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Educational Psychology




Educational Psychology;Textbook;Educational Psychology: Developing Learners;7th Edition, 2011 ISBN-10: 0137001142;Jeanne Ellis Ormrod;Pearson Prentice Hall;Attachment Preview;PSY 430 Questions.docx Download Attachment;21. Three of the following suggestions are apt to be helpful when teachers work with;students and;their parents. With the textbooks discussion of parenting styles in;mind, choose the strategy;that is apt to be counterproductive.;a. Keep in mind that many parents from Asian cultures effectively combine elements of;authoritative and authoritarian parenting.;b. Acknowledge that authoritarian methods may be quite appropriate if families live in;dangerous neighborhoods.;c. Point out that parents who use authoritarian methods may be causing some of their;childrens behavior problems.;d. Keep in mind that many children do well in school despite less-than-optimal parenting;at home.;styles;22. Which one of the following should you definitely do if you suspect that one of your;students is;the victim of abuse or neglect at home?;a. Temporarily lower your expectations for the students academic performance until;conditions at home seem to improve.;b. Spend some one-on-one time with the student in an effort to get him or her to confide;you.;in;c. Keep a close eye on the student over the next few weeks, looking for additional evidence;that either supports or disconfirms your suspicions.;d. Immediately report your suspicions to a school administrator or social services.;23. Three of the following teachers are socializing their students in the way that schools;typically;do. Which teacher is not socializing students in a typical fashion?;a. Ms. Allen insists that her students complete their independent seatwork before they go to;recess.;b. Ms. Bernetti has her students go to lunch by rows, letting the quietest rows go first.;c. Ms. Dobson suggests that Sean bang his fist against the wall a few times whenever he;gets frustrated.;d. Ms. Castanza does not permit her students to talk back to her in a disrespectful fashion.;24. Three of the following tend to be fairly stable personality traits that children have to;varying;degrees. Which one would psychologists not characterize as a relatively;stable personality trait?;a. how dependable children are in doing their work carefully and following through on assigned;tasks;b. how outgoing and friendly children are with their peers;c. how quickly children solve math problems;d. how often children have negative emotions such as anger or depression;25. Given what we know about the development of sense of self, three of the following;are likely;scenarios. Which scenario is not likely to occur?;a. Mike vacillates between thinking of himself as being very smart and as being extremely;stupid.;b. Aaron thinks that kids his age dont like him, so he spends most of his spare time with;parents.;his;c. Daniel knows he has many friends, but he wishes he were a better student.;d. Rex knows hes good in math and science but thinks of himself as a total klutz when it;comes to sports.;1. Which one of the following is the most accurate statement about group differences;among students?;a. When we have knowledge about typical group differences, we have a very good idea of;how individual students are likely to perform in the classroom.;b. We can make fairly accurate predictions about individual students when we know their;gender, but not when we know their ethnic background.;c. We can make fairly accurate predictions about individual students when we know their;ethnic background, but not when we know their gender.;d. The average for two groups may be different, but variability within each group keeps us;from predicting individual performance.;2. Ten-year-old Svana has recently immigrated from Iceland to the United States. If we;say that Svana is undergoing acculturation, we mean that she is;a. refusing to speak any English at school.;b. afraid to engage in social activities with her American peers.;c. adopting some American behaviors and attitudes.;d. maintaining all of the customs of her homeland.;3. Three of the following are likely to give you reasonable clues about a students cultural;background and/or ethnic group membership. Which one is probably least dependable;as an indicator of a students cultural background and ethnicity?;a. the color of a students skin;b. what language is most often spoken at home;c. the ethnicity of the students parents;d. the cultural and religious activities in which a student regularly participates;4. Which one of the following is the best example of playing the dozens?;a. Jameel says to Ronald, Your mommas so fat her picture takes two frames. Ronald;responds, Yeah? Well, your mommas so fat it took three cows to make her a pair of shoes.;b. Helena tells her friend Mary that Wendy has been saying unkind things behind Marys back.;She then goes to Wendy and tells her that Mary has been saying unkind things;behind her;back.;c. Tariq devoutly follows Muslim practices (e.g., praying five times a day, fasting during;Ramadan) on weekends and school holidays, but he tries to behave as his American;classmates do on days when he attends school.;d. When Alegria finishes her own classwork, she goes to the assistance of classmates who;appear to be struggling with theirs.;5. A student says to you, My momma, she be singin all da time. This student appears;to;a. have a speech disorder that sometimes results from environmental toxins (e.g.;paint).;b. have had little exposure to language during a critical period in her language;lead-based;development.;c. be using African American English, a dialect with some grammatical constructions;from those of Standard English.;different;d. have grown up in Northern Ireland and so is using idioms typical of that country.;6. Three of the following alternatives describe reasons why, for cultural reasons, children;may be relatively quiet in class. Which alternative is false?;a. In some cultures, children rarely hear spoken language until age 3 or 4.;b. Children from some cultural backgrounds may have been taught that its rude to initiate;conversation with an adult.;a;c. In some cultures, attentive listening is valued more highly than speaking.;d. In some cultural groups, children are accustomed to learning more from quiet;than from asking questions.;observation;7. Psychologists believe that intelligence is culture-specificthat intelligent behavior;in one culture is not necessarily intelligent behavior in a different culture. Three of the;following are aspects of intelligence, regardless of the culture in which it is found.;Which one is probably related to intelligence in some cultures but not in others?;a. learning how to perform a new task quickly;b. doing well in academic classroom activities;c. adapting readily to new situations;d. applying prior knowledge to new situations;8. Robert is a 15-year-old boy who has attended U.S. schools since he began;kindergarten at age 5. With this fact in mind, identify the task that is most likely to;require Roberts fluid intelligence rather than his crystallized intelligence.;a. applying algebra to a mathematical word problem;b. solving a new kind of puzzle;c. writing a persuasive essay on a current issue in the news;d. finding Egypt on a map;9. Sam is a very talented dancer, he also shows considerable creativity in art class. He;finds math and science classes very difficult, but he loves to read and tell stories to his;many friends. Which view of intelligence is best reflected in Sams abilities?;a. Piagets theory of cognitive development;b. Gardners multiple intelligences;c. Sternbergs triarchic theory d. distributed intelligence;10. Which one of the following statements best reflects Sternbergs triarchic theory of;intelligence?;a. Intelligent behavior is a function of how well people draw on their prior experiences and;cognitively process information in order to adapt to their particular environmental situation.;b. Intelligent behavior evolves in three stages: preoperational thought, concrete thought;abstract thought.;and;c. To be truly intelligent, one must show competence in critical thinking and appropriate;classroom behavior, as well as in traditional academic tasks.;d. Intelligence is due to heredity, environment, and a complex interaction between the two;ultimately, researchers will probably never be able to separate the relative effects of heredity;and environment.;11. Which one of the following statements most accurately reflects the concept of;distributed;intelligence?;a. How intelligent students are is, to some extent, a function of class size, students;at lower levels when they are in larger classes.;b. Students almost invariably perform at higher levels in some academic subject areas;they do in others.;achieve;than;c. How intelligent children become is, to some extent, a function of the number of siblings;have, children from larger families tend to have slightly lower IQ scores.;d. Students can behave more intelligently when they can use outside resources as well as;their minds.;12. A childs ability to behave intelligently may vary considerably, depending on the;particular;context, skills, and cognitive processes required by a given task. This;they;statement is consistent;With which one is it least;with three of the following conceptualizations of intelligence.;consistent?;a. Gardners theory of multiple intelligences;b. Sternbergs triarchic theory;c. the concept of distributed intelligence;d. Cattells concept of fluid intelligence;13. Three of the following are examples of learned behavior. Given the textbooks;definition of;learning, which behavior probably does not reflect learning?;a. After many hours of heated debate, Brian begins to modify his religious beliefs.;b. Cara suddenly recognizes how the division fact 24 4 = 6 is related to the;fact 6 4 = 24.;multiplication;c. David has been running away from German shepherds ever since he was bitten by a;German shepherd two years ago.;d. Abigail cries when she feels sad.;14. Which one of the following statements most accurately describes behaviorists view;of how;learning can best be studied?;a. To study learning scientifically, researchers must confine their investigations to animal;research in a laboratory setting.;b. The study of learning will be more objective and scientific if only observable events are;considered.;c. Asking people to describe what theyre thinking as they study is likely to yield the most;accurate results.;d. Psychologists can determine how learning occurs only if they can identify its;basis.;physiological;15. Which one of the following statements best characterizes cognitive psychologys;approach to;learning?;a. Students are most likely to learn the things they think they will be reinforced for;learning.;b. Students learn through a series of either-or decisions similar to how computers operate.;c. Students learning is a function of what they do, mentally, with the information they;receive.;d. Students learning is a function of how stimuli in the environment are organized and;sequenced.;16. Which one of the following researchers is drawing an inference about cognitive;processes from;her observations of behavior?;a. Dr. Aragon finds that students who listen to an organized lecture remember more;information than students who listen to an unorganized lecture, she concludes that organized;material promotes better learning.;b. Dr. Cooper discovers that students remember more when new concepts are illustrated by;pictures as well as being verbally described, she concludes that visual imagery helps learning;and memory.;c. Dr. Burger finds that students who learn information word for word dont remember it for;very long, she concludes that requiring students to learn information verbatim isnt an effective;teaching strategy.;d. Dr. Delgado finds that students who listen to foreign language tapes while sleeping dont;remember what theyve heard, she concludes that being awake is necessary for learning to;occur.;17. As human beings, we encounter a great many stimuli at any one time. Which one of;the;following most accurately reflects cognitive psychologists perspective about;how we respond to;all these stimuli?;a. We cannot remember everything, and we have little control over the things that we do;remember.;b. We must select the things we think are most important to learn and remember, and;the rest.;ignore;c. We remember virtually everything we experience, but we have difficulty retrieving most;d. By learning to use effective long-term memory storage processes, we can eventually;to remember almost everything we encounter.;of it.;begin;18. When cognitive psychologists talk about the process of putting things in memory, they;often;use the term;a. inference-drawing.;b. retrieval.;c. selectivity.;d. storage.;19. Many cognitive psychologists believe that learning and understanding are often;constructive;in nature. Three of the following scenarios illustrate such construction.;Which scenario does;not necessarily involve construction in learning?;a. When George reads about the Vietnam War in his history book, he comes to the;conclusion that the United States should never have gotten involved in Southeast Asia.;b. Mr. McFarland asks his third graders to practice their multiplication tables every day. After a;month of such practice, Misty can retrieve all the basic multiplication facts quickly and easily.;c. Because the word photosynthesis begins with photo, Jeremy guesses that it must have;something to do with taking photographs.;d. Although no one has ever told her so, Peggy thinks that the night sky is a big black;covering the earth and that the blanket has tiny holes through which the stars shine.;blanket;20. Mr. Janus tells his class, For tomorrows class, read pages 23 to 49 in your;geography book.;Three of the following students are demonstrating the process of;construction in their;perceptions of what their teacher has said. Which student is;not?;a. Christopher hears the teacher say pages 33 to 39 because the student next to him;coughing loudly.;is;b. Anthony thinks the teacher is saying history book.;c. Bonita doesnt hear what the teacher says because shes thinking about something else.;d. Dena understands the teacher even though the teacher speaks with a slight accent and;mispronounces the word geography.;21. Michael has just written a short research paper that describes the events surrounding;the first;transatlantic telegraph cable. As he rereads his paper before giving it to his;teacher, he doesnt;notice that he has misspelled Atlantic as Altantic on one;occasion, even though he knows;perfectly well how the word should be spelled.;Michaels proofreading error can best be;explained by considering the role of;in the construction of meaning.;a. a script;b. expectations;c. assessment;d. ambiguity;22. Morris is trying to remember how to spell the word broccoli. He retrieves the first;three letters;(B R O) and the last three (O L I), then assumes that the kuh sound in;the middle of the;word must be a K. He writes brokoli on his paper. Morris process;of remembering how to;spell the word (in this case, incorrectly) illustrates which one;of the following concepts?;a. verbal mediation;b. a script;c. construction in retrieval;d. a retrieval cue;23. Which one of the following scenarios best reflects the basic idea of social;constructivism?;a. Two students discuss possible interpretations of the proverb, We only know the worth of;water when the well is dry.;b. When a student borrows a classmates marker without asking and then forgets to put the;cap back on, leaving it dried out and useless by the following morning, her teacher reminds;her of one of the class rules: Respect your classmates property.;c. Four students in a study group divide a reading assignment into four sections. Each;student reads a section and then teaches the material to the other group members.;d. A teacher assigns a laboratory activity using cumbersome equipment that students can;operate successfully only by working in pairs.;24. Distributed cognition can best be described as a;a. group of students thinking about a task or problem together.;b. student trying to accomplish several different tasks simultaneously.;c. group of students dividing up the various parts of a task that need to be done.;d. student choosing one problem-solving strategy over other possible strategies.;25. Which one of the following examples best illustrates the concept of distributed;cognition?;a. Rhonda watches her favorite situation comedy while simultaneously eating an apple and;doing her homework.;b. Edie, Linda, and DeWayne discuss various ways they might solve a physics problem.;c. Mark, Jason, and Leanne each solve one-third of their homework problems and then;their results with the other two.;d. Reginald thinks about the various plots he might use in the short story he is writing and;eventually chooses one of them.;share;then;1. Weston is working on a science project and wants to make his papier-mch volcano;erupt. He remembers that when his mother combined vinegar and baking soda while;following a recipe, the batter foamed up as she added the vinegar. So he tries mixing;vinegar and baking soda in his volcano and the mixture bubbles. Weston is showing;transfer.;a. negative;b. general;c. specific;d. intuitive;2. Mary is majoring in drama. Marys parents want her to study advanced mathematics as;a way of strengthening her mind, with a stronger mind, they argue, she will be able to;learn her lines more easily when she is rehearsing for a play. Based on their reasoning;which one of the following perspectives of transfer do Marys parents hold?;a. formal discipline;b. specific transfer;c. situated cognition;d. information processing;3. Which one of the following recommendations is consistent with current beliefs about;transfer?;a. Study German so youll have an easier time learning Japanese next year.;b. Studying calculus will help you think more abstractly about the various subjects you;study in college.;will;c. Take computer programming to help you develop your analytical thinking skills.;d. Use your knowledge of algebra to solve this chemistry equation.;4. Considering the textbooks views on general transfer, which one of the following is;most likely to transfer across very different situations?;a. the ability to remember complex ideas b. the ability to take good notes on a lecture c. the;ability to memorize a poem d. the ability to be creative;5. Three of the following are accurate statements about factors that affect transfer. Which;statement is inaccurate?;a. Students are more likely to transfer what they have learned when they see it as;to a particular academic subject area.;belonging;b. Students are more likely to transfer what they have learned when they have studied it;lengthy period of time.;for a;c. Students are more likely to transfer what they have learned when they have learned it in;meaningful, rather than rote, fashion.;a;d. Students are more likely to transfer what they have learned when they have learned;general principles rather than specific facts.;6. In which one of the following situations are we most likely to find transfer from one;learning task to the other?;a. Brianne learns how to plant corn and then learns how to prune a hedge.;b. Alice learns how to add two-digit numbers and then studies how to add three-digit;numbers.;c. Devlin learns how to play softball and then learns how to play a card game.;d. Cathy learns early British history and then learns early Japanese history.;7. A police officer visits Ms. Duhaimes first-grade class one morning to talk about safety;precautions at home and on the street. The students listen quietly and attentively while;the officer speaks. At the end of the visit, the officer and teacher agree that the;students good behavior warrants some kind of reinforcement. Given what we know;about effective reinforcers at different grade levels, their best choice would be;a. a letter home to parents describing the childrens good behavior.;b. plastic toy police badges awarded by the officer.;c. an official-looking good behavior certificate given at the schools award ceremony the;following week.;d. twenty minutes of free time at the end of the day.;8. If you wanted to encourage kindergartners to delay gratification, you would be most;likely to;a. occasionally remind them that they will get a bigger reward by waiting a couple of hours.;b. tell them that how well they behave at the end of the day is what really counts.;c. talk about how their learning efforts today will pay off in the years to come.;d. ask them to focus on how good it feels to do something nice for a classmate.;9. Alex loses his best friend, Tyler, after he tattles on Tyler at recess. Alex learns that;tattling on friends is not a good idea. The loss of Tylers friendship is an example of;a. negative reinforcement.;b. removal punishment.;c. presentation punishment.;d. positive reinforcement.;Unit 3 Examination;10. Linda wears bell-bottom pants to school and her classmates tease her about them. As;soon as;she gets home, Linda throws the pants in the trash. Lindas being teased is;an example of;a. negative reinforcement.;b. reinforcement of an incompatible behavior.;c. removal punishment.;d. presentation punishment.;11. Only one of the following consequences has been shown to be an effective and;appropriate;punishment for most students. Which one is it?;a. suspension from school;b. scolding;c. embarrassment in front of classmates;d. extra homework;12. When Rochelle has an on-the-road lesson as part of her driver education class, she;fails to;stop at a school crossing zone, as is required by law. Her instructor has her;drive around;the block several times and stop each time at the crossing zone. He also;insists that, once;she has stopped, she must wait at least eight seconds before;proceeding. The instructors;strategy illustrates the use of __________ as a way of;changing her behavior.;a. response cost;b. a logical consequence;c. intermittent reinforcement;d. positive-practice overcorrection;13. Considering what we know about the kinds of models people are likely to imitate, we;can guess;that the girls in our classes will be least likely to imitate;a. Brianne, head majorette in the school band.;b. Anita, a skillful auto mechanic.;c. Darla, a graceful dancer.;d. Claudia, the most popular girl in school.;14. From the perspective of social cognitive theory, why might inner-city African;American students;learn more from an African American model who grew up in a;ghetto than from a model of a;different race or background?;a. because the students will view the African American models behavior as being;to their own situation;applicable;b. because the students are more likely to realize that the African American model has;prestige;c. because the African American model is more likely to behave in a gender-appropriate;manner;d. because the students are more likely to perceive the African American model as being;competent;15. Social cognitive theorists propose that three of the following are essential for;students to learn;successfully from models. Which one is not essential?;a. attention to the model;b. reinforcement for good performance;c. motivation to perform the behavior;d. memory of the observed behavior;16. Only one of the following definitely illustrates high self-efficacy. Which one is the best;example;of self-efficacy?;a. Carmen enjoys being with her friends.;b. Bryn swims the fastest butterfly on the swim team.;c. Amy recently got a score of 120 on an intelligence test.;d. Danielle knows she is a good singer.;17. In what way does self-efficacy differ from the term self-concept?;a. Self-efficacy results primarily from vicarious reinforcement and punishment.;b. Self-efficacy varies depending on the specific task to be performed.;c. Self-efficacy refers only to behaviors that people learn through modeling.;d. Self-efficacy appears only after people begin to regulate their own behavior.;18. Jim has a high sense of self-efficacy regarding his ability to work with wood. Based;on this;information, we would predict three of the following from social cognitive;theory. Which one of;the following would we not necessarily predict?;a. Jim will be a bit careless when he works with wood, so he will often make silly little;mistakes.;b. Jim will frequently choose activities that involve working with wood.;c. Compared to Joe, who has low self-efficacy, Jim will do a better job at woodworking;d. If Jim has difficulty at a task requiring his woodworking skills, he will tend to try, try;until he gets it right.;tasks.;again;19. Identify the student who appears to have a mastery goal rather than a performance;goal.;a. When Abby gets a new assignment, she likes to set it aside for a day or so before she;actually begins to work on it.;b. When given the choice between taking an easy class or a more challenging one, Dana;chooses the challenging one.;c. Bonnie is a perfectionist who gets upset when her test performance is anything but A+.;d. Cora is easily distracted by the many stimuli competing for her attention in the;classroom.;20. Which one of the following students clearly has a mastery goal rather than a;performance goal?;a. Alice stays away from science courses because shes never done very well in science.;b. Dinah doesnt worry about making mistakes as long as she knows shes making progress.;c. Boris wants the recognition that being a star football player will bring him.;d. Cal is relieved to learn he passed his English composition course.;21. Three of the following strategies should promote productive achievement goals.;Which strategy;is not recommended?;a. Encourage students to focus on long-term rather than short-term goals.;b. Commend students for truly understanding material rather than just memorizing it.;c. Encourage students to rely on one another for occasional academic assistance and;support.;d. Show students how the things they learn in class are relevant to their present and future;needs.;22. Which one of the following students most clearly has a work-avoidance goal?;a. Loni is so active in student government that she often doesnt have time to get her;homework done.;b. Chris asks for his teachers help on something he is perfectly capable of doing on his;own.;c. Frederick stayed up so late last night watching television that he can hardly stay awake;class.;in;d. Nancy wonders why she has to work harder than her friends to get the same grades they;do.;23. Three of the following statements accurately describe the diversity we are likely to;see in;students career goals. Which statement is not accurate?;a. Students career choices are to some extent dependent on the values they assign to;various professions.;b. Many young children reach relatively stable decisions about which career they want to;pursue, adolescents change their minds fairly frequently.;c. Despite more open-mindedness about career options in recent years, many students;continue to aspire to careers that are stereotypically for their own gender.;d. Many children and adolescents from low-income neighborhoods express interest in;becoming well-educated professionals (e.g., doctors, lawyers, teachers).;24. Which one of the following is the best example of a student attributing success to;internal;factors?;a. Sue Ellen has just gotten a good grade on her geography test. She is proud that she did;well and glad that she studied hard.;so;b. Pollys teacher has just told her that she will be the group leader for her reading group;quarter. Polly is glad her teacher is in a good mood today.;next;c. Renata has just gotten a good grade on her math test and she is glad that her mother;her a math tutor.;got;d. Nita has just gotten an A on her final exam in world history and is feeling very grateful;teacher for her good grade.;to the;25. Which one of the following students is attributing success or failure on a geology test;to an;internal source and thinks the cause is unstable and controllable?;a. Duncan said he did well on the test because he studied hard.;b. Joe said he studied hard, but he failed because he is just not good in geology.;c. Jane said she failed the test because it was too difficult.;d. Emily said she did well on her test because she is smart in science.;1. Mr. Phillips wants his students to develop the ability to separate and control variables;in scientific experimentation. Which one of the following instructional methods is most;likely to help his students achieve this goal?;a. individualized assignments using computer spreadsheets;b. unstructured discovery-learning activities;c. small-group reciprocal-teaching activities;d. scaffolded inquiry-learning activities;2. Which one of the following conditions is recommended for effective learning in a;discovery- learning activity?;a. having a lesson that has been broken down into small, discrete pieces;b. having freedom to explore ones environment without any structure or restraint;c. having some prior knowledge about the material being explored;d. having an advance organizer for the lesson;3. Which one of the following is the best example of an authentic in-class activity?;a. discussing reasons why World War I occurred;b. putting definitions of new terms in your own words;c. listing four different kinds of sedimentary rocks;d. designing a bridge using principles of physics;4. Which one of the following uses of a computer in instruction is most similar to an;authentic activity?;a. a computer-based instructional program that teaches the various parts of the human;digestive system;b. a computer-based instructional program that teaches the basics of first aid;c. a computer simulation that allows students to conduct an experiment;d. a computer game that promotes automaticity for basic math facts;5. The four teachers below are assigning homework to their students. Which teacher is;giving an assignment thats inconsistent with general recommendations regarding the;appropriate use of homework?;a. Mr. Needham asks his first graders to bring something from home that begins with the;B.;letter;b. Ms. Wong asks her sixth graders to make up sentences using each of their new spelling;words.;c. Ms. Powell asks her high school algebra students to read the next two chapters in their;textbook and then do the problems at the end of each chapter.;d. Mr. Rhodes asks his eighth graders to write the answers to a series of questions based;material theyve been studying over the past week.;on;6. Three of the following are purposes that asking questions in class can serve. Which;one is not a typical use of asking questions?;a. to decrease the extent to which students need to cognitively process classroom material;b. to encourage students to elaborate on classroom material;c. to help students monitor their own comprehension of classroom material;d. to determine whether students understand classroom material;7. Ms. Girardi, a sixth-grade teacher, is explaining an assignment. She notices two;students passing notes to one another. While continuing to discuss the assignment;she moves toward the students and confiscates the written notes. Then she walks;back to the front of the class, still continuing her explanation, and asks Mark, who is;daydreaming, to answer a question. This scenario best illustrates which one of the;following classroom management skills?;a. planning for transitions;b. withitness;c. negative reinforcement;d. scaffolding;8. Many students in Ms. Janklows class seem to have little intrinsic motivation for;learning math, science or social studies. Their minds are more apt to be on peer;relationships (who the popular kids are, who bullies whom on the playground, etc.);than on their studies. Without knowing anything else about Ms. Janklows students;your best guess would be that they are;a. kindergartners.;b. seventh graders.;c. fourth graders.;d. second graders.;9. From the textbooks perspective, which one of the following classroom management;strategies is probably most important for students from diverse ethnic backgrounds?;a. setting limits;b. planning effectively for transitions;c. creating a supportive climate;d. demonstrating withitness;10. Three of the following describe recommendations that the textbook offers for helping;students;with special needs. Which statement is inconsistent with the textbooks;recommendations?;a. Give students with physical disabilities any additional time they may need to complete;assigned tasks.;b. When students have significant general delays in cognitive development, give them;feedback about their behavior.;explicit;c. When students have specific cognitive or academic difficulties, teach them strategies for;or


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