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General Guidelines for CH 111L / 112L Written Laboratory Reports

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please answer the theoretical yield and percent yield and do the experiment report as mention in the General guidelines for written lab reports;thanks;see the attachment;Attachments Preview;data.jpg Download Attachment;General guidelines for written lab reports.doc Download Attachment;General Guidelines for CH 111L / 112L Written Laboratory Reports;The purpose of this laboratory report is to provide the student experience in writing reports;similar to reports made by scientists and engineers to their supervisors and to the scientific;community (via journal articles).;As a professional in the working world, you will be expected to have good communication;skills. When you issue a report or memo which contains typographical, punctuation or;grammatical errors, it reflects poorly on your command of the English language as well as your;professional ability. For these reasons, student laboratory reports must be error free.;When writing an important report or letter, write a draft of the document and set it aside at least;over night. Then, read it again the next day. Try to read it as if you had never seen it before. Be;certain that it conveys exactly what was intended. Typographical errors will be more apparent;the next day.;Normally, reports and memoranda are typed single-spaced. However, this report of yours;should be typed or word-processed, double-spaced. Use one-inch margins and a 12-point font;size. It is unnecessary to number the pages of the report. In order to avoid omissions, it is a;good idea to reexamine the laboratory procedure before writing the report.;Do not put reports in plastic report covers (just staple). Be sure to attach a copy of your;laboratory notebook sheet(s) with your experimental observations.;Each report should have all of the sections shown below (if applicable), in the order shown.;Except for the cover page, use the headings shown below to indicate the beginning of a new;section.;Please note that as you take more advanced chemistry courses you will incorporate the use of;instrumentation and other types of equipment. As the complexity of the laboratory experiment;increases, so does that of the laboratory report.;Cover Page;Include title of the experiment, your name, and the date of the report.;Introduction;Give a brief description of the background and significance of the substance you are synthesizing;or analyzing, and use brief statements to summarize the purpose of the experiment. The;introduction should usually be no longer than five or six sentences.;Experimental;Describe in some detail how you performed the experiments. This section should contain;sufficient detail so that someone else could reproduce the experiment, using only the report.;Sample preparation and glassware cleaning is normally described, but routine operations (e.g.;cleaning) should be mentioned only briefly. Too much detail is redundant. For example, a;statement such as, All glassware was washed with soapy water and triple rinsed with tap water;and distilled water. is sufficient and would not need to be repeated throughout the report.;Data and Calculations;Include in this section all raw data collected during the experiment, whether it is numeric or in;the form of qualitative observations. All data should appear in this section, not in an appendix at;the end of the report. Tabulating data in clearly labeled tables is recommended. If it is not;possible to express a calculation electronically, it is acceptable to write it in by hand. If this is the;case, be sure to use neat and legible handwriting.;Discussion and Conclusions;Present the results of the experiment and discuss their significance. This section might include a;thorough explanation of the thought processes used in identifying unidentified samples or a;suggestion as to why your synthetic yield was so, for example. It will be expected that you will;be able to draw conclusions based on the data taken.;Additional Guidance and Common Mistakes to Avoid;General grammar;1. When writing lab reports for this course, always use third person, past tense, passive voice.;Incorrect: I used an atomic absorption spectrometer to analyze sample # 90-37-1. (First;person active voice is used.);Correct: An atomic absorption spectrometer was used to analyze sample # 90-37-1.;(Third person passive voice is used.);2. Do not use contractions.;3. Avoid the use of the word run when referring to samples or standards. Samples dont;run anywhere. Use the word analyze or a synonym.;4. Avoid paragraphs that jump from one topic to another. Each paragraph should cover one;major topic.;5. Avoid the use of "who" and "whose" and other possessive forms with inanimate objects.;6. Avoid the use of "due to the fact that...". Why write all of that when you mean "because"?;7. Avoid the use of the phrase "was done". It just does not sound professional. Often "was;performed" or "was accomplished" can be substituted, although other phrases are;sometimes preferred.;8. Do not use abbreviations or unusual symbols without defining them, you only need to;define it once in your report. This is especially irritating when the same abbreviation is;used repeatedly without a prior definition.;Incorrect: The AA was used to analyze the samples.;Correct: The atomic absorption spectrometer (AA) was used to analyze the samples.;9. Avoid "dangling prepositions". The easiest way to rewrite the sentence is to rearrange the;latter part of the sentence and insert a which. This will many time result in a sentence;that you would not use in conversation, but remember that formal written English many;times differs from informal spoken English.;Incorrect: Reagent was added to the beaker that the precipitate came from.;Correct: Reagent was added to the beaker from which the precipitate came.;10. Units of measure such as grams and milliliters (and pounds and dollars) are considered;collective singulars. They require singular verbs.;Incorrect: Exactly 4.867 g of reagent were added to the sample.;Correct: Exactly 4.867 g of reagent was added to the sample.;11. Units of measure must be separated from the preceding number by a space.;Incorrect: The instrument cost 5,000dollars.;Correct: The instrument cost 5,000 dollars.;Incorrect: The benches were separated by 5ft.;Correct: The benches were separated by 5 ft.;12. The names of chemical compounds are not capitalized. They are not cities or people!;13. Do not refer to instruments as machines. An instrument is a device used to make precise;and accurate measurements. Use that definition to distinguish between instruments and;machines.;14. Its is a contraction of it is. The possessive form of it is its.;Incorrect: A sample was identified based on its IR spectrum.;Correct: A sample was identified based on its IR spectrum.;Terms;15. The term unknown is often used in academia when referring to a sample of;undetermined composition. This is a very artificial term, and in the real world, all such;samples are called samples. The latter is the term that students are expected to use in;their reports.;16. Differentiate between the terms determine, which means to quantify, and identify;which is more qualitative in nature.;Incorrect: Determination of the identity of a liquid sample.;Correct: Identification of a liquid sample.;17. Do not confuse the terms "clear" and "colorless". You can have a clear solution that is not;colorless and vice versa. Clear means without cloudiness. Colorless means without;color.;Numbers and Symbols;18. Do not start a sentence with a numeral. This rule seems awkward at first, but with a little;experience, sentences can usually be rewritten to avoid the use of a numeral at the;beginning.;Incorrect: 2.4856 g of sample was weighed into a 250-mL beaker.;Correct: A 2.4856-g portion of sample was weighed into a 250-mL beaker.;Incorrect: 10 drops of reagent were added to the sample.;Correct: Ten drops of reagent were added to the sample.;Correct: A 10-drop portion of reagent was added to the sample.;Note that a sentence can begin with a number but not a numeral.;19. When describing glassware, a dash is required between the volume and unit of volume.;Incorrect: The sample was transferred to a 250 mL beaker.;Correct: The sample was transferred to a 250-mL beaker.;The rule applies any time the volume is used as an adjective.;Incorrect: A 25 mL portion of reagent was added to the sample.;Correct: A 25-mL portion of reagent was added to the sample.;The rule does not apply to volumes of liquids when they are not used as an adjective.;Incorrect: The solution was diluted with 25-mL water.;Correct: The solution was diluted with 25 mL water.;20. The symbol for milliliter is mL, not ml or ML, etc.;21. The symbol of mole is mol, not m (meter) or M (molar). The symbol for millimole is;mmol, not mm (millimeter).;22. A decimal number that is less than one should always have a leading zero.;Incorrect: Approximately.250 g of iron wire was weighed into a 250-mL beaker.;Correct: Approximately 0.250 g of iron wire was weighed into a 250-mL beaker.;23. Use superscripts and subscripts where appropriate.;24. Spell out any whole number less than ten.;Incorrect: A total of 6 spectra were acquired.;Correct: A total of six spectra were acquired.;Correct: A total of 20 samples were analyzed.;Experimental Section;25. Avoid the use of words such as "next" and "then" when describing the order of the;procedure. It is assumed that the order of the procedure was as stated. Remember that you;are trying to write an accurate, concise and easy to understand account of what happened.;You are not trying to write great literature.;References;Gaunder, R. G. University of North Alabama, Florence, AL. CH 321 Syllabus F07, 2007.;University of Waterloo Library Library Subject Guides Chemistry Page.;http://www.lib.uwaterloo.ca/discipline/chem/acs_ref.html (accessed August 19, 2008).;Weisenseel, J. W. Instrumental Analysis Laboratory Experiments, Shearer, J. W., Ed., University of North Alabama;2007, 6-12.

 

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