;d;Number;from;Table 4;Observe;d Ratio;from;Table 4;Expecte;d Ratio;from;Table 4;*;Expected;Number;calculate;** [Observed No.;Exp. No.]2;Expected No.;e.g.;Yellow;wrinkled;c2, Chi Sum;square value;of;***;column;=;* Expected Number, calculated;= Sum of Observed Number x Expected Ratio for that phenotype;** = (Observed number Expected number, calculated) square;Expected Number;calculated;2;*** c, Chi-square value = Sum of (Observed number Expected number, calculated);squared;Expected Number, calculated;m;246;Hands-On Labs;Experiment;GENETIC INHERITANCE;Data Table 6: Summarization of c2 Good Fit Results for F Corn Cross;1;c2 value from Table 5 =;Value at 3 Degrees of Freedom that is closest;to c2;value =;What is the Fit Probability at the top of the;column in which the value was found?;What is the % of probability that the;observed results match the expected;results?;(Multiply Fit Probability by 100);Reading at the top of the Table, this Fit;Probability indicates that the expected;results hypothesis is a;m;247;Good Fit;Poor Fit;Circle the correct choice above;Hands-On Labs;Experiment;GENETIC INHERITANCE;Exercise 1: F1 Hybrid Cross;A. Expected phenotypic ratio of green to white progeny: Calculation of Expected Ratio;(Frequency) =;= Total Number of (Color) Seedlings Total of All Seedlings.;B. If 320 F2 offspring resulted from this F1 cross, how many would be green?;White?;DISCUSSION;A. Did the results support or refute the hypothesis? Explain.;B. How similar are the observed to the expected results from the Punnett Square?;C. If the results are not similar, how might the difference be explained?;D. Will a monohybrid F1 cross in corn yield the same ratio of expected phenotype in;progeny as for the tobacco seedlings? Why or why not?;m;248;Hands-On Labs;Experiment;GENETIC INHERITANCE;E. If available, compare your F2 seedling data to those of your classmates. Are the;outcome ratios the same? Why might using a larger number of seedlings to determine;this outcome be wise?;Exercise 2: Dihybrid Genetic Crosses;PROCEDURE;1. Based on what you can conclude about its genetic makeup when told that the corn;plant parent cross (P) pictured in Figure 2 is between a completely dominant plant;and a completely recessive plant;a.;Construct and record a hypothesis about what the genetic makeup and the;frequencies of the alleles for the F1 progeny plants in the dihybrid cross of corn;will be. Record your hypothesis here;b. If these F1 progeny are mated, what will be the resulting allelic frequency for the F2;progeny? Record this hypothesis here;RESULTS;A. What are the two hypotheses that you made about the allelic frequencies of progeny;produced by the crosses;P x P?;F1 x F1?;m;249;Hands-On Labs;Experiment;GENETIC INHERITANCE;B. Based on what you know about phenotypes and Figure 2, for the P;generation, what is the corn plant genotype on each cob containing the;P corn kernels? One is completely dominant, so its genotype is;One is completely recessive, so its genotype is.;C. Would it make a difference in the outcome of this cross if the genotype of one;parent is PPss and the other is ppSS?;D. From the phenotype of the kernels on each P generation cob what would the;predicted genotype of any F1 plant be?;E. Given the 2n equation predict how many different genetic outcomes will be possible;from an;F1 cross resulting in the F2 generation in a dihybrid corn;cross.;m;250;Hands-On Labs;Experiment;GENETIC INHERITANCE;F. If a F2 corn cob resulting from this F1 cross contained 563 seeds, how many of the;seeds would you expect to look like the F1 parent?;QUESTIONS;A. How well do the predicted results match the actual results in Table 4?;B. Based on the Punnett Square predictions, can a statement be made as to;whether your hypotheses are supported or rejected? Which and why?;C. Dihybrid F1 crosses result in a predictable F2 progeny phenotypic frequency that;holds true universally. Based on the Expected outcome, what is it?;D. If your results are not as expected why might there be differences?;E. What applications might this type of genetic investigation have? How might the;information be applied medically?;m;251;Hands-On Labs;Experiment;GENETIC INHERITANCE;Exercise 3: Chi-square and Hypothesis Testing;QUESTIONS;A. What can be concluded about your prediction of expected F2 progeny phenotypic;outcome from the F1 cross? Was it close to the observed outcome?;B. How might the c2 test for fitness be used in other ways? Try it on the tobacco seedling F;1;cross, for instance.;C. In a typical cross where a parent with a completely dominant trait is mated with a;parent exhibiting a completely recessive trait, what is the expected genotypic outcome;and allelic frequency for the F1 progeny?;Give;example.;an;D. In a typical cross where hybrid F1 parents are mated, what is the expected genotypic;outcome and allelic frequency of the F2 progeny?;Give;example.;an;m;252;Hands-On Labs;Experiment;GENETIC INHERITANCE;E. For the F2 progeny produced from a typical F1 hybrid mating, how many totally;recessive individuals would be produced if the progeny total population is six offspring?;What if the progeny population was 20?;50?;1,000?;F. Excluding factors such as sex-linked genes, incomplete dominance or epistasis;etc., will the above cross results vary if different organisms are used, such as dogs or;tulips? Why or why not?;G. How will factors such as sex-linked genes, incomplete dominance, or epistasis, etc.;affect the expected outcomes that were investigated above?;m;253;Hands-On Labs


Paper#15052 | Written in 18-Jul-2015

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