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The Effect of low pH on Enzyme Activity




I have 3 more assignments unfortunately I also have no book or lab kit because I cant get it sent to my overseas address. I appreciate your help. I will up load them in order first one is due Saturday the 28th the second is due Saturday the fifth and the final one is due on the 12th;Attachments Preview;Final Applied Lab Project.doc Download Attachment;Final Applied Lab Project (1 credit Lab Component);Addresses course outcomes 1-4;recognize and explain how the scientific method is used to solve problems;make observations and discriminate between scientific and pseudoscientific explanations;weigh evidence and make decisions based on strengths and limitations of scientific knowledge;and the scientific method;use knowledge of biological principles, the scientific method, and appropriate technologies to ask;relevant questions, develop hypotheses, design and conduct experiments, interpret results, and;draw conclusions;This is the culminating lab assessment in BIOL 103. It is designed to assess your ability to apply the;principles of the scientific method.;The Effect of low pH on Enzyme Activity;Design an experiment in which you will test the effect of an acidic fluid on enzymatic activity. Recall;enzymes are proteins! To complete this project, it may be useful for you to first review the Scientific;Method Tutorial, the OLI module about pH and enzymes, Lab 1 (Introduction to Science) and Lab 4;(Enzymes). As you review Lab 4, you will be reminded that there are several factors that impact;enzymatic activity: pH, temperature, and amount of reagent. It is OK to use the same;enzyme/substrate/method as you did in lab 4 (but modify the treatment), or you can search on-line to find;a different enzyme/substrate/method for measuring enzyme activity for your project (include all;references).;As you design your experiment for this project, please remember that you are trying to examine how an;acidic fluid will modify the outcome of an enzymatic reaction. To successfully complete this project, you;will need to identify the question(s) being asked in your experiment and the hypothesis that you are;testing. In your experimental design, you must clearly explain what you are doing. That means that;you will need to identify the enzyme, the substrate, the acidic fluid used as treatment, the control;treatment and the method of measuring enzyme activity, as well as explain your experimental protocol.;You must also thoroughly explain how the acidic fluid impacted enzyme activity based on the results;from your own experiment as well as knowledge of enzymes and pH from the OLI modules, lab manual;and potentially additional information sources.;Hint: Keep in mind that the acid will change the environmental conditions of the experiment (for;example, a low pH value could change the shape of the active site on the enzyme protein), without;directly participating in the reaction.;Lab Materials;You may need all or some of the following, depending on your experimental design;Materials from your lab kit;pH paper;hydrogen peroxide solution (you can purchase this at a pharmacy if you have used up the bottle;that came with the lab kit);plastic beakers or cups;vinegar;yeast (can be purchased at grocery store if more is needed);balloons;plastic bottle;marker for labeling of beakers;You may choose to use additional materials (different acidic fluids and/or different organisms and/or;different substrate if you chose an enzyme other than catalase).;Outline (10 points) submit in assignment folder in week 7.;Include the following in your outline;Name of enzyme you will use;Name of organism (if applicable);The substrate;Method for measuring enzyme activity;Treatment: acidic fluid(s), pH, length of exposure, how you will treat your samples;The control(s) in the experiment;Sample size;Hypothesis;How you will present your data (table and/or type of graph);Anything else you would like to get feedback on before you start your experiment;Write a paper that includes the following;1. Title page: descriptive title, your name, course name, semester;2. Introduction: general background information about enzymes and specific information about your;chosen enzyme, the question(s) that you are asking and a clear hypothesis for your experiment (15;points).;3. Design an experiment. Provide a detailed description of the materials and methods used to conduct the;experiment. Identify control and experimental samples, as well as independent and dependent variables.;Also include the methods used for data collection and analysis (20 points).;4. Conduct the experiment and record your results. What did you observe? Present your data in table;and/or graph format. Remember to label everything and include the unit of measure with all numbers (20;points);5. Use your knowledge of enzymes and pH to interpret and discuss your results. It may be necessary for;you to refer to the OLI course modules, lab manual and/or use additional information resources. What;effect does the acidic treatment have on enzyme activity? Did you get the expected results? Explain. (15;points);6. State a specific and accurate conclusion. Is your hypothesis supported by the results? Looking back;how could you have improved your experiment? (10 points);7. Include a list of references to all information sources used in APA format (5 points).;Avoid Plagiarism;It is very important to write with your own words. If you do copy one or two sentences directly (use;sparingly), use quotation marks (") around the copied text, followed by an in-text reference. All;information sources need to be included in the reference list and as in-text references. Plagiarism will be;reported to the proper UMUC authority. Guidance on how to avoid plagiarism can be found here;UMUC's How to Avoid Plagiarism;Submission;Submit your final applied lab project in the assignment folder by the due date specified in the course;schedule.;Due Date;Jul 13, 2014 11:59 PM;View Full Attachment;Lab_6.doc Download Attachment;Your Full Name;UMUC Biology 102/103;Lab 6:... Show more;Lab_7_Answer_Sheet.doc Download Attachment;Your Full Name;UMUC Biology 102/103;Lab 7: Ecological Interactions;INSTRUCTIONS;On your own and without assistance, complete this Lab 7 Answer Sheet;electronically and submit it via the Assignments Folder by the date listed in the Course;Schedule (under Syllabus).;To conduct your laboratory exercises, use the Laboratory Manual located under;Course Content. Read the introduction and the directions for each exercise/experiment;carefully before completing the exercises/experiments and answering the questions.;Save your Lab 7 Answer Sheet in the following format: LastName_Lab7 (e.g.;Smith_Lab7).;You should submit your document as a Word (.doc or.docx) or Rich Text Format;(.rtf) file for best compatibility.;Pre-Lab Questions;1. Would you expect endangered species to be more frequently generalists or;specialists? Explain your answer.;2. How does temperature affect water availability in an ecosystem?;3. Choose a species and describe some adaptations that species developed that;allow them to survive in their native habitat.;Experiment 1: Effects of pH on Radish Seed Germination;Natural soil pH depends on the parent rock material from which it was formed and;processes like climate. Soil pH is a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of the soil. Acidic;soils are considered to have a 5.0 or lower pH value whereas 10.0 or above is;considered a strong basic or alkaline soil. The pH of soil affects the solubility of nutrients;in soil water and thus it affects the amount of nutrients available for plant uptake.;Different nutrients are available under differing pH conditions.;In this experiment we will look at the effect of pH on the germination and growth rate of;radish seeds in order to determine the range of pH tolerance for the seed. Acidic or;basic water will be used in order to stimulate acidity or alkalinity in soil.;Materials;2 mL 4.5% Acetic Acid (Vinegar);C2H4O2;Permanent Marker;(3) 5 cm Petri Dishes;3 pH Test Strips;Radish Seed Packet;Ruler;2 mL 15% Saturated Sodium;Bicarbonate (Baking;Soda) Solution, NaHCO3;*Paper Towel Sheets (cut to fit into the;petri dish);*Scissors;*Sunny Location;*Water;*You Must Provide;Procedure;1. Use the permanent marker to label the top of each of the three petri dishes as;Acetic Acid, Sodium Bicarbonate, or Water.;2. Carefully cut three small circles from the paper towel sheets. The circles should;comfortably fit within the bottom of the petri dish.;3. Place the circles in the dishes, and wet them with approximately 2 mL of each;respective solution (acetic acid, sodium bicarbonate, or water).;4. Gently press the reaction pad of three, pH test strips onto the wet paper towels.;Record your data in the first row of Table 1.;5. Arrange 10 radish seeds on each paper towel in each petri dish. Make sure the;seeds have space and are not touching. Then, place the top of the petri dish on;the bottom.;6. Place the petri dishes in a sunny or well-lit, warm place. Be sure to keep the;paper towels moist for the length of the experiment with the appropriate solution;if any of the towels dry out.;7. Observe the seeds daily for seven days, and record the number of seeds that;germinate in Table 1. Note when the seeds crack and roots or shoots emerge).;On the seventh day, record the lengths of radish seed sprouts (mm or cm).;Table 1: pH and Radish Seed Germination;Day and Initial pH;Acetic Acid;Sodium;Bicarbonate;Water;Initial pH;Day 1;Day 2;Day 3;Day 4;Day 5;Day 6;Day 7;Post-Lab Questions;1. Compare and construct a line graph based on the data from Table 1 in the space;below. Place the day on the x axis, and the number of seeds germinated on the y;axis. Be sure to include a title, label the x and y axes, and provide a legend;describing which line corresponds to each plate (e.g., blue = acetic acid, green =;sodium bicarbonate, etc).;2. Was there any noticeable effect on the germination rate of the radish seeds as a;result of the pH? Compare and contrast the growth rate for the control with the;alkaline and acidic solutions.;3. According to your results would you say that the radish has a broad pH;tolerance? Why or why not? Use your data to support your answer.;4. Knowing that acid rain has a pH of 2 - 3 would you conclude that crop species;with a narrow soil pH range are in trouble? Explain why, or why not, using;scientific reasoning. Is acid rain a problem for plant species and crops?;5. Research and briefly describe a real world example about how acid rain affects;plants. Be sure to demonstrate how pH contributes to the outcome, and;proposed solutions (if any). Descriptions should be approximately 2 - 3;paragraphs. Include at least three citations (use APA formatting).;View Full Attachment


Paper#16030 | Written in 18-Jul-2015

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