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lab biology questions;Attachment Preview;BiolLab_5.docx Download Attachment;Your Full Name;102/103;Lab 5: Meiosis;INSTRUCTIONS;and submit it via the Assignments Folder by the date listed in the Course;Schedule (under Syllabus).;To conduct your laboratory exercises, use the Laboratory Manual located under;Course Content. Read the introduction and the directions for each exercise/experiment;carefully before completing the exercises/experiments and answering the questions.;Save your Lab 5 Answer Sheet in the following format: LastName_Lab5 (e.g.;Smith_Lab5).;You should submit your document as a Word (.doc or.docx) or Rich Text Format;(.rtf) file for best compatibility.;eScience Labs, LLC 2014;Pre-Lab Questions;1. Compare and contrast mitosis and meiosis.;2. What major event occurs during interphase?;Experiment 1: Following Chromosomal DNA Movement;through Meiosis;Data Tables and Post-Lab Assessment;Trial 1 - Meiotic Division Beads Diagram;Prophase I;eScience Labs, LLC 2014;Metaphase I;Anaphase I;Telophase I;Prophase II;Metaphase II;Anaphase II;Telophase I;Cytokinesis;eScience Labs, LLC 2014;Trial 2 - Meiotic Division Beads Diagram;Prophase I;Metaphase I;Anaphase I;Telophase I;Prophase II;Metaphase II;Anaphase II;Telophase I;eScience Labs, LLC 2014;Cytokinesis;Post-Lab Questions;1. What is the ploidy of the DNA at the end of meiosis I? What about at the end of meiosis;II?;2. How are meiosis I and meiosis II different?;eScience Labs, LLC 2014;3. Why do you use non-sister chromatids to demonstrate crossing over?;4. What combinations of alleles could result from a crossover between BD and bd;chromosomes?;eScience Labs, LLC 2014;5. How many chromosomes were present when meiosis I started?;6. How many nuclei are present at the end of meiosis II? How many chromosomes are in;each?;eScience Labs, LLC 2014;7. Identify two ways that meiosis contributes to genetic recombination.;8. Why is it necessary to reduce the number of chromosomes in gametes, but not in other;cells?;eScience Labs, LLC 2014;9. Blue whales have 44 chromosomes in every cell. Determine how many chromosomes;you would expect to find in the following;a.i.;Sperm Cell;a.ii.;Egg Cell;a.iii.;Daughter Cell from Mitosis;eScience Labs, LLC 2014;a.iv.;Daughter Cell from Meiosis II;10. Research and find a disease that is caused by chromosomal mutations. When does the;mutation occur? What chromosomes are affected? What are the consequences?;11. Diagram what would happen if sexual reproduction took place for four generations using;diploid (2n) cells.;eScience Labs, LLC 2014;Experiment 2: The Importance of Cell Cycle Control;Data Tables and Post-Lab Assessment;1.;2.;3.;4.;5.;Post-Lab Questions;1. Record your hypothesis from Step 1 in the Procedure section here.;2. What do your results indicate about cell cycle control?;3. Suppose a person developed a mutation in a somatic cell which diminishes the;performance of the bodys natural cell cycle control proteins. This mutation resulted in;eScience Labs, LLC 2014;cancer, but was effectively treated with a cocktail of cancer-fighting techniques. Is it possible;for this persons future children to inherit this cancer-causing mutation? Be specific when;you explain why or why not.;4. Why do cells which lack cell cycle control exhibit karyotypes which look physically;different than cells with normal cell cycle.;5. What are HeLa cells? Why are HeLa cells appropriate for this experiment?;Experiment 1;Following;Chromosomal DNA;Movement through;Meiosis;In this experiment, you;will model the movement;of the chromosomes;through meiosis I and II to;create gametes.;eScience Labs, LLC 2014;Materials;2 Sets of Different Colored Pop-it Beads (32 of e;may be any color);8 5-Holed Pop-it Beads (used as centromeres);Procedure;Part 1: Modeling Meiosis;without Crossing Over;As prophase I begins, the;replicated chromosomes;coil and condense;1.;Build a pair of;replicated;homologous;chromosomes. 10;beads should be;used to create each;individual sister;chromatid (20;beads per;chromosome pair).;Two five-holed;beads represent;each centromere.;To do this...;eScience Labs, LLC 2014;Figure 3: Bead set-up. The blue beads;represent one pair of sister chromatids;and the black beads represent a second;pair of sister chromatids. The black and;blue pair are homologous.;a.;Start with;20 beads of;the same;color to;create your;first sister;chromatid;pair. Five;beads must;be snapped;together for;each of the;four;different;strands.;Two;strands;create the;first;chromatid;and two;strands;create the;second;chromatid;with a 5holed bead;at the;center of;each;chromatid.;This creates;an I;eScience Labs, LLC 2014;shape.;b.;Connect the;I shaped;sister;chromatids;by the 5holed beads;to create;an X;shape.;c.;Repeat this;process;using 20;new beads;(of a;different;color) to;create the;second;sister;chromatid;pair.;2.;Assemble a second;pair of replicated;sister chromatids;this time using 12;beads, instead of;20, per pair (six;beads per each;complete sister;chromatid strand).;3.;Pair up the;homologous;chromosome pairs;created in Step 1;and 2. DO NOT;SIMULATE;eScience Labs, LLC 2014;CROSSING;OVER IN THIS;TRIAL. You will;simulate crossing;over in Part 2.;4.;Configure the;chromosomes as;they would appear;in each of the;stages of meiotic;division (prophase;I and II, metaphase;I and II, anaphase I;and II, telophase I;and II, and;cytokinesis).;5.;Diagram the;corresponding;images for each;stage in the;sections titled;Trial 1 - Meiotic;Division Beads;Diagram. Be sure;to indicate the;number of;chromosomes;present in each cell;for each phase.;eScience Labs, LLC 2014;Figure 4: Second set of replicated;chromosomes.;6.;Disassemble the;beads used in Part;1. You will need to;recycle these beads;for a second;meiosis trial in;Steps 8 - 13.;Part 1 - Meiotic Division;Beads Diagram;Prophase I;Metaphase I;Anaphase I;Telophase I;Prophase II;Metaphase II;Anaphase II;eScience Labs, LLC 2014;Telophase II;Cytokinesis;Part 2: Modeling Meiosis;with Crossing Over;7.;Build a pair of;replicated;homologous;chromosomes. 10;beads should be;used to create each;individual sister;chromatid (20;beads per;chromosome pair).;Two five-holed;beads represent;each centromere.;To do this...;a.;Start with;20 beads of;the same;color to;create your;first sister;chromatid;pair. Five;beads must;be snapped;together for;each of the;four;different;strands.;Two;eScience Labs, LLC 2014;strands;create the;first;chromatid;and two;strands;create the;second;chromatid;with a 5holed bead;at the;center of;each;chromatid.;This creates;an I;shape.;b.;Connect the;I shaped;sister;chromatids;by the 5holed beads;to create;an X;shape.;c.;Repeat this;process;using 20;new beads;(of a;different;color) to;create the;second;sister;chromatid;eScience Labs, LLC 2014;pair.;8.;Assemble a second;pair of replicated;sister chromatids;this time using 12;beads, instead of;20, per pair (six;beads per each;complete sister;chromatid strand).;Snap each of the;four pieces into a;new five-holed;bead to complete;the set up.;9.;Pair up the;homologous;chromosomes;created in Step 8;and 9.;10.;SIMULATE;CROSSING;OVER. To do this;bring the two;homologous pairs;of sister;chromatids;together (creating;the chiasma) and;exchange an equal;number of beads;between the two.;This will result in;chromatids of the;same original;length, there will;now be new;eScience Labs, LLC 2014;combinations of;chromatid colors.;11.;Configure the;chromosomes as;they would appear;in each of the;stages of meiotic;division (prophase;I and II, metaphase;I and II, anaphase I;and II, telophase I;and II, and;cytokinesis).;12.;Diagram the;corresponding;images for each;stage in the section;titled Trial 2 Meiotic Division;Beads Diagram.;Be sure to indicate;the number of;chromosomes;present in each cell;for each phase.;Also, indicate how;the crossing over;affected the genetic;content in the;gametes from Part1;versus Part 2.;Part 2 - Meiotic Division;Beads Diagram;Prophase I;Metaphase I;eScience Labs, LLC 2014;Anaphase I;Telophase I;Prophase II;Metaphase II;Anaphase II;Telophase II;Cytokinesi;Experiment 2: The Importance of Cell Cycle Control;Some environmental factors can cause genetic mutations which result in a;lack of proper cell cycle control (mitosis). When this happens, the possibility;for uncontrolled cell growth occurs. In some instances, uncontrolled growth;can lead to tumors, which are often associated with cancer, or other biological;diseases.;In this experiment, you will review some of the karyotypic differences which;can be observed when comparing normal, controlled cell growth and;abnormal, uncontrolled cell growth. A karyotype is an image of the complete;set of diploid chromosomes in a single cell.;Procedure;eScience Labs, LLC 2014;Materials;*Computer Access;*Internet Access;1.;*You Must Provide;Begin by constructing a hypothesis to explain what differences you;might observe when comparing the karyotypes of human cells which;experience normal cell cycle control versus cancerous cells (which;experience abnormal, or a lack of, cell cycle control). Record your;hypothesis in Post-Lab Question 1.;Note: Be sure to include what you expect to observe, and why you think;you will observe these features. Think about what you know about;cancerous cell growth to help construct this information;2.;Go online to find some images of abnormal karyotypes, and normal;karyotypes. The best results will come from search terms such as;abnormal karyotype, HeLa cells, normal karyotype, abnormal;chromosomes, etc. Be sure to use dependable resources which have;been peer-reviewed;3.;Identify at least five abnormalities in the abnormal images. Then, list and;draw each image in the Data section at the end of this experiment. Do;these abnormalities agree with your original hypothesis?;Hint: It may be helpful to count the number of chromosomes, count the;number of pairs, compare the sizes of homologous chromosomes, look;for any missing or additional genetic markers/flags, etc.;Data;1.;2.;3.;eScience Labs, LLC 2014;4.;5.;Click here to download and solve a few questions.;eScience Labs, LLC 2014

 

Paper#15327 | Written in 18-Jul-2015

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