Can you write an outline of a term paper if I send you the paper?;Attachment Preview;Finished_Order_400269_1.doc Download Attachment;Running head: HUMAN ECOLOGY THEORY;1;Human ecology theory;Name;Course Title;Institution;Date;HUMAN ECOLOGY THEORY;2;Abstract;Several theorists have explained the influence of environment on the development of;individuals. The environment has had a critical role in defining the character of individuals;depending on the level of interaction. Psychologists agree that the role of environment in;character formation of human beings is unchallenged. These systemic influences of the;environment on the development pattern of individuals has been a critical concept in;determining programs and services necessary for character change;HUMAN ECOLOGY THEORY;3;Introduction;Developmental theories in psychology explain the concept of growth, maturity, and;advancement in humans. These theories seek to offer explanations regarding scientific process;of growth and development, and try to relate these concepts to the societal and psychological;constructs. Developmental theories provide a link between the scientific or physiological;precepts to the environmental concepts regarding phenomena in the society. Developmental;psychologists have played a very significant role in linking these developmental processes to;more practical understanding in the context of psychology. It is in the context of;developmental psychology that this work is based. This paper is an analysis of one of the most;respected developmental psychologists in the 21st Century, Urie Bronfenbrenner.;This paper is intended to offer a consummate analysis of the postulations of this;scholar, in this respect, this paper will rivet on the scholarly contribution that Bronfenbrenner;had on the field of psychology. Most prominently though, this discourse will analyze the;views of this theorist Bronfenbrenner and seek to relate the functional dispositions of the;scholar in the field of behavioural psychology.;Theory of ecological systems;Bronfenbrenner is the proponent behind the theory of ecological systems. This theory;otherwise referred to as the human ecology theory is an admission of the role of the;environment in the development of a child (Bronfenbrenner, 2011). The theory explicates the;influence that the surrounding environment has on the growth, development and the evolution;of human beings. Several scholars unequivocally agree that the human ecology theory has a;very close kinship with the concept of nature and nurture as a principle of development;(Berk, 2010). The assertion that the environment plays a significant role in the development of;human beings has been a subject of debate in the scholarship domains. Several other;psychologists have linked the concept of environment and development. However;HUMAN ECOLOGY THEORY;4;Bronfenbrenner provides a very practical and distinct explanation to this relationship.;Moreover, Bronfenbrenner is the only psychologist in the 21st century who has extensively;pursued research regarding the nexus between human development and growth;(Bronfenbrenner, 2011). As stated earlier, this is embedded in the human ecology theory;In his work, Bronfenbrenner divides the environment into clusters while trying to;relate the levels of environmental interaction with humanity (Smelser & Smelser, 2011). This;labeling takes into account the environment as a habitat of existence of humanity (Crittenden;2013). The conceptual framework of this theory relates these levels of environment to the;manner in which they shape up the growth and development of individuals. Bronfenbrenner;conceived this idea after an intense research on how we, as human beings, tend to approach;issues in the environment (Smelser & Smelser, 2011). The manner in which individuals;approach issues is dependable on the environmental factors surrounding such issues. This was;Bronfenbrenners tangent of reasoning.;Levels of environmental interactions;Throughout the lifespan of an individual, he likely to encounter unique experiences;that shape the way he thinks (Shaffer, 2008). Bronfenbrenner explored this variance of;interaction while developing the theoretical framework of the human ecology theory. In his;dispositions, Bronfenbrenner explains the fundamental causes between differences in;personalities within the same family. The levels of environmental systems, according to;Bronfenbrenner, include the under listed;a);Microsystem: Bronfenbrenner proposes that the level of the environmental interaction;that is closest to the humans is the microsystem level. According the scholar, this level is the;immediate layer of the environment where the interactive phase is quite high. Individuals have;very direct relationship or interaction with this level of the environment. Bronfenbrenner;admits that this level plays a very significant role in defining behaviour, character, or;HUMAN ECOLOGY THEORY;5;personality within individuals. In terms of socialization, the microsystem level of the;environment plays a very crucial role. According to the theory, the more the interaction;frequency with these environmental levels, the more its roles in defining behavior and;character (Paat, 2013). In the practical sense, this assertion may not be further from the truth.;Living organisms, humans included, tend to be greatly influenced by those objects that are;closer to them. The theory regarding the development of language in young children is based;upon this understanding. Behavioral experts have equally made inference to this phenomenon.;Conversely, the scholar reasons that we equally take part in the definition of the;microenvironment (Shaffer, 2011);The Mesosystem;The relationship between the microsystems has very prominent effects on the;development of individuals. Bronfenbrenner indicated that the interaction between these;Microsystems contributes to the mesosystem level. In practical life, the scholar posits that;those factors in the micro system play a considerable role in the mesosystem. For instance, the;schooling of an individual is likely to be greatly influenced by the family issues. In this;regard, the family, which acts as the microsystem level of the environment, can influence the;mesosystem level of the environment (Mikesell, Lusterman, & McDaniel, 2008).;A critical analysis of this developmental aspect reveals that these environmental levels;are greatly interlinked. It, therefore, means that development, in the context of human ecology;theory, is intertwined together. There is little possibility of these developmental stages, and;levels for that matter, to occur distinctly without being influenced by each other.;Educational psychologists have employed the reasoning behind this theory in;establishing how the background of the learner is likely to interfere with the education.;Depending on the nature of the family background, a learner is capable of maintaining good;academic records or subliming into poor performance as the micro system exerts pressure into;HUMAN ECOLOGY THEORY;6;the performance of the individual. In addition, ergonomists have extensively related the;influence of family at the workplace (Hinson & Parsons, 2011).;Exosystem;The exosystem level entails the link between the social settings or constructs where an;individual plays a passive role and the individuals contiguous context (Koch, 2011).;Exosystem level explains how those activities to which humans have no direct control;inherently influence the development of individuals. The concept of exosystem explains how;the reaction or temperaments of others have an impact on the personal development of;individuals. In parenting, exosystem level of the environment has been used to explain the;impact of externalities on the development of children. For instance, a parent who has just;received a salary rise at the workplace is likely to come to the house elated. The inverse is true;if the parent loses his or her job. Factoring in this illustration, it is, therefore, admissible to;conclude that at some moments, the development patterns of human beings is swayed by the;impact of both micro system or mesosystem levels of the environment (Crittenden, 2013).;Chronosystem;Individuals incessantly experience changes in their lives that may leave a great impact;in their development. These individual experiences have very profound influence on the life of;individuals. Bronfenbrenner admits that the manner in which individuals respond to these;issues is a determinant of their character. Transitions in the life of an individual may influence;a negative or a positive developmental pattern, for instance, the divorce of parents may have a;negative influence to the life of the children. This influence may be profound in the first year;of the occurrence of the activity, however, with time, there is a decline in the intensity of the;reaction of an individual to the situation (Crittenden, 2013).;HUMAN ECOLOGY THEORY;7;Contributions of the theorist to the field of psychology;The dispositions of Bronfenbrenner have been extensively applied in various fields as;a means of explaining several phenomena. These theories have been functional in addressing;certain issues especially within the contexts of behavioral, educational, and developmental;psychology. Bronfenbrenner has immensely contributed to the contemporary understanding of;how individuals develop and how environmental factors shape up the individuals characters.;In behavioral psychology, these concepts of ecological development have been used as;a tool to foster behavioral change especially amongst the teenagers. Psychologists and;sociologists apply these issues in addressing the causes of behavior change in children. For;example, juvenile delinquency and divorce cases have been scientifically interlinked using the;concept of human ecological theory. This theory therefore is continuously shaping up the;understanding of behavior and the social-environmental factors that influence character;(Crittenden, 2013).;Human ecology theory has also shaped up the understanding of behavior in relation to;psychology. Bronfenbrenners theory has brought a lot of understanding in the educational;domains. The understanding of the influences that the various levels of environment have on;the life and development of children is important in a childs education. Understanding these;constructs of human behavior is critical in understanding the educational remedial strategies;for learners. It is critical to understand these concepts of human development if any;constructive behavior change schedule is to be instituted by the teacher. Conclusively, it is;evident that the scholar has had very profound impact on the scholarship of psychology and;other disciplines.;HUMAN ECOLOGY THEORY;8;Current research regarding the human ecology theory;The head start program;The concepts of human ecology theory have been a used in the development of the;head start program. The head start program is an elaborate research in the field of educational;psychology in addressing the plight of children from the low-end income in the society. The;head start research program is meant to offer services in nutrition, health, education and even;the social development of the learners. The research into the head start program is an;intelligible model of research to inculcate good parenting skills, foster static family;relationships, develop wholesomely the childs socio-emotional well-being.;Bronfenbrenners philosophical orientations have been used to advance the course of;the educational transitional models in the society. Transition from preschool to nursery school;has been singled out as a developmental fault line for learners. The theory has been used to;address these developmental challenges are currently being addressed through the head start;program. The program management entails a group of professionals derived from the medical;field, educational sector, psychology, and the sociological sector.;Head start program: a critical analysis;The head start program was rolled out in 1965 as advancement of the human ecology;theory but within education and health sector. The singular role of the program was to;advance the developmental arc of children in the lower classes. The relevance of the program;was more pronounced in areas where poverty is prevalent, and the economic capability of the;parents was feeble. Taking into account Bronfenbrenners views regarding development, the;program was meant to insulate the child from the diabolical effects from any level of the;environment.;HUMAN ECOLOGY THEORY;9;Services and programs in the head start program;Using the precincts of Bronfenbrenner`s theory, the program has been gradually;expanded to meet the changing needs of the educational sector. Currently, the programs;within the head start paradigm obtain services in the context of the culture of the family and;experience. As earlier mentioned in this discourse, the advent of the program was to cushion;the learners from negative impacts arising from either of the levels of the environment. With;such knowledge in mind, the professionals in the education sector have, in collaboration with;other sectors, rolled out several services to help advance the concept of head start program.;These programs are as under listed;Furtherance of prenatal activities: The prenatal environment, according to the theory;of the human ecology, is significant in defining the development of the child. This can be;equated to the microsystem level of the environment. The realization of the fact that the;development of infants is dependent on the health status of the child furthered the;advancement of this course.;The inference on the human ecology theory has also necessitated the pursuance of;family and community support programs. The realization that the macro systems level of the;environment is exerting a lot of influence on the development of the child has led to more;emphasis being laid on the need to have harmony in the community. The family support;systems are programs instituted to help in the management of family issues. This program is;cognizant of the role played by the family in constructing the character of the children.;The migrants and children living under harsh conditions have been targeted in the;migrant and refugee services. The essence of this approach is to reduce the impacts of the;childs troubled condition on the development of the child. The WHO and the various other;UN bodies, in addressing the issues of development in the globe are currently employing such;HUMAN ECOLOGY THEORY;10;services. There is an almost universal agreement that when the children face such ruffled life;resuscitating them will have a significant influence in their developmental status;Homelessness is an exosystem environment influence on the development of the;children. As an external factor in the development pattern of learners, pundits believe that the;social issues of homelessness and poverty have been very critical factors in undermining how;the learners develop. There are services being currently rolled under the head start program;to aid in the restoration of the childs development curve.;Conclusion;There is a logical progression between the environmental factors and the theory of;development. The role of the environment in defining the character and development of;individuals is phenomenal. It is evident from the work of Bronfenbrenner that individual;differences can be dictated by the manner in which these individuals respond to various;stimuli in the environment. Moreover, the levels of environmental interactions will determine;how these individuals develop. Within the construct of psychology, it is, therefore, critical to;analyze these environmental issues and how they influence the developmental curve of an;individual;HUMAN ECOLOGY THEORY;11;References;Berk, L.E. (2010). Development through the Lifespan (5th ed.) Boston, MA: Allyn &Bacon.;Bronfenbrenner, J., Weintraub, E. R., Sichel, W., Samuels, W. J., Matsuura, T.;Hollander, S., et al. (2011). Dr. Martin Bronfenbrenner (1914-1997): Scholar, Critic;Cynic, and Comrade-in-Arms. American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 58(3);491-522.;Crittenden, P. M. (2013). Social Networks, Quality Of Child Rearing, And Child;Development. Child Development, 56(5), 1299.;Haque, M. S. (2011). Restructuring development theories and policies a critical study.;Albany, N.Y.: State University of New York Press.;Hinson, S. L., & Parsons, R. D. (2011). Educational psychology: a practitioner-researcher;model of teaching. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Thomson Learning.;Koch, H. L. (2011). Developmental psychology: An introduction to the study ofhuman;behavior.. Psychological Bulletin, 32(5), 365-368.;Mikesell, R. H., Lusterman, D., & McDaniel, S. H. (2008). Integrating family therapy;handbook of family psychology and systems theory. Washington, DC: American;Psychological Association.;Paat, Y. (2013). Working with Immigrant Children and Their Families: An;Application;of Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Systems Theory. Journal of Human Behavior in the;Social Environment, 23(8), 954-966.;Shaffer, D. (2008). Social and Personality Development. New York: Gale Cengage Learning.;HUMAN ECOLOGY THEORY;12;Smelser, N. J., & Smelser, W. T. (2011). Personality and social systems,. New York: Wiley.
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