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Invertebrates & Vertebrates




m needing help with Experiment 2:Creating a phylum key. Please help!;Attachment Preview;Bio Lab 13 Invert and Vert.pdf Download Attachment;Animals;Lab 10;Invertebrates & Vertebrates;113;114;Lab 10: Invertebrates & Vertebrates;Concepts to explore;x;x;x;x;x;Characteriscs of animals;Heterotrophs;Symmetry;Invertebrates;Vertebrates;Introducon;The kingdom Animalia comprises millions of species, ranging from the snail to the hippopotamus, the;ant to the elephant, the cenpede to the human. Though there are notable dierences in body shape;and funcon, almost are mole, mulcellular eukaryotes, with disnct ssue structures that perform;specialized funcons (i.e., heart, stomach) and almost all parcipate in sexual reproducon. Unlike;plants, animals cannot produce energy from sunlight and, as heterotrophs, acquire energy by consum;ing organic material (other plants and animals).;Useful characterisc for classify animals is symmetry, or the balanced division of their form. Radial;Symmetry, as is seen in starsh, is a division originang in the center and protruding outwards that;produces even and balanced secons. This is similar to the divisions that are made when a pie is cut;into many even pieces. In Bilateral Symmetry, as is seen in a beetle, the object can be divided into two;mirror images by a center line that runs through the enre object. Asymmetry occurs when there can;be no even division, as is seen in a sponge.;Animals are classied into two categories based on structure.;x;Invertebrates are organisms that lack an endoskeleton, such as the jellysh, insects, or worms.;They make up over 98% of all animal species.;x;Vertebrates possess an endoskeleton (an internal skeletal structure) and spinal column, like;you or your dog. An endoskeleton is a signicant adapve advantage that enables vertebrates;to occupy dierent ecological niches (roles).;There are over 35 phyla in the Animal Kingdom. The vast majority fall within the following eight, seven;of which are invertebrates.;x;Phylum Porifera consists of sponges, considered to be the oldest of the animal phyla (Figure 1).;As staonary lters, sponges play an important role in aquac systems, feeding on parcles;115;Lab 10: Invertebrates & Vertebrates;and bacteria in the water. Water enters the sponge through;several large canals and millions of small pores. Their asymmet;ric body is a loose assembly of cells (no ssues) that support a;skeleton of collagen bers and spicules. Sponges reproduce;both sexually and asexually.;Figure 1: Porifera;x;The phylum Cnidaria includes jellysh;corals, sea anemones, and hydras (Figure 2).;They were the rst to develop nerves and muscles and typically alternate;between two body forms: the freeswimming medusa and the staonary;polyp. Both body types consist of three layers of ssue surrounded by ten;tacles with snging cells containing ny, toxic harpoons that can be used in;either defense or oense. They have radial symmetry (if you cut it in half;each half will look like the other), with a hollow body cavity to digest food.;Figure 2:Cnidaria;x;The phylum Platyhelminthes includes freshwater planaria, colorful marine polycads, para;sic tapeworms and ukes. They are some of the simplest bilaterally symmetrical organ;isms with a dened head and tail, and a centralized nervous system containing a brain and;nerves. They lack both a body cavity and circulatory system, but do have a tubular mouth;an excretory system and a highly branched digesve system. Clusters of lightsensive cells;make up their eyespots. They are hermaphrodic, capable of both sexual and asexual re;producon.;x The phylum Annelida is represented by marine worms (polychaetes), earthworms and leech;Figure 3: Annelida;x;es (Figure 3). They are bilaterally symmetric with a segmented body cavity;oen represented by a tube within a tube design. Each segment has ny;hairs called setae which help the organism to move. Segmentaon was;an important development that provides disnct regions to specialize in;dierent tasks. A oneway digesve tract, closedcirculatory system, and;central nervous system also dierenate this invertebrate. Annelids play;a signicant ecological role by reworking soil and sediments.;The phylum Arthropoda, the most diverse and numerous of;the Animal Kingdom, includes insects, crustacean, spiders, mil;lipedes, and cenpedes (Figure 4). All arthropods have seg;mented bodies and are covered in a hard, exible exoskeleton.;Their muscles from their jointed appendages aach to the in;side of this protecve cover. Many species, such as dragonies;that start as larvae and develop into winged adults, exhibit;Figure 4: Arthropoda;116;Lab 10: Invertebrates & Vertebrates;Some sandy beaches may harbor;32,000 burrowing annelids per;square meter, which collecvely;may ingest and excrete 3 metric;tons of sand per year!;mulple life cycles. Their open body cavity which contains s;sues, organs and a complete digesve tract.;xThe phylum Mollusca includes clams, snails, slugs and the octo;pus (Figure 5). Though;there is a great deal of di;versity within this phylum;all mollusks have so bodies, many of which are cov;ered by a hard calcied shell. The shell is secreted by;a layer of ssue called the mantle. A muscular foot;provides locomoon and grasping. A coarse, lelike;organ (the radula) allows most mollusks to drill into;Figure 5: Mollusca;their prey or snag sh. Many hunt by propelling water;through a siphon either for locomoon or to capture food. A mantle cavity houses gills and;oneway digesve system.;x;The phylum Echinodermata includes sea stars, sea lilies;sea urchins, sea cucumbers, and over 6,000 other salt wa;ter species (Figure 6). Instead of bilateral or radial sym;metry, echinoderms exhibit ve part symmetry in their;bodies. Their hard, exible bodies are composed of small;calcium plates that are oen spiny and covered by a thin;skin. Inside is a complete digesve system and a special;Figure 6: Echinodermata;uidlled system that operates tube feet (which some;mes grow back if lost) which allow them to move, feed, and respire.;x;Vertebrates (Figure 7), along with tunicates and lancelets, fall into a;subphylum of the phylum Chordata.;x;Tunicates are invertebrates that look like sponges but have;a bony, vertebral column with a dorsal nerve cord which;develops into a spinal cord and brain, a common feature;they share with vertebrates.;x;Their internal skeleton allows them to grow without the;need to molt (as in arthropods).;Figure 7: Vertebrates;x;Chordates have gill cles (the structures located behind;the mouth and in front of the esophagus), bilateral symmetry, segmented muscles;and a protecve layer (feathers, scales, hair, fur, etc.,).;x Two main groups of the subphylum vertebrata include shes and tetrapods (amphibians;reples, birds, and mammals).;117;Lab 10: Invertebrates & Vertebrates;x;Fish are found in the water, lay so eggs, are cold blooded and use gills to breathe.;x;Amphibians are found in both water and on land, lay so eggs, are cold blooded;and breathe using, gills, lungs an through their skin.;x;Reples live almost enrely on land, lay somewhat hard shelled eggs, are cold;blooded and breathe through lungs.;x;Birds are found on land (and in the air), lay hard shelled eggs, are warm blooded;and breathe through lungs.;x;Mammals are normally found on land, give live birth, are warm blooded and;breathe through lungs. Mammals are also characterized by the presence of hair on;their bodies and their ability to produce milk in sweat glands (mammary glands) for;their young. There are roughly 5,000 species of mammals.;Arguably the most dominant vertebrate is Homo sapien;(you). Humans are thought to be the longest living;mammals, though other species, such as the elephant;and whale are also longlived. Though there are obvious;dierences between human beings and other mammals;there are also many similaries. In the following labs we;will look at human systems as a model for what is found;in many vertebrates.;Many heart valve replacements are actually;porcine valves. The cells are removed but;the architecture of the ssue remains. The;cardiac physiology between man and pig is;so similar that the parts can be made;interchangeable!;Experiment 1: Symmetry in Animals;Look at the objects listed below, which can be found in your lab kit, and decide what type of symmetry;they posses. Explain why you chose the type of symmetry you did.;1. Goggles/Safety Glasses;2. Petri dish;118;Lab 10: Invertebrates & Vertebrates;3. Wash bole with curled straw;4. Top of a liquid bole;5. Balloon;119;Lab 10: Invertebrates & Vertebrates;Experiment 2: Creang a Phylum Key;1. The phylum characterisc table contains all of the main features of the eight main phyla. Your job is;to organize and idenfy which characteriscs belong to which phyla in the key. The number of lines;in the key represents the number of characteriscs that fall into each phylum.;Table 1: Phylum Characterisc Table;1;2;3;4;5;A;Bilateral phy;lum with seg;Most have a;calcium con;Five part sym;metry;Specialized;cell, but no;Mantle of s;sue covering;B;Hollow body;cavity for food;Setae used for;movement;Jaws and skulls;part of evolu;on;Complete di;gesve tract;The rst to;have jointed;legs;The rst phy;lum to y;Some have;snging cells;Tube feet;First muscle;and nerves;Internal skele;ton;Three ssue;layers, no;body cavity;Water ows;through canals;of body;Body design is;a tube within a;tube;C;Parasites;D;More complex;because of;more DNA;E;All live in the;sea;Simple animals;with bilateral;symmetry;Entrance and;exit the same;in the diges;All have verte;bral column;Champions of;variaons in;appendages;F;Has the most;species;Have spines;covered with a;thin skin;Some staon;ary polyps;Some are mo;bile medusa;Some propel;using their;siphon;G;Muscular foot;used to move;Staonary ani;mal;Tubular mouth;at the mid;body;Humans;Hard but exi;ble bodies;with small;H;Spicules are;the skeleton;Radula used to;feed;No symmetry;Exoskeleton;Their burrow;ing has aect;ed the global;120;Lab 10: Invertebrates & Vertebrates;Table 2: Phylum Taxonomic Key;Porifera;Cnidaria;Platyhel;minthes;Annelida;Arthropoda;Mollusca;Echinodermata;Chordata;Experiment 3: Taxonomy;Idenfy which phylum each of the following organisms belongs in. Next to each, list the criteria;used in your determinaon.;1.;Figure 8;121;Lab 10: Invertebrates & Vertebrates;2.;Figure 9;3.;Figure 10;4.;Figure 11;5.;Figure 12;6.;Figure 13;122;Lab 10: Invertebrates & Vertebrates;The following lab exercise is intended to be an addon for the Invertebrate Lab. Unless your teacher;has specically requested that dissecon materials be included within your kit, you will NOT have the;supplies to perform the next two experiments.;Experiment 4: Invertebrate Dissecon;The starsh is not a sh at all, rather an invertebrate that possesses no internal skeleton. Members of;the phylum Echinodermata, starsh are unique in that they are deuterostomes (instead of proto;Materials;Preserved starsh;Dissecng tray;Dissecng tools;Magnifying lens;Note: When performing a dissecon, remember these important safety notes;x;x;Dissect with the scalpel or scissor blade cung away from you (and your lab partner).;If you develop an allergic reacon to the preserving uid, contact your healthcare;provider. Also, inform your instructor and inform him/her of your situaon.;x;Contact your local waste management company for instrucons for the proper dis;posal of your specimen.;x;Wash your hands, dissecon tools, and all work surfaces with soap and water when;nished with the dissecon.;stomes like earthworms, grasshoppers, clams, etc.). Deuterostomes exhibit incomplete segmentaon;and a brain and spinal cord above the gut, among of other dierences with protostomes. Starsh have;no front or back, and can move in any direcon without turning.;Procedure;1. Examine the external anatomy of the starsh. The side in which the mouth is located is called;the oral surface (ventral side). The opposite side is called the aboral surface (dorsal side). See;Figure 14 for reference.;123;Lab 10: Invertebrates & Vertebrates;Figure 14: The aboral (le) and oral (right) surfaces of the starsh.;2. Run your gloved nger over the surface and note the texture. Use the magnifying glass to ex;amine the spiny skin in detail.;3. Along with the s spines, you may also see small, hairlike gills used by the starsh to take in;oxygen.;4. Pedicellaria are ny pincers that look like pliers that are used to grip small objects.;5. Place the starsh ventral side up and note the tube feet that run down the arms, or rays, of the;starsh. They will be located on either side of the groove that runs from the p of each ray to;the center.;6. Find the mouth in the center of the starsh.;7. On the oral surface of each arm are open ambulacral grooves extending from the mouth to the;p of each arm. Locate the abulacral groove running from the center down each ray.;8. Using the magnifying lens, examine the tube feet with protruding suckers on either side of the;abulacral groove.;9. Flip the starsh so the dorsal side is facing up.;10. Note the eyespots at the p of each arm, which allows the starsh to sense and respond to;light. To see the eyespots, and spread the tube feet at the p of the ray and examine it closely;with the magnifying lens.;11. The at central disk is at the center, and ny, hollow, ngerlike gills cover the body of the star;sh.;12. The opening of the watervascular system is called the madreporite. It is a large, buonlike;124;Lab 10: Invertebrates & Vertebrates;13.;14.;15.;16.;17.;18.;19.;20.;21.;22.;23.;24.;structure on the central disk.;The anus is in the center of the disk.;Using a scalpel, cut one inch from the p of one of the rays. Study the cross secon of the;stump.;Note the ossicles (part of the endoskeleton) on the dorsal surface, the largest of which called;the ambulacral ossicles, which support the ambulacral groove and provide aachment for the;tube feet.;Remove the skin from the top of this ray using dissecng scissors or scalpel. Do the same for;another ray, and also cut a circular lap of skin from the central disk being careful to keep it as;shallow of an incision as possible.;Note the featherylooking digesve glands called the pyloric caeca. These glands make en;zymes that help digest food in the stomach, located under the central disk. The thin sac lying;just above the stomach is the intesne. From there, the rectal pouches store small amounts of;wastes before leaving through the anus on the dorsal side of the starsh.;Remove the pyloric caeca from one ray, and observe the gonads underneath.;Remove the gonads to visualize the water vascular system. This is an internal water pressure;system. Water enters the system through the madreporite, passes through a series of canals;unl it reaches the tube feet. When the ampulla contracts, water is forced into the tube foot;extending it and allowing it to grab on to a surface.;Running the length of each ray is a lateral canal, to which tube feet are aached.;In the central disk, the ve lateral canals connect to the ring canal.;Note the stone canal connecng the ring canal to the madreporite, where water enters. These;canals are dicult to locate without disrupng them, but see if you can idenfy them.;With a magnifying lens, examine the inside wall of the ray to see the supporng ridges, the;bulblike ampullae, ny sacs that create sucon of the tube feet. You may also noce ny;openings in the inner wall. These pores connect with a ll tube and are part of the external gills;that help the starsh to breathe.;As with any biological scraps, it is best to contact your local waste management company for;proper disposal procedure.;Quesons;1. What are some common animal traits that a starsh does not possess?;125;Lab 10: Invertebrates & Vertebrates;Experiment 5: Vertebrate Dissecon;Frogs are a member of the Amphibia class of vertebrates. In many respects, the anatomy of the frog is;similar to human anatomy. Thus, the study of frog anatomy is a useful tool for science students.;As amphibians, frogs may live some of their adult life on land, but return to water to reproduce.;Materials;Preserved Grassfrog;Flashlight;Dissecon tray (Styrofoam);Dissecon tools;Dissecng pins;Toothpick;3 in. Fishing line;Figure 15: The dorsal (above) and ventral (below) sides of the frog. Cut lines are shown;on the picture below (green).;126;Lab 10: Invertebrates & Vertebrates;Note: To determine the sex of your frog, examine the;ngers on its foreleg (arm). A male frog typically ex;hibits thick pads below the thumbs.;Procedure;1. Place the frog dorsal (back) side up in the dissecng tray. Observe the external anatomy of the;skin. Dont forget to use your sense of touch in this observaon (with gloved hands of course)!;2. Locate the following features;x;x;x;External nares (nostrils);x;x;x;x;x;x;Internal nares;x;Fat bodies: Located just inside the abdominal wall, these long, thin organs are yellow;or orange in color. You may remove these structures if they obstruct your view of un;derlying organs;Two tympani (eardrums);Two eyes, each with three lids (the third lid is a transparent covering on the eye);3. Measure the length of the frog and record this measurement in Table 3.;4. Break a toothpick so that you have a 1in piece. Place this in the frogs mouth to prop it open so;you can observe the structures of the frogs mouth.;5. Using the ashlight, locate the following features;6.;7.;8.;9.;10.;11.;12.;Eustachian tubes;Opening of the esophagus;Glos;Tongue;Two kinds of teeth, maxillary teeth help the frog to grip while vornerine teeth point;inward.;Use forceps to grab the tongue and locate where it aaches to the oor of the mouth.;Insert the end of the shing line into one of the Eustachian tubes and watch the tympanum on;the dorsal side of the frog. This system allows air pressure to be equalized in the frogs head.;Place the frog in the dissecon tray ventral (belly) sideup, and pin the arms and legs to the;tray to stabilize the specimen.;Using forceps and dissecng scissors, cut along the midline of the body starng at the cloaca;(the urogenital opening) as shown in Figure 15. Make shallow cuts so internal organs are not;damaged when cung through the muscle and breastbone.;Make horizontal cuts near the arms and legs, as shown in Figure 15.;Pin the aps to the dissecng tray to expose the internal organs. Note: If your specimen is fe;male, you may need to remove the eggs and enlarged ovary to view the internal organs.;Using a probe and forceps, li the internal organs around so you can locate the following or;gans;127;Lab 10: Invertebrates & Vertebrates;x;Peritoneum: Directly under the body wall, this aached membrane of thin ssue;forms a lining around the internal organs. There are various membranes that hold the;organs in place, called mesenteries, which are also part of the peritoneum.;x;Liver: A threelobed organ that sits high in the body cavity. It is the largest organ visi;ble, and is dark brown in color.;x;Heart: A triangular structure that sits above the liver. Note the thin sac (called the peri;cardial sac) that covers this organ and the vessels extending from it. The pericardial sac;can be cut to expose the heart.;x;x;Lungs: Two spongy organs located beneath the liver.;Gall bladder: This bright green organ can be visualized by spreading apart the lobes of;the liver.;x;Esophagus: A tube that transports food from the mouth to the stomach. Insert your;probe into the frogs mouth and observe where it leads.;x;Stomach: Under the le side of the liver, this baglike digesve organ is the rst site of;chemical digeson in the frog.;x;Small intesne: A long coiled tube that serves as a conduit for food and the place;where nutrient absorpon into the bloodstream takes place. Noce the blood vessels;running through this organ.;x;Large intesne: A widening of the small intesne signals the start of the large intes;ne. This may be located underneath the small intesnes.;x;Spleen: Located in the middle of the body cavity, this dark red, spherical organ stores;blood. You may need to li the stomach and small intesnes to see.;13. Using dissecng scissors, remove the stomach from the body cavity. Cut it open to invesgate;any remains from the frogs last meal.;14. Remove the small intesnes from the body cavity. Measure the length of the small intesnes;and record in Table 3.;Table 3: Observaonal Measurements of Frog (Remember to Assign Units Where Appropriate!);Length of frog;Length of small intesnes;Contents of stomach;15. Connue to locate the following organs;x;Kidneys: Dark, beanshaped organs that lter wastes from the blood. You may have to;li the intesnes to see them, as they are towards the back of the body cavity.;x;Testes (for male specimens): Located above the kidneys, these round organs are typi;cally light in color.;x;x;Oviducts (for female specimens): Curly tubes around the kidneys.;Bladder: A baglike organs that stores urine. Try to trace the tubes from the kidneys to;the bladder.;16. As with any biological scraps, it is best to contact your local waste management company for;128;Lab 10: Invertebrates & Vertebrates;proper disposal procedure.;Quesons;1. Classify the specimen you just dissected, starng with Kingdom and ending with Species.;2. Describe the appearance of ve organs you found in the frog.;129


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