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Would you expect endangered species to be more frequently generalists or specialists




BiolLab_7.docx Download Attachment;Your Full Name;Biology 102/103;Lab 7: Ecological Interactions;INSTRUCTIONS;eScience Labs, LLC 2014;Answer Sheet electronically and submit it via the;Assignments Folder by the date listed in the Course;Schedule (under Syllabus).;To conduct your laboratory exercises, use the;Laboratory Manual located under Course Content. Read;the;introduction;and;the;directions;for;each;exercise/experiment carefully before completing the;exercises/experiments and answering the questions.;Save your Lab 7 Answer Sheet in the following;format: LastName_Lab7 (e.g., Smith_Lab7).;You should submit your document as a Word (.doc;or.docx) or Rich Text Format (.rtf) file for best compatibility.;eScience Labs, LLC 2014;Pre-Lab Questions;1. Would you expect endangered species to be more;frequently generalists or specialists? Explain your;answer.;2.;How does temperature affect water availability in an;ecosystem?;3.;Choose a species and describe some adaptations that;species developed that allow them to survive in their;native habitat.;eScience Labs, LLC 2014;Experiment 1: Effects of pH on Radish Seed;Germination;Data Tables and Post-Lab Assessment;Table 1: pH and Radish Seed Germination;Stage/Day;Observation;s;Initial pH;Acetic Acid;Sodium;Bicarbonate;Water;1;2;3;4;5;6;7;Post-Lab Questions;eScience Labs, LLC 2014;1.;Compare and construct a line graph based on the data;from Table 1 in the space below. Place the day on the x;axis, and the number of seeds germinated on the y axis.;Be sure to include a title, label the x and y axes, and;provide a legend describing which line corresponds to;each plate (e.g., blue = acetic acid, green = sodium;bicarbonate, etc).;eScience Labs, LLC 2014;eScience Labs, LLC 2014;eScience Labs, LLC 2014;2.;Was there any noticeable effect on the germination rate;of the radish seeds as a result of the pH? Compare and;contrast the growth rate for the control with the alkaline;and acidic solutions.;eScience Labs, LLC 2014;3.;According to your results would you say that the radish;has a broad pH tolerance? Why or why not? Use your;data to support your answer.;4.;Knowing that acid rain has a pH of 2 - 3 would you;conclude that crop species with a narrow soil pH range;are in trouble? Explain why, or why not, using scientific;reasoning. Is acid rain a problem for plant species and;crops?;eScience Labs, LLC 2014;5.;Research and briefly describe a real world example;about how acid rain affect plants. Be sure to;demonstrate how pH contributes to the outcome, and;proposed solutions (if any). Descriptions should be;approximately 2 - 3 paragraphs. Include at least three;citations (use APA formatting).;Additional Information;Learning Objectives;Define ecology as interactio;amongst organisms and the;eScience Labs, LLC 2014;environment;Analyze the effects of abiot;biotic factors in an ecosyste;Assess how generalists and;specialists define habit tole;Introduction;Figure 1: Note;the relationship;between an;organism;populations;communities and;eScience Labs, LLC 2014;ecosystems.;Ecology is the;scientific study;of both the;interactions;among;organisms and;the interactions;between;organisms and;their;environment. It;is an;interdisciplinary;field that blends;Earth science;evolutionary;biology and;general biology.;Ecology;explores the;adaptations of;organisms, the;distribution of;eScience Labs, LLC 2014;organisms and;biodiversity.;Ecology can be;divided into;different levels;or categories.;Ecosystem;ecology looks;at the big;picture. It;focuses on the;cycling of;chemicals and;the energy flow;within an;ecosystem.;Ecosystem;ecology;includes all the;abiotic factors;and species;within an;ecosystem.;Community;ecology is;eScience Labs, LLC 2014;concerned with;the interactions;between;species and;how those;interactions;affect the;structure and;organization of;the community.;As the name;implies;population;ecology is;concerned with;populations. A;population is a;group of;individuals of;the same;species living in;the same area.;Population;ecology focuses;on factors that;eScience Labs, LLC 2014;affect;population;density and;growth.;Ecology of;organisms, or;organismal;ecology, is the;study of;individual;organisms and;the adaptations;that have;enabled them to;survive in their;abiotic;environments.;Abiotic and;Biotic Factors;Environments;encompass;abiotic and;biotic;components.;Abiotic;eScience Labs, LLC 2014;components;include the;physical and;chemical;aspects.;Physical factors;that affect an;ecosystem;include sunlight;temperature;water currents;wind, nature of;soil, latitude;and altitude.;Chemical;factors include;available;nutrients (in soil;or water), water;salinity, toxicity;concentrations;and water;levels in soil.;Biotic;components;eScience Labs, LLC 2014;refer to the;living factors in;an environment;and include the;producers;consumers and;decomposers.;Producers are;the organisms;that convert;inorganic;material to;organic;substances.;Plants are an;example of a;producer. By;converting;sunlight;and carbon;dioxide to;carbohydrates;they are;producing food;for the;eScience Labs, LLC 2014;consumers.;Consumers and;decomposers;are completely;dependent on;producers for;nourishment.;Since plants are;an important;producer, it;follows that;sunlight powers;nearly all;ecosystems;(aquatic and;terrestrial).;Figure 2;Creatures have;eScience Labs, LLC 2014;learned to thrive;in a variety of;extreme;environments;such as the;desert climate;pictured above.;Organisms;have adapted;and evolved;anatomical;physiological;and behavioral;characteristics;that;compensate for;variation within;the;environment.;The blending of;ecology and;evolutionary;biology is;eScience Labs, LLC 2014;probably most;evident when;examining;organismal;ecology. In this;way, the;environment;shapes the;organisms.;Habitat;Tolerance;Adaptations;that organisms;have developed;allow them to;compensate for;minimal;temporal and;spatial variation;within their;environment.;This is;accomplished;for example, by;regulating body;eScience Labs, LLC 2014;temperature or;controlling the;rate at which;water is;transpired.;Nevertheless;there are limits;to an;organisms;ability to;compensate for;environmental;factors. No;single species;can tolerate all;of Earths;environments.;The geographic;distribution of a;species is thus;limited by the;physical;environment.;That is, species;distribution is;eScience Labs, LLC 2014;limited by an;environments;abiotic factors.;Figure 3;Dandelion;(Taraxicum;officionale)species like the;dandelion are;very common;and show no;aspects of rarity;making them;very common;handling a broad;range of;eScience Labs, LLC 2014;tolerances.;Although living;organisms are;found all over;the planet, all;species have a;defined habitat;tolerance;assigning a;viable range of;environmental;conditions. For;example, some;plant species;can tolerate a;broad range of;soil variability;while others are;confined to a;single soil type.;If a species has;a narrow habitat;tolerance;because of one;eScience Labs, LLC 2014;or more abiotic;factors, then;they are limited;in their;distribution;range. Species;with a broad;range of;tolerance are;usually;distributed;widely, whereas;those with a;narrow range;have more;restricted;distribution.;Species can be;categorized as;specialists or;generalists.;Specialist;species are;those that have;a limited diet or;eScience Labs, LLC 2014;cannot tolerate;a wide range of;environmental;conditions.;Consider a;cactus. A cactus;has a limited;tolerance for;soil conditions;water levels;and;temperatures.;Generalists, on;the other hand;have a wider;range of;tolerance for;environmental;conditions and;diet. For;example;omnivores are;typically;generalists;whereas;eScience Labs, LLC 2014;herbivores tend;to be;specialists.;Interestingly;invasive;species are;frequently;generalists.;Habitat;tolerance along;with a species;geographic;range (limited;vs. widespread);and its local;population size;(large vs. small);determines a;species;commonness or;rarity. These;classifications;can be very;significant to;industries such;eScience Labs, LLC 2014;as agricultural;production and;wildlife;management.;As mentioned;above, the;environment;shapes the;organisms.;What is the;effect of;organisms on;the;environment?;Environmental;changes are;influenced by;the organisms;that inhabit that;environment. In;this way;organisms;shape the;environment. A;change in;eScience Labs, LLC 2014;species;distribution can;modify;interactions;within the;environment.;The loss of a;native species;or the invasion;of a non-native;species can;alter the;survival of other;organisms;within the;environment.;Therefore;control of;invasive;species and;conservation of;endangered;species are;important to;maintain the;eScience Labs, LLC 2014;balance of the;entire system.;Experiment 1: Effects of;pH on Radish Seed;Germination;Natural soil pH depends on the;parent rock material from which it;was formed and processes like;climate. Soil pH is a measure of the;acidity or alkalinity of the soil. Acidic;soils are considered to have a 5.0 or;lower pH value whereas 10.0 or;above is considered a strong basic;or alkaline soil. The pH of soil affects;the solubility of nutrients in soil;water and thus it affects the amount;of nutrients available for plant;uptake. Different nutrients are;available under differing pH;conditions.;In this experiment we will look at the;effect of pH on the germination and;growth rate of radish seeds in order;to determine the range of pH;tolerance for the seed. Acidic or;basic water will be used in order to;eScience Labs, LLC 2014;stimulate acidity or alkalinity in soil.;Materials;2 mL 4.5% Acetic;Acid (Vinegar);C2H4O2;Permanent Marker;(3) 5 cm Petri;Dishes;3 pH Test Strips;Radish Seed;Packet;Ruler;2 mL 15%;Saturated Sodium;Bicarbonate;(Baking;Soda) Solution;NaHCO;*;Sheets (cut to fit;into the petri dish);*;*;*;*You Must Provide;Procedure;1. Use the;permanent;marker to label;eScience Labs, LLC 2014;2.;3.;the top of each of;the three petri;dishes as Acetic;Acid, Sodium;Bicarbonate, or;Water.;Carefully cut;three small;circles from the;paper towel;sheets. The;circles should;comfortably fit;within the bottom;of the petri dish.;Place the circles;in the dishes, and;wet them with;approximately 2;mL of each;respective;solution (acetic;acid, sodium;eScience Labs, LLC 2014;4.;5.;6.;bicarbonate, or;water).;Gently press the;reaction pad of;three, pH test;strips onto the;wet paper towels.;Record your data;in the first row of;Table 1.;Arrange 10 radish;seeds on each;paper towel in;each petri dish.;Make sure the;seeds have;space and are;not touching.;Then, place the;top of the petri;dish on the;bottom.;Place the petri;eScience Labs, LLC 2014;7.;dishes in a sunny;or well-lit, warm;place. Be sure to;keep the paper;towels moist for;the length of the;experiment with;the appropriate;solution if any of;the towels dry;out.;Observe the;seeds daily for;seven days, and;record the;number of seeds;that germinate in;Table 1. Note;when the seeds;crack and roots;or shoots;emerge). On the;seventh day;eScience Labs, LLC 2014;record the;lengths of radish;seed sprouts;(mm or cm).;Table 1: pH and Radish Seed Germination;Day and Initial;pH;Acetic Acid;Sodium;Bicarbonate;Initial pH;Day 1;Day 2;Day 3;Day 4;Day 5;Day 6;Day 7;eScience Labs, LLC 2014


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