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Compare Meiosis to Mitosis




Problem Set 3 Meiosis and Genetics;Watch the following online animations and use them to help you answer the questions;below;Meiosis;;iosis_w.htm;Compare Meiosis to Mitosis;;iosis_comp/mitosis_vs_meiosis_w.htm;1. Fill in the following schematic of meiosis;3;3;1;1;2;2;Cell destined to;become a gamete;Draw Cell After S Phase;Draw Cell After G2;Cell in Late Prophase I;3;1;2;Draw Cell in Metaphase I;Draw Cell in Anaphase I;3;1;2;Cells After the First Cytokinesis;1;Cells in Metaphase II;Cells at Telophase II;Cells at the end of Meiosis;2. Is the cell in the image to the left in mitosis or;meiosis? What stage of mitosis or meiosis is this;cell in?;3. This cell has four chromosomes when it is diploid. Is;the cell in mitosis or meiosis? What stage of mitosis or;meiosis is it in?;2;4. This cell has four chromosomes when it is;diploid. Is the cell in mitosis or meiosis? What;stage of mitosis or meiosis is it in?;5. What are the major differences between meiosis and mitosis?;6. How many times does interphase occur during meiosis?;a.;b.;c.;d.;0;1;2;3;7. Which of the following are key features of S phase? (circle all that apply);a.;b.;c.;d.;e.;homologs pair;recombination occurs;sister chromatids are replicated;chromosomes are replicated;centrosomes are replicated;3;8. Which of the following are events in Prophase I in the order that they occur?;a.;b.;c.;d.;Chromosomes replicate then synapse;Chromosomes condense, recombine then synapse;Chromosomes replicate, condense, recombine then synapse;Chromosomes synapse and then recombine;9. Synapsis that occurs during Meiosis I is mediated by the;complex.;10. Which of the following occur during Metaphase I? (circle all that apply);a.;b.;c.;d.;Chiasma disappear;chromosomes migrate to the middle of the cell;homologs segregate from each other;the meiotic spindle breaks down;11. Which of the following occur during Metaphase II? (circle all that apply);a.;b.;c.;d.;chiasma disappear;chromosomes migrate to the middle of the cell;homologues segregate from each other;the meiotic spindle breaks down;12. Which of the following occur during Anaphase II? (circle all that apply);a.;b.;c.;d.;Sister chromatids migrate to the center of the cell;homologs segregate from each other;sister chromatids segregate from each other;the meiotic spindle breaks down.;13. Which of the following occur during Prophase II? (circle all that apply);a.;b.;c.;d.;centrosomes replicate;the meiotic spindle breaks down;recombination occurs between homologs;chromosomes line up at the middle of the cell;14. Which of the following occur during Telophase II? (circle all that apply);a.;b.;c.;d.;chromosomes finish moving to opposite sides of the cell;nuclear envelope reforms;chromosomes replicate;recombination occurs;4;15. What is the difference between telophase and cytokinesis?;16. Define the principles of segregation and independent assortment.;17. In a particular breed of dog, the dominant allele B produces black coat color;while b produces brown.;a. If a litter of puppies has both black and brown offspring, what are the;possible genotypes of the parents?;b. If a black and brown dog can produce black and brown puppies when;they mate, what should be the ratio of black puppies to brown puppies;in a litter?;18. Tongue rolling is a dominant trait in humans (T), while the inability to tongue;roll is recessive. A woman who can roll her tongue marries a man who cannot.;Their first child is also not a tongue roller.;a. What are the phenotypes of each parent, and the first child?;b. What is the probability that their second child will be a tongue roller?;c. A non-tongue roller?;5;19. In a test cross with the following pea plant (Gg Tt RR Ss), where genes show;independent assortment;a. What is the expected frequency of gg tt Rr ss progeny?;b. What is the expected frequency of progeny that are heterozygous for all;of the genes?;20. Color blindness is a recessive, sex-linked trait. A color blind woman has a;normal mother.;a. What is the genotype of the color blind womans father?;b. The color blind woman marries a normal man. What is the probability;that their sons will be colorblind?;c. What is the probability that their daughters will be colorblind?;21. Use the following pedigree to determine the probability that IV-1 (child yet to;be;AA;I.;aa;AA;II.;AA;2;III.;3;IV.;= has albinism;= consanguineous marriage;(cousins);6;22. Assuming the following pedigrees, is the trait autosomal or sex-linked, and;dominant or recessive?;a.;b.;23. Incomplete dominance _________.;a. Is the presences of three or more alleles of a gene among individuals of a;population;b. Causes heterozygous offspring to have an phenotype that is intermediate;between the two parental phenotypes;c. Is when two genes at different loci both affect the same phenotype;d. Causes there to be a lack of production of heterozygous offspring;7;Use the following information to answer questions 24-25;Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked recessive disorder that;causes an individuals muscles to degenerate over time. A male DMD patient has;two unaffected parents.;24. Fill in the pedigree of this family using Xd for the Duchenne allele, XD for the;normal allele, X? for any unknown X alleles, and Y for Y chromosomes.;25. It turns out the son with DMD also has Klinefelter syndrome. What;nondisjunction event would account for both disorders?;a. NDJ in Meiosis I of father;b. NDJ is Meiosis II of father;c. NDJ in Meiosis I of mother;d. NDJ is Meiosis II of mother;26. Youre a genetic counselor. A mother and father both with type AB blood;have a child with blood type O. A second type-O child was born six years later.;The father is upset and worried that, perhaps, he is not the biological father. After;extensive genotyping, you determine that he is most likely the father of both;children. This is an example of the Bombay phenotype. A separate locus codes;for a precursor to the A & B antigens (the H antigen). If the child is hh, no H;antigen is made and the child will be phenotypically type O. What is the name of;the genetic phenomenon that accounts for the Bombay phenotype?;8;27. Achondroplasia is an autosomal dominant form of dwarfism. People with;achondroplasia are heterozygotes because carrying two copies of the dominant;mutant allele is fatal during embryogenesis. Two people with achondroplasia;decide to start a family.;a. Fill out a Punnett square for this couple.;b. What is the probability that their first child born will be of average;stature?;c. What is the probability that this couple has two daughters with;achondroplasia and one son of average stature in that order?;d. What is the probability that this couple has two children with;achondroplasia and one of average stature in any order?;28. Two deaf people have three children together, none of whom are deaf. What;is the name for the genetic phenomenon that makes this possible?;9;29. Individuals that inherit a single inactive retinoblastoma (Rb) allele from one of their;parents have a 90% chance of developing multiple eye tumors as a child. The allele can;be inherited from either the mother or father and affect both male and female children;equally.;a. Based on this information alone, what is the mode of inheritance?;b. As it turns out, the Rb gene encodes a type of protein called a tumor;suppressor. Children only get eye tumors when both Rb alleles make a nonfunctional;protein. Knowing this, do you think the mode of inheritance is different than what you;previously thought? How so?;30. What does it mean when two genes are linked?;31. As a human, you have 23 pairs of chromosome. For each pair, one chromosome was;maternally derived and the other was paternally derived. During meiosis, chromosome;pairs are segregated randomly into haploid cells so that the maternal and paternal;chromosome pairs are split up.;a. What is the probability that a human gamete has 20 of 23 maternally derived;chromosomes?;b. Which Mendelian principle is responsible for the number of maternally-derived;and paternally-derived chromosomes that end up in gametes?;c. What is the probability of having at least one maternally derived chromosome;in a gamete?;10;METABOLISM;Pyruvate (pyruvic acid), the final product of glycolysis, has to enter the mitochondria to;participate in the Krebs cycle.;Which of the following statements about its entry is true and which is false? If false;correct it so that it is true.;1. Pyruvate moves by facilitated diffusion that goes against the concentration;gradient.;2. Pyruvate is a lipid soluble molecule moving down its concentration gradient.;3. There must be transport molecules in the mitochondrial membrane.;4. The concentration of pyruvate is likely to be higher inside the mitochondrion;than outside.;5. During aerobic respiration, electrons travel downhill from food NADH;electron transport chain oxygen.;6. Prokaryotes dont do glycolysis because they lack mitochondrial membranes.;7. Photosynthesis is to cellular respiration as _________.;a. exergonic is to endergonic.;b. amino acids are to carbohydrates.;c. increasing entropy is to decreasing entropy.;d. anabolic is to catabolic.;e. none of the above.;8. Rank the following compounds according to their oxidation state from LEAST;oxidized to MOST oxidized;a. carbon dioxide, pyruvate, glucose;b. glucose, carbon dioxide, pyruvate;c. pyruvate, carbon dioxide, glucose;d. pyruvate, glucose, carbon dioxide;e. glucose, pyruvate, carbon dioxide;11;T / F 9.;The Krebs cycle yields NADH and FADH2 but not ATP or GTP.;T / F 10.;Every reaction in cellular respiration is spontaneous.;T / F 11.;One of the reasons that glycolysis is believed to be one of the most ancient of;metabolic processes is that glycolysis neither uses nor needs O2.;T / F 12.;Glycolysis occurs in the mitochondria of eukaryotic cells and in the;cytoplasm of prokaryotic cells.;T / F 13.;During aerobic respiration, energy is gently transferred from food molecules;to ATP molecules, during photosynthesis, light energy is used to generate ATP;molecules which are used to create food molecules.;For #14-18: An organism is discovered that consumes a considerable amount of;sugar, yet does not gain much weight when denied air. Curiously, the organism seems to;survive even in the absence of air, and the consumption of sugar increases as air is removed;from the organism's environment. When returned to normal air, the organism does fine.;Which of the following could describe the organism?;T / F 14.;It is a human cell.;T / F 15.;It may be used to produce ethanol.;T / F 16.;It is a facultative anaerobe.;T / F 17.;The organism obviously lacks the Krebs cycle and electron transport chain.;T / F 18.;It must use a molecule other than oxygen to accept electrons from the;electron transport chain.;12;19. Draw a generic eukaryotic cell and a generic prokaryotic cell. Label where the;following take place;glycolysis, fermentation, pyruvate processing, Krebs cycle, electron transport chain;oxidative phosphorylation;20. Here is an abstract from an article by Rui-Hua, et al. Inhibition of glycolysis in;cancer cells: A novel strategy to overcome drug resistance associated with mitochondrial;respiratory defect and hypoxia. 2005 Cancer Research vol. 65, pp. 613-621.;Cancer cells generally exhibit increased glycolysis for ATP generation (the Warburg;effect) due in part to mitochondrial respiration injury and hypoxia, which are frequently;associated with resistance to therapeutic agents. Here, we report that inhibition of;glycolysis severely depletes ATP in cancer cells, especially in clones of cancer cells with;mitochondrial respiration defects, and leads to rapid dephosphorylation of the glycolysisapoptosis integrating molecule BAD at Ser112, relocalization of BAX to mitochondria;and massive cell death. Importantly, inhibition of glycolysis effectively kills colon cancer;cells and lymphoma cells in a hypoxic environment in which the cancer cells exhibit high;glycolytic activity and decreased sensitivity to common anticancer agents. Depletion of;ATP by glycolytic inhibition also potently induced apoptosis in multidrug-resistant cells;suggesting that deprivation of cellular energy supply may be an effective way to;overcome multidrug resistance. Our study shows a promising therapeutic strategy to;effectively kill cancer cells and overcome drug resistance. Because the Warburg effect;and hypoxia are frequently seen in human cancers, these findings may have broad clinical;implications.;A. How can cells generate ATP in the absence of functioning mitochondria?;B. How much ATP can be generated in the absence of mitochondria?;C. What would happen to the pH in cancer cells due to this metabolism?;13


Paper#16043 | Written in 18-Jul-2015

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