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A macromolecule serving as a catalyst

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I have assignment that a tutor did and it needs to be polished up. The catch is it is due in 2 hours and I don't have time to make it sound more like a lab report, for example I hypothesis bla bl abla Anybody interested? The experiment is attached along with direction and answers;Attachments Preview;Bio lab 2 -2.docx Download Attachment;Bio lab 2 answer-4 enzymes.docx Download Attachment;Biology 124L Fall 2014;Lab Report 2: Enzymes: Answer Sheet;Please type your answers into this answer sheet, and submit only the completed answer sheet to your TA.;Due Date: The beginning of your scheduled lab section during the week of September 15 th.;Name: _________________________________________ Section;1a;1b;A macromolecule serving as a catalyst, a chemical agent that increases the rate and;decreasing energy activation of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction. Most;enzymes are proteins.;Organism produce thousand enzyme that act as catalyst of many reaction that constitute;organism metabolism. Those many enzymes are so important keeping biochemistry of;organism that sustains life of organism can happen at average temperature. Without enzyme;many reactions will happen slowly and cannot sustain life. That why organism produce lot;of enzyme;Tyrosinase is an enzyme that catalyst reaction that convert pryocatecol into hydroxyquinone;(yellow-brown liquid) and responsible for brown or bruises in fruit and vegetables.;Hydoxyquinone is a natural antibiotic that prevent infection of injured plant.;2;-To test substrate-specific of tyrosine;-To know what color that indicate reaction mediated by tyrosine happen or not happen;3;This experiment is important to obtain indicator that indicate activity of enzyme so when we;make future experiment, we can check activity of enzyme in modified variable condition;like different pH, different temperature and adding inhibitor;4a;The optimal temperature of tyrosine activity are between 30-34 (little bit lower from body;temperature;-In test tube I (refrigerator temperature) initial color are clear and final color are clear. Those;colors indicate no hydroxyquinone are produced;- In test tube II (room temperature) initial color are light yellow and final color are yellow.;Those colors indicate average amount hydroxyquinone are produced;4b;- In test tube III (35 celcius) initial color are yellow and final color are dark yellow. Those;colors indicate high amount hydroxyquinone are produced.;- In test tube IV (60 celcius) initial color are clear and final color areclear. Those colors;indicate no amount hydroxyquinone are produced.;4c;According to result, experiment result support hypothesis that states optimal temperature of;tyrosine activity are between 30-34 (little bit lower from body temperature). In test tube III;(35 celcius) initial color are yellow and final color are dark yellow. Those colors indicate;high amount hydroxyquinone are produced thus indicate high activity of enzyme.;5a;The higher concentration of enzyme, the higher activity enzyme converting pryocatecol into;hydoxyquinone.;-In test tube I (Lowest concentration of enzyme), initial color is light yellow and color after;5 minutes is yellow. Those colors indicate small amount hydroxyquinone are produced.;5b;--In test tube II (Medium concentration of enzyme), initial color is light yellow and color;after 5 minutes is dark yellow. Those colors indicate medium amount hydroxyquinone are;produced.;-In test tube III (Highest concentration of enzyme), initial color is dark yellow and color;after 5 minutes is dark yellow to pink. Those colors indicate high amount hydroxyquinone;are produced.;5c;According to result, experiment result support hypothesis that state the higher concentration;of enzyme, the higher activity enzyme converting pryocatecol into hydoxyquinone. In test;tube I (Lowest concentration of enzyme) only small amount hydroxyquinone are produced;thus indicate low activity of enzyme. In test tube III (Highest concentration of enzyme);high amount hydroxyquinone are produced thus indicate high activity of enzyme;6a;The optimum pH of Tyrosine enzyme is at neutral pH (pH 7);-In test tube I (pH 4) initial color are clear and final color are light yellow. Those colors;indicate small amount hydroxyquinone are produced;6b;- In test tube II (pH 7) initial color are light yellow and final color are yellow. Those colors;indicate average amount hydroxyquinone are produced;- In test tube III (pH 10) initial color are yellow and final color are light yellow. Those;colors indicate small amount hydroxyquinone are produced.;6c;7a;According to result, experiment result support hypothesis that states optimal pH of Tyrosine;enzyme is at neutral pH (pH 7). In test tube II (pH 7) initial color are light yellow and final;color are yellow. Those colors indicate average amount hydroxyquinone are produced thus;indicate average activity of enzyme. pH 7 is best pH if compared to acidic pH (test tube I);and basic pH (test tube III);Adding inhibitors will decrease tyrosine enzyme activity converting pryocatecol into;hydroxyquinone;- In test tube I (without phenylthiourea) initial color are yellow and final color are dark;yellow. Those colors indicate high amount hydroxyquinone are produced.;7b;-In test tube I (with phenylthiourea) initial color are clear and final color are clear. Those;colors indicate no hydroxyquinone are produced;7c;According to result, experiment result support hypothesis that states adding inhibitors will;decrease tyrosine enzyme activity converting pryocatecol into hydroxyquinone. If we;compare experiment result of test tube I and test tube II, test tube I (without phenylthiourea);show high activity of enzyme (indicated by dark yellow color) than test tube II (with;phenylthiourea) that show low activity of enzyme (indicated by clear color);8a;Optimal temperature of catalase enzyme are between 33-36 (human body temperature);8b;Higher because adaptation of thermophilic bacteria shift its catalase optimum temperature to;higher temperature so enzyme still can work in hot environment where themophilic bacteria;live;Temperature can affect activity of tyrosine enzyme by affecting chemical bonding (e.g;hydrogen bond, disuphidebridge) between amino acids that constitute tyrosine. Chemical;bonding between amino acids of protein determine final shape and active site of enzyme.;8c;Increasing temperature will break chemical bonding of amino acids thus denature the;enzyme. The denatured enzyme cannot catalyst reaction thus decrease activity of enzyme;converting substrate to product;9a;pH optimum of tyrosine enzyme is at neutral ph (pH 7) and it supported by result from;experiment 4.;9b;pH optimum of tyrosine enzyme from potato that were grown in Idaho island is at basic;condition (pH 8). This change are caused by adaptation of potato so potato can still live and;tyrosine enzyme still work in basic condition;9c;pH optimum is at acidic. pH optimum are differ depending growing condition because;regulation optimum ph are needed so plant can fit in place where they live and keep their;existence in earth;10a;Adding competitive inhibitor will decrease activity of enzyme converting its substrate to;product by binding to active site of enzyme so substrate cannot bind to enzyme thus reaction;is blocked. Competitive inhibitor also decrease Km of enzyme thus decrease efficiency o;enzyme;10b;Competitive inhibitors do not completely block the production of the product. The process;blocking active site of enzyme by inhibitors are reversible so by the time enzyme can bind;again to substrate and convert it to product;10c;The color of test tube will become yellow

 

Paper#15297 | Written in 18-Jul-2015

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