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Name the major characteristics of chordates




BILD 3;Dr. David Woodruff;Study Guide for the Second Mid-term Exam, February 28, 2014;50-minute closed-book exam. No calculators, cell phones, Blackberries, satellite dishes, etc.;Answer all questions in INK no #2 pencils bring some pens.;Although some of the following prompts appear to require long answers please anticipate that, if;there are 30-40 questions on the test (to cover the breadth of the material), the typical answer will;take 1 minute or less and its unlikely there will be any question requiring more than 2 minutes to;answer. Plan to use very short answers.;The following questions are provided to help you anticipate the level of detail to be examined. The;inclusion of a question here is no guarantee that it will appear on the midterm or final exam. You;should also use the questions and chapter reviews at the end of each chapter.;Lecture 11. Vertebrates. Review the sections on vertebrates in Campbell chapters 23, 27: especially;p. 536-, 542-, and the lecture notes. You should be familiar with all terms printed in bold in the text;or defined on the slides.;Name the major characteristics of chordates?;List the distinguishing characteristics of each of the classes of vertebrates;Draw a simple phylogenetic tree indicating how five classes (major clades] of living vertebrates are related.;What evidence indicates that birds are descendents of dinosaurs?;Describe the circumstances that appear to have led to mammal ascendancy and radiation.;Describe the four embryonic membranes surrounding the embryos of dinosaurs and birds;Draw a simple phylogenetic diagram showing the relationships of five major groups of living amniotes, at;least two should be exclusively endothermic.;Lectures 12-15. Population ecology;Lectures 16-17 on energetics and biogeochemical cycles;Lectures 19-21 on community ecology and biogeography;See the syllabus for the relevant chapters in Campbell and study the lecture notes. Again, you should;understand the terms and the examples used in the text and lectures. Also review the population;problems worked through in Sections. There is not enough time to test your arithmetic problem;solving ability in the Midterm as calculators are not allowed so any numerical problems will be basic.;What equation would you use to project the growth rate of a population of an annual plant like ragweed;which breeds once and then dies leaving only seeds to overwinter?;A group of 10 freshwater snails invade a new lake where conditions are ideal and predators are absent. The;snails grow and reproduce continuously, multiplying at a rapid rate: r = 0.01 per day. What formula would;you employ to predict how long it will take for the population to triple in size? The numerical solution of;this problem is approximately? Be sure to state the units in which your answer is expressed.;Copyright protected, not for distribution;p. 1 of 1;BILD 3;Dr. David Woodruff;A group of four juvenile snails are introduced to a new lake by a duck with mud on its feet. The lake;provides an idea habitat and the snails grow and reproduce continuously, their intrinsic rate of increase is;0.1 per day. How long will it take for the population to reach 12?;Suppose that the human population in 1984 was 5 billion, and that the birth rate was 32 and the death rate;was 12 (the rates being expressed in conventional units, i.e. per 1000). Making the assumption that the;1984 population will continue to grow exponentially, predict the approximate world population in the year;2014. (Credit requires that you show your work);At what value of N with respect to K should one obtain the maximum sustainable yield of a harvested fish;or wildlife species?;Complete a labeled diagram showing the human demographic transition as it occurred in the USA since;1800.;Draw a labeled diagram contrasting the survivorship curves of r-selected oysters and K-selected elephants.;Whats logical about logistic growth? Did the human population as a whole grow in accordance with;logistic expectations during the period 1900-1950?;Describe the ecological relationships between lynx and arctic hare.;Why dont Isle Royale wolves eat all the moose?;Define and give an example of Mullerian mimicry, of Batesian mimicry;Give an example of a density-dependent factor and a density-independent factor, which may influence birth;or death rates of a population of frogs.;List two life history traits of a K-strategist which distinguish it from an r-strategist.;How might physiological mechanisms regulate population size in a small mammal like the arctic lemming?;With the aid of a labeled diagram show how contest competition affects the coexistence of sympatric;warblers or barnacles.;If you were given a conventional graphical model of a predator-prey interaction showing the two zero;growth curves and involving a refuge for one species would you be able to predict the outcome of their;interaction?;Explain Volterras prediction of the outcome of a treatment where an insecticide is applied to a pest species;and its wasp parasitoid.;Write the simple Lotka-Volterra equation for the growth of a predator population in the presence of a prey;population.;What is evolutionarily adaptive about a locust irruption?;What was learned from the Hubbard Brook experiment?;Contrast the distribution of nutrients in grassland and the tropical rainforest.;Copyright protected, not for distribution;p. 2 of 2;BILD 3;Dr. David Woodruff;Why is the tropical rainforest approximately 18 times more productive than the tropical open ocean?;Each food chain in a food web is usually only a few links long. What is the most likely reason for this?;Why are fierce animals rare?;Describe two ways a predator can reduce the predator-prey distance.;Consider a marine food web with humpback whales and killer whales as the top predators.;a. what organisms are the primary producers in the grazing food chain?;b. what invertebrate organisms are primary consumers in the grazing food chain?;c. For the first trophic level, is net productivity greater than gross productivity (yes/no/either)?;d. Roughly what ecological efficiency would you expect for the transfer of energy between krill and their;predators;Agricultural land is typically much less productive than the vegetation it replaced. State two factors that;contribute to this observation.;What is a biomass pyramid? an energy pyramid? How do they differ in different communities?;Distinguish between net and gross primary productivity in, for example, the chaparral ecosystem.;Are decomposer food chains more significant than grazing food chains?;Hydrothermal vent tube-dwelling worms can grow 2 m long but have no mouth or digestive tract, how do;they get their energy?;Define and give an example of a keystone species. How might this concept relate to the rivet model of;community composition?;How do most plants obtain most of their nitrogen? Name a symbiotic and a free-living nitrogen fixing;prokaryote.;What is the current concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and how has that value changed;historically?;Describe a case of biological magnification.;Name four trends that characterize many cases of primary ecological succession.;Can you list two defining characteristics of each of four terrestrial biomes?;Describe two ways in which phytoplankton obtain phosphorus in a deep oligotrophic lake.;Why are carnivorous plants typically found in tropical rainforests or acid bogs?;What is the individualistic hypothesis of community composition?;How does continental drift account for the geographic distribution of marsupials today?;Copyright protected, not for distribution;p. 3 of 3;BILD 3;Dr. David Woodruff;List three important generalizations that can be learned from the study of the Pleistocene species and;biotas.;What are the current best estimates for global temperature and sea level, relative to todays, when;atmospheric CO2 doubles? What fraction of the earths terrestrial biomes will be affected by the climate;changes?;Using a simple labeled diagram explain the species-area predictions of the equilibrium theory of island;biogeography. How does distance effect these conclusions?;Predict how three species (your choice, real or hypothetical) will respond differently to climatic change;over the next 100 years.;Can you define or give an example of;synapsid;eutherian;mutualism;fundamental niche;Gondwanaland;metapopulation;Wallaces line;thermocline;chaparral;notochord;Gauses principle;Holarctic;extirpation;aposematic coloration;monotreme;Answers to the above questions will not be posted but you are encouraged to check any questions you;cant answer with your TA.;Please also use this study guide in preparing for the cumulative Final Exam on March 19.;Copyright protected, not for distribution;p. 4 of 4


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