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generally agreed upon as necessary criteria/criterion for claiming that a communication system




Question 1;Which of the following is/are generally agreed upon as necessary criteria/criterion for claiming that a;communication system is a language?;A. regularity;B. productivity;C. referentiality;D. interpersonal;E. both regularity and productivity;Question 2;The study of the ways in which sounds can be combined in any given language is called;A. phonology;B. morphology;C. syntax;D. grammar;E. pragmatics;Question 3;The branch of linguistics devoted to the study of meaning;A. phonetics;B. semantics;C. morphology;D. pragmatics;E. syntax;Question 4;Which of the following is NOT a kind of syntactic rule proposed by Chomsky?;A. lexical insertion rule;B. phrase structure rule;C. illegal contraction rule;D. rewrite rule;E. transformational rule;Question 5;According to the study of semantics, understanding the meaning of a sentence requires which of the;following conditions?;A. understanding of the meaning of each word in the sentence;B. understanding of the syntax of the sentence;C. understanding of the truth conditions of the sentence;D. understanding of the syntax and the truth conditions of the sentence;E. understanding of the meaning of the words, the syntax of the sentence, and the truth;conditions of the sentence;Question 6;George is not tall enough to ride the roller coaster. George is too short to ride the roller coaster. These;sentences are related through;A. ambiguity;B. entailment;C. synonymy;D. anomaly;E. self-contradictio;Question 7;According to Miller, a fundamental problem of speech perception is;A. speech is continuous rather than discrete;B. perception of speech is noncategorical;C. we pay attention to certain acoustic properties of speech but ignore others;D. hearing is a less accurate sense than vision;E. missing phonemes can render words incomprehensible;Question 8;Warren and Warren showed that when presented with a sentence where a sound was replaced by a;cough (represented by * here), such as It was found that the *eel was on the axle;A. people could not interpret the sentence;B. people said that they understood the word to be wheel, but they were aware that they did not;actually hear the w sound;C. people said that they heard the entire word wheel without being aware of anything odd in the;sentence;D. people erroneously heard the word meal at first, but then realized by the end of the sentence;that the word must be wheel.;E. people erroneously heard the word heel and were confused when they heard the end of the;sentence.;Question 9;Studies of context and speech perception have shown all of the following phenomena EXCEPT;A. Subjects use context to mentally restore missing phonemes;B. Subjects use context to understand mispronounced words;C. Subjects use visual context to discriminate similar phonemes such as ba and da when the;physical sound is ambiguous;D. Subjects notice a discrepancy when they hear the sound ba pronounced but the visual cue is;consistent with a different phoneme (da);E. Listeners are often unaware of their use of context in perceiving speech;Question 10;Studies of speech errors suggest that;A. native speakers of a language rarely make speech errors;B. most speech errors are caused by fatigue;C. word substitutions typically show both meaning and form relations;D. choosing a words meaning and a words form appear to be separate processes that operate at different;times in speech production;E. most speech errors show both meaning and form relations, and are caused by fatigue;Question 11;Studies of sentence comprehension have shown all of the following EXCEPT;A. Exact wording of a clause is preserved in memory while that clause is actively being processed;B. After a sentence has been processed, exact wording is discarded and only the general meaning is preserved in;memory;C. We typically do not consciously notice ambiguities in sentences;D. We do not process exact wording in memory, we only process meaning;E. Both meanings of an ambiguous word can prime performance in a lexical decision task, even when the ambiguous;word is presented in a context that makes its meaning clear;11.;Im going to meet him at the bank. At the First National Bank, or at the river bank? This type of ambiguity is referred to as;A. phonetic;B. grammatical;C. lexical;D. syntactic;E. anomalous;Question 13;Swinneys research suggests that when we encounter a lexically ambiguous word;A. we process only the most common meaning;B. we process the meaning that is primed by the context;C. we first process the most common meaning, and then (if necessary) the one that fits the context;D. we process both meanings;E. we process both meanings at first, then suppress the inappropriate meaning;Question 14;Which of the following does NOT make a passage of text easier to comprehend, according to;research?;A. avoidance of syntactically anomalous words;B. less propositional complexity;C. a match between antecedent information and the given information;D. providing a relevant context after the passage has been read;E. all of these methods will aid a reader in comprehending a text passage;Question 15;The average eye fixation lasts about;A. 20 milliseconds;B. 100 milliseconds;C. 250 milliseconds;D. 1 second;E. 2 seconds;Question 16;Kintsch and Keenan found that we spend more time reading sentences that have;A. more words;B. more function words;C. more content words;D. more propositions;Question 17;Which of the following is NOT true of story grammars?;A. They have variables that are filled in differently for different stories;B. They help identify units of a story;C. They specify how one unit of a story relates to other units;D. We typically have better recall of stories that do not conform to expected story grammars;because they warrant more attention;E. They provide us with a framework with which we can predict certain sequences and;elements;Question 18;Fodors modularity hypothesis proposes that;A. language processing actually encompasses several subskills (modules);B. in understanding language, we separate sentences and phrases into individual units;known as modules;C. language is dependent upon other thought processes such as expectation;D. thought processes are dependent upon the language we use to think;E. certain language processes operate independently of other cognitive processes such as;memory and attention;Question 19;Whorfs linguistic relativity hypothesis;A. asserts that thought is dependent upon language;B. is supported by studies of color perception;C. is not supported by studies of color perception;D. asserts that thought is dependent upon language, and is supported by studies of color;perception;E. asserts that thought is dependent upon language, and is not supported by studies of;color perception;Question 20;Damage to Brocas area often leads to;A. expressive aphasia;B. receptive aphasia;C. inability to comprehend written language;D. both expressive aphasia and inability to comprehend written language;E. both receptive aphasia and inability to comprehend written language;Question 21;The smallest meaningful units of language are called phonemes.;A. True;B. False;Question 22;Semantics is the branch of linguistics that studies meaning.;A. True;B. False;Question 23;The word bat is considered to be lexically ambiguous because it has two possible meanings.;A. True;B. False;Question 24;A bridging inference is a system of rules that allows us to comprehend large, integrated pieces;of text.;A. True;B. False;Question 26;Whorfs hypothesis has been strongly supported by cross-cultural studies of color perception.;A. True;B. False;Question 27;Turn in your exam is an example of a directive.;A. True;B. False;Question 28;Speech errors often involve swapping words with similar meaning, or words with similar sounds;but rarely do they involve both meaning and sound.;A. True;B. False;Question 29;People tend to process both meanings of ambiguous words when they encounter them in;sentences.;A. True;B. False


Paper#16804 | Written in 18-Jul-2015

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