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Exercise in recognizing good paraphrasing and quoting.

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Extra Credit #1: Exercise in recognizing good paraphrasing and quoting.;Paraphrasing: When you paraphrase a passage, you are ?putting it in your own words?. Paraphrasing is more than simply rearranging someone else?s words. Often, while paraphrasing you are condensing or summarizing. Alternatively, you may be expanding on a topic, or explaining it in simpler language. In any event, it means rewritten in your own language, without borrowing too heavily from the exact words of the source.;From time to time, one of my students turns in a paper with material that has been copied word for word from some source, except that a few words are changed here and there. That is not what paraphrasing is all about and it certainly leaves the student open to charges of plagiarism. Of course, it does depend somewhat on the context. Sometimes, particularly when paraphrasing technical language, it is okay to incorporate stock phrases or jargon, as is, though that should be minimized. Among other things, paraphrasing gives us an opportunity to replace jargon.;Quoting: Sometimes it makes more sense to simply quote a passage, if it is particularly well-written, or uniquely stated, or if the passage can?t be easily paraphrased. When you do this you should ensure that you (a) use quotation marks around the quoted passage, and (b) provide an in-text citation to direct the reader to the source of the quote.;Format of Assignment;There are ten exercises in this assignment. For each of them, I have an original passage from an article or book about biology. After the original passage, I have two attempts (A and B) to incorporate the information from the original passage. These attempts will involve either paraphrasing or quotation or both. Your job is to tell me which of the two attempts (A or B) is the better attempt and to explain why. Please type your responses into a separate document. For each exercise, one of either A or B has a flaw, such as merely being a rearrangement of the original, or borrowing very heavily from the exact wording of the original, so that it is essentially plagiarism or borderline plagiarism.;Examples: Here are a couple of examples of how you might word your answers. For a question involving paraphrasing, your response might be ?B is better because A is practically repeated word for word from the original?. Alternatively, perhaps ?B is better than A, because A is merely a rearrangement of the order of the words, while B is a true paraphrase?. For a question involving quotation, you might say ?A is better because B lacks quotation marks and it also lacks an in-text citation?. Each exercise is worth 3 points, 1 point for correctly identifying the better attempt, and 2 points for explaining why. There are 10 of these exercises, for a total of 30 points.;[1] Original Passage (Wilcove, 2008). This is from a book about animal migration that was written for a general audience.;For Indians living along the fringes of the central plains, bison were an important source of food. However, Indian cultures wholly dedicated to hunting bison did not evolve until the eighteenth century. Prior to that time, the migratory behavior of the bison meant that tribes could not depend on them for food throughout the year. The missing ingredient was the horse, which allowed hunters to track the migratory herds.;Paraphrase A.;The arrival of horses in the eighteenth century made it possible for the Indians of the central plains to evolve a culture centered around hunting bison, as it enabled them to follow migrating herds all year (Wilcove, 2008). That would not have been possible before then.;Paraphase B.;Bison were an important source of food for Indians living along the fringes of the central plains. However, it wasn?t until the eighteenth century that Indian cultures wholly dedicated to hunting bison evolved. Prior to that time, the tribes could not depend on them for food throughout the year, due to the migratory behavior of the bison. The missing ingredient was the horse, which finally allowed hunters to track the migratory herds (Wilcove, 2008).;[2] Original Passage (Cox, Tahvanainen, Kuusela, Cook, Ames & Eckberg, 2003). This is from a book chapter written for a broad readership, including scientists from different backgrounds.;At the beginning of the space exploration era, scientists were concerned that microgravity would overwhelm the circulatory system. Their concern proved unfounded. Cardiovascular function is normal in space despite the major gravitational changes that occur. Interestingly, the most dramatic consequences of spaceflight are observed after, not during space missions, when astronauts stand upright. In many astronauts, standing causes their hearts to beat very rapidly and their blood pressures to fall. In some returning astronauts, these changes are quite pronounced?some feel lightheaded, as if they are going to pass out, a condition known as pre-syncope, and some actually faint (syncope). Eventually (within days), symptoms during standing disappear, and astronauts re-adapt to living on Earth. Presumably, these symptoms have their origins in physiological changes occurring during spaceflight.;Paraphrase A.;When the era of space exploration began, scientists were concerned that microgravity would overwhelm the circulatory system. This concern turned out to be unfounded. Cardiovascular function is normal in space. Interestingly, the most dramatic consequences of spaceflight are observed after, not during space missions, when astronauts stand upright. For many astronauts, standing causes their hearts to beat quite rapidly and their blood pressures to drop. Sometimes these changes are quite pronounced?some feel lightheaded and some actually faint. Eventually, as astronauts re-adapt to living on Earth, such symptoms during standing disappear. Presumptively, such symptoms are due to physiological changes occurring during spaceflight;Paraphase B.;The absence of gravity in spaceflight does not lead to any catastrophic consequences for the circulatory system. In fact, the circulatory system functions quite normally in space. However, upon returning to Earth, some astronauts feel lightheaded and may even pass out when attempting to stand. This is associated with a rapid heart rate and a drop in blood pressure. We think these symptoms are due to the body?s adjustment to spaceflight, as they go away after a few days of readjusting to living on the Earth.;[3] Original Passage (Cox, Tahvanainen, Kuusela et al., 2002) This is from a professional journal article, written for a technical audience. Here, we can use paraphrasing to remove some of the jargon and explain things in less technical language.;When astronauts return to Earth and stand, their heart rates may speed inordinately, their blood pressures may fall, and some may experience frank syncope. We studied brief autonomic and hemodynamic transients provoked by graded Valsalva maneuvers in astronauts on Earth and in space, and tested the hypothesis that exposure to microgravity impairs sympathetic as well as vagal baroreflex responses.;Paraphrase A.;After returning to the Earth after spaceflight, some astronauts have temporary trouble standing, without experiencing a fast heart rate and low blood pressure. Some even pass out while standing. Cox et al. (2002) studied how the body controls heart rate and blood pressure by measuring how heart rate, blood pressure and nerve activity change during a stressful maneuver call the ?Valsalva maneuver?. They made these observations on Earth and in space. The point of Cox?s study was to test the hypothesis that both branches of the autonomic nervous system (sympathetic and parasympathetic) are affected by the weightlessness of space flight.;Paraphase B.;When astronauts return to Earth and stand, their heart rates go up, their blood pressures drop, and some may actually pass out. Cox et al. (2002) studied brief autonomic and blood pressure perturbations provoked by graded Valsalva maneuvers in astronauts on Earth and in space, and tested the hypothesis that exposure to weightlessness impairs sympathetic as well as vagal responses.;[4] Original Passage (Wilson, 1992). This is from a biology book by E. O. Wilson, written to appeal to readers who browse the science section of a bookstore (folks interested in science, but not necessarily experts).;Adaptive radiation is the term applied to the spread of species of common ancestry into different niches. Evolutionary convergence is the occupation of the same niche by products of different adaptive radiations, especially in different parts of the world. The Tasmanian wolf of Australia, a marsupial, outwardly resembles the ?true? wolf of Eurasia and North American, a placental mammal. The first is a product of adaptive radiation in Australia, the second the product of adaptive radiation in the northern hemisphere. The two species converged to occupy similar niches within independent adaptive radiations on the different continents.;Paraphrase A.;The term applied to the spread of species of common ancestry into different niches is ?adaptive radiation?. Evolutionary convergence is the occupation of the same niche by products of different adaptive radiations, especially in different parts of the world. There is an outward resemblance between the ?true? wolf of Eurasia and North American, a placental mammal, and the Tasmanian wolf of Australia, a marsupial. The second is a product of adaptive radiation in Australia, the first is the product of adaptive radiation in the northern hemisphere. The two species converged to occupy similar niches within independent adaptive radiations on the different continents.;Paraphase B.;Although the Tasmanian wolf and the true wolf occupy similar niches in their respective ecosystems, they are only distantly related. The ancestors of the Tasmanian wolf diverged from the ancestors of the wolf when Australia broke away from the other continents. The fact that these two species have come to occupy similar niches, even though they are only remotely related is an example of what is called ?evolutionary convergence?. The marsupial ancestors of the Tasmanian wolf spread into different niches over time, in a process called adaptive radiation. The placental mammal ancestors of the true wolf also spread into different niches over time, also through adaptive radiation. The process of adaptive radiation was completely independent for both of these species, but that process filled the same ecological niche.;[5] Original Passage (Wilcove, 2008) This is from a book about animal migration that was written for a general audience.;Species of salmon living in the Pacific Ocean typically die right after spawning, having given the last full measure of devotion to procreation. In the case of Atlantic salmon, however, anywhere from 5 to 25 percent of first-time spawners go back to sea and return to spawn a second time the following year. Fewer than one in a hundred will survive to spawn a third time. Thus, for most Atlantic salmon, one shot at reproduction is all they get, even if they have not exhausted themselves to quite the same degree as their Pacific cousins.;Paraphrase A.;Species of salmon living in the Pacific Ocean usually die right after spawning, but in the case of Atlantic salmon, 5 to 25 percent of first-time spawners go back to sea and return to spawn a second time the following year. Fewer than one in a hundred will survive to spawn a third time. Thus most Atlantic salmon only get one shot at reproduction.;Paraphase B.;Only about 1% of Atlantic salmon spawn three times, but from 5-25% spawn twice. However, it follows that the majority of Atlantic salmon spawn only once, just like most Pacific species of salmon.;[6] Original Passage. (Shewmon, Holmes and Byrne, 1999). This is from a professional journal article, written for an audience of medical professional.;According to traditional neurophysiological theory, consciousness requires a functioning cerebral cortex, and children born without a cerebral cortex will remain indefinitely in a developmental vegetative state;Paraphrase A.;According to neurophysiological theories of the traditional kind, a functioning cerebral cortex is required for consciousness, and children born without a cerebral cortex will remain in a vegetative state indefinitely (Shewmon, Holmes & Byrne, 1999).;Paraphase B.;If the cerebral cortex is an absolute requirement for human consciousness, as traditional neurophysiological theory indicates, then individuals who lack this brain structure, such as children born without this part of the brain, cannot experience consciousness. If the theory is right, such individuals would be permanently locked into a ?vegetative state?. (Shewmon, Holmes & Byrne, 1999).;[7] Original Passage (Hotez, 2008). This is from a professional journal article, written for an audience of science professionals. This passage isn?t very technical, however.;Poverty in the US is not evenly distributed, but instead it is focally concentrated into several defined geographic regions, each with unique socioeconomic characteristics. Glasmeier has identified six major distressed regions of poverty: Appalachia, the Mississippi Delta, other areas of rural poverty especially in the American South, Native American tribal lands, the borderlands between the United States and Mexico, and highly racially segregated urban areas including mostly black metro areas adjacent to the Great Lakes and in the Northeast;Incorporated into Paper A.;I have personally observed that poverty in the US is not evenly distributed, but instead is focally concentrated into several definitive geographic regions, each with its own unique socioeconomic characteristics. Truly, I alone deserve kudos for single-handedly identifying the following six major distressed regions of poverty: Appalachia, the Mississippi Delta, other areas of rural poverty especially in the American South, Native American tribal lands, the borderlands between the United States and Mexico, and highly racially segregated urban areas including mostly black metro areas adjacent to the Great Lakes and in the Northeast;Incorporated into Paper B.;We know that poverty in the United States is concentrated in certain specific areas. Research by Glasmeier has pointed out the following six areas where poverty is concentrated: ?Appalachia, the Mississippi Delta, other areas of rural poverty especially in the American South, Native American tribal lands, the borderlands between the United States and Mexico, and highly racially segregated urban areas including mostly black metro areas adjacent to the Great Lakes and in the Northeast? (Hotez, 2008).;[8] Original Passage (Gangadharan, Smith & Weyent, 2013);Although human influenza virus receptors are more prevalent in the upper respiratory tract, avian influenza virus receptors are more prevalent in the lower respiratory tract of humans.;Incorporated into Paper A.;We now know that ?although human influenza virus receptors are more prevalent in the upper respiratory tract, avian influenza virus receptors are more prevalent in the lower respiratory tract of humans? (Gangadharan, Smith & Weyent).;Incorporated into Paper B.;I?ve personally determined and certainly deserve all the credit for finding out that although human influenza virus receptors are more prevalent in the upper respiratory tract, avian influenza virus receptors are more prevalent in the lower respiratory tract of humans (Me, Myself & I).;[9] Original Passage (Kohlbert, 2008). This is from a book about animal extinction that was written for a general audience. Here we can use the paraphrasing process to condense and get the main idea (i.e. to summarize).;Then the frogs around El Valle started to disappear. The problem-it was not yet perceived as a crisis?was first noticed to the west near Panama?s border with Costa Rica. An American graduate student happened to be studying frogs in the rainforest there. She went back to the States for a while to write her dissertation, and when she returned, she couldn?t find any frogs or, for that matter, amphibians of any kind. She had no idea what was going on, but since she needed frogs for her research, she set up a new study site, further east. At first the frogs at the new site seemed healthy, then the same thing happened: the amphibians vanished. The blight spread through the rainforest until, in 2002, the frogs in the hills and streams around the town of Santa Fe, about fifty miles west of El Valle, were effectively wiped out.;Paraphrase A.;An American graduate student was the first to notice the collapse of the frog population in El Valle. She did research in the area, but then went back to the U.S. When she returned to carry on more research, she noted that the frogs had disappeared. She moved her location, but the frog population started to collapse there too. By 2002, the frog population was wiped out.;Paraphase B.;The problem of frog disappearance win El Valle was first noticed by an American graduate student who happened to be studying frogs in the rainforest there. She went back to the States for a while to write her dissertation, and when she returned, she couldn?t find any frogs. She set up a new study site, further east, but then the same thing happened: the amphibians vanished. The blight spread through the rainforest until, in 2002, the frogs were effectively wiped out.;[10] Original Passage (Sample, 2014). This is from a newspaper article about the ongoing controversy about creating influenza viruses that are both virulent and transmissable. Here we can use the paraphrasing process to condense and get the main idea (i.e. to summarize).;?The work they are doing is absolutely crazy. The whole thing is exceedingly dangerous," said Lord May, the former president of the Royal Society and one time chief science adviser to the UK government. "Yes, there is a danger, but it's not arising from the viruses out there in the animals, it's arising from the labs of grossly ambitious people.;Influenza viruses circulate freely in wild bird populations. Most remain in chickens, ducks and other birds, but occasionally strains mutate into a form that can infect humans. The H5N1 bird flu strain has killed at least 386 people since 2003, according to WHO figures. The Spanish 1918 flu is thought to have come from birds too.;Writing in the journal Cell Host and Microbe Yoshihiro Kawaoka describes how his team analysed various bird flu viruses and found genes from several strains that were very similar to those that made up the 1918 human flu virus. They combined the bird flu genes into a single new virus, making a new pathogen that was only about 3% different from the 1918 human virus.;The freshly made virus ? the first of several the team created ? was more harmful to mice and ferrets than normal bird flu viruses, but not as dangerous as the 1918 strain. It did not spread between ferrets and none of the animals died. But the scientists went on to mutate the virus, to see what changes could make it spread. Seven mutations later, they had a more dangerous version that spread easily from animal to animal in tiny water droplets, the same way flu spreads in humans.;Kawaoka, who led the research in a high-security lab at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, said the work highlighted how flu viruses found in wild bird populations had the potential to adapt to humans and cause a pandemic.;Follow-up experiments showed that the 2009 swine flu vaccine and the anti-viral drug tamiflu should be effective against the virus. "This is important information for those making decisions about surveillance and pandemic preparedness," Kawaoka told the Guardian.;Incorporated into Paper A.;According to the article, Kawaoka and colleagues have taken genes from existing strains of bird flu, and artificially combined them to make a virus that is only 3% different from the dangerous virus that caused the 1918 pandemic of human flu. It was harmful to lab animals, but did not spread very easily. They went on to demonstrate that they could make it spread more easily by a series of mutations. Thus, they have created a virus which is both virulent and easily transmitted. Not everyone thinks that this is a good idea. Lord May, a former advisor to the British government said that ?The work they are doing is absolutely crazy. The whole thing is exceedingly dangerous. Sure, there is a danger, but it's not arising from the viruses out there in the animals, it's arising from the labs of blindly ambitious people? http://www.theguardian.com/science/2014/jun/11/crazy-dangerous-creation-deadly-airborne-flu-virus.;Incorporated into Paper B.;According to the article, Kawaoka and colleagues have taken genes from existing strains of bird flu, and artificially combined them to make a virus that is only 3% different from the dangerous virus that caused the 1918 pandemic of human flu. It was harmful to lab animals, but did not spread very easily. They went on to demonstrate that they could make it spread more easily by a series of mutations. Thus, they have created a virus which is both virulent and easily transmitted. Not everyone thinks that this is a good idea. Lord May, a former advisor to the British government said that ?The work they are doing is absolutely crazy. The whole thing is exceedingly dangerous. Sure, there is a danger, but it's not arising from the viruses out there in the animals, it's arising from the labs of blindly ambitious people? (Sample, 2014).;REFERENCES;Cox, J.F., Tahvanainen, K.U.O., Kuusela, T.A., Cooke, W.H., Ames, J.E., and Eckberg, D.L. (2003). Influence of microgravity on arterial baroreflex responses triggered by Valsalva?s maneuver. In J. C. Buckey & J. L. Homick (Eds). Neurolab Spacelab Mission: Neuroscience Research in Space. Houston: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, p. 187-195. Retrieved from http://lsda.jsc.nasa.gov/refs/Neurolab/SP-2003-535.pdf;Cox, J. F., Tahvanainen, K. U. O., Kuusela, T. A., Levine, B. D., Cooke, W. H., Mano, T., Iwase, S., Saito, M., Sugiyama, Y., Ertl, A. C., Biaggioni, I., Diedrich, A., Robertson, R. M., Zuckerman, J. H., Lane, L. D., Ray, C. A., White, R. J., Pawelczyk, J. A., Buckey, J. C., Baisch, F. J., Blomqvist, C. G., Robertson, D., Eckberg, D. L. (2002) Influence of microgravity on sympathetic and vagal responses to Valsalva's manoeuvre. Journal of Physiology (London), 538.1, 309 - 320. Retrieved from http://jp.physoc.org/content/538/1/309.long;Gangadharan, D., Smith, J. & Weyant, R. (2013, June 28) Biosafety recommendations for work with influenza viruses containing a hemagglutinin from the A / good / Guangdon / 1 / 96 lineage. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr6206a1.htm;Hotez, P. J. (2008, June 25). Neglected infections of poverty in the United States of America. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases. Retrieved from http://www.plosntds.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000256;Kohlbert, E. (2014) The sixth extinction. New York, NY: Henry Holt & Co.;Sample, I. (2014, June 11) Scientists condemn 'crazy, dangerous' creation of deadly airborne flu virus. The Guardian. Retrieved from http://www.theguardian.com/science/2014/jun/11/crazy-dangerous-creation-deadly-airborne-flu-virus;Shewmon, D. A., Holmes, G. L. & Byrne, P. A., (1999) Consciousness in congenitally decorticate children: developmental vegetative state as self-fulfilling prophecy. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 41, 364 - 374.;Wilcove, D. S. (2008) No way home: the decline of the world?s great animal migrations. Washington, D. C.: Island Press.;Wilson, E. O. (1992) The diversity of life. New York, NY: Norton.;Please follow the professor's instruction. Thanks

 

Paper#16209 | Written in 18-Jul-2015

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