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Typical cell size for bacteria

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Summer2014CellBio202;Thesearestudyquestionsthatcoverthefirstweekofclass.Theycoverallthematerialemphasized,andthe;contentofthefirstportionofexam1.Ifyoucananswerthesewithouthelp,youshoulddowellonthat;partoftheexam.;Whatisatypicalcellsizeforbacteria?Foreukaryotes?;Whatcellstructuresarecharacteristicofeukaryotesvs.prokaryotes?Animalsvs.plants?Whatfeaturesare;presentinallcells?;Whatiscelltheory?;Howcanweseecells?Individualcells?Cellsinsolidtissues?;Whatarethedifferenttypesoflightmicroscopy,howdopreparationsforeachdiffer,andwhatarethe;advantagesorusesofeach?;WhatlimitsthefeaturesobservableinLM?Howcanweidentifysmallerobject?;HowaresolidtissuesamplespreppedforLM?ForTEM?ForSEM?WhatarethedifferencesbetweenLMand;TEMtissuepreparations?(steps,dimensions,staining?);HowdoesconfocalLMdifferfromstandard(includingfluorescence)LM,intermsofresults?;WhydoesEMhavehigherresolutionthanLM?;HowisSEMdifferentfromTEM?Whataretheadvantagesofeach?;Howcanyouobtain3DdescriptionsofcellswithLM?WithEM?;Whatkindsofmagnifications(LMorEM)areneededtoseeordescribe/measurevariouscellfeatures?;Whatarearchaea?;Whatarethecharacteristicfeaturesandgeneralpurposesofnuclie?RoughER?SmoothER?Golgi?;Lysosomes?Vesicles?Cytoskeleton?Mitochondria?;Whatareexocytosisandendocytosis?;Whatarethemajorcomponentsofcell?;Howdomostmacromoleculesinteractwitheachother?;Whatarenoncovalentinteractions?Howaretheyaffectedbytheirenvironment?;Howaremacromoleculesmade?Whatkindofreaction?Howaretheybrokendown?;Whatarethereactionsthatmakemacromoleculesandotherneededmoleculesincells?;Whatarethedualpurposesofcatabolism?;Whyarepolysaccharidesmadeincells?;Whatareorganicmolecules,andwhattheirsource?;Howisenergyobtainedfromorganicmolecules?Whataretheformsofthatenergy?Howiseachtypestored?;Howiseachtypeofenergyusedinthecell?;Whatareactivatedcarriers?Whatchangesinthem(inADPandNAD+)tomakethemactivated?;WhatkindsofbondscouplephosphatesinATP?Whatarethephosphatesusedtodoincells?;WhatarethestructuralandfunctionaldifferencesbetweenNADHandNADPH?;WhatisthefunctionofCoenzymeAincells?;Whatisthegeneralstructureofthebuildingblocksofproteins?Howaretheycombined,andwhatkindofbond;dotheyform?;Whataretheclassesofaminoacids?BeabletoidentifytheclassofanyAAfromitsstructure.;WhatarethefunctionaldifferencesoftheAAsintermsoftheinteractionsinwhichtheycanparticipate?;WhatarethetypesofHbondsthatcanoccurinapolypeptide?;Whichonesareusedtomakesecondarystructures?;Whatarethedifferencesbetweenalphaandbetastructures?Thesimilarities?;Whatmakesapolypeptideaprotein?;Whatistheoverallarrangementofmostproteins?Whatinteractionsarepresentindifferentparts?Howdoes;thatinfluencethestrengthoftheinteracitons?;Howisamembranespanningproteindifferent?;Howcanalphahelicalstructurebeusedtotightlycoupletwoproteins?;Wherearethesidechainsinhelicesandinsheets?Mainchainbonds?;Whatareunstructureddomains,andwhydosomeproteinshavethem?;Howdoproteinsfold(aswellasweknowtheprocess)?;Whatmakesthemunfold?Whatexperimentaltreatmentisusuallyused,andwhythatone?;Whatkind(s)ofsecondarystructureisfoundinfilamentousproteins?Wherearefilamentousproteinsfound?;Whatkindsofpropertiescantheyhave?;Whatismeantbyalternativestructuresforproteins?;Whatareproteinfamilies,andwhydotheyexist?;Whatisaligand?Howisitdifferentfromasubstrate?Howdoesitinteractwithaprotein?;Whatisanallostericenzymeinhibitor,andhowisitdifferentfromasubstrateorproduct?;Whatisadisulfidebond,wheredoesitform,andwhatisitspurpose?;Whatisthepurposeofanantibody?HowisanIgGorganized(componentsandinteractions)?;Howdoesanantibodybindamolecule?Whatisthebondmoleculecalled,specificallyforanantibody?;WhichpartsoftheIgGdetermineitsspecificity?;Whatdoenzymesdotoareactionenergetics(e.g.,inanenergydiagram)?;Whataregeneralmechanismsofenzymeaction?;Whatisthedifferencebetweenanenzymesbindingsiteanditsactivesite?Howaretheyrelated?;Whatisacofactorforanenzymeorotherprotein?;Howdoesfeedbackinhibitionworkinametabolicpathway?Whatkindofinhibitionisit?(allosteric);Whatisaproteinkinase?Whatisitseffectonthestructureandfunctionaprotein?Howisitsactionreversed?;Aretherekinasesthatarenotproteinkinases?Whatdotheydo?;Whatkindsofcovalentmodificationscanoccurtoproteins?;WhatareGproteins?Whatdotheydo?Howaretheyactivatedanddeactivated?;Ifmotorproteinscanmovewithoutinputofenergy,whatisATPhydrolysisusedfor?;Howischromatographydifferentfromelectrophoresis?;Whatarethemajortypesofcolumnchromatography,andwhatphysicalprincipleorinteractioniseachbased;on?;WhatisSDSgelelectrophoresisusedfor?WhatarethechemicalsthatareaddedtoprotiensforSDSgels,and;whataretheirpurposes?;WhatisthenatureoftheinformationgainedbyXraycrystallographyandstructuralNMR?Whatarethe;limitationsofeachmethod?

 

Paper#15307 | Written in 18-Jul-2015

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