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Introduction: Biology




Can someone please answer these basic biology questions for me to completion. Thank you!;Attachment Preview;BioQuestions.doc Download Attachment;Chapter 1: Introduction: Biology Today;1.;List the seven characteristics of life as it is known on Earth.;2.;Rank the levels of life from atoms and molecules to the biosphere.;3.;What is the difference between EUKARYOTES and PROKARYOTES? Classify;each of the following organisms as eukaryotic or prokaryotic: bacteria, Archaea, protists;fungi, plants, and animals.;4.;What are the three domains of life? Which organisms belong to each domain?;5.;What are Darwins two main observations and his inescapable conclusion?;6.;Compare and contrast natural and artificial selection.;7.;Compare and contrast discovery science and hypothesis-driven science.;8.;What are the steps of the scientific method?;9.;What is the difference between a scientific hypothesis, theory, and law?;Chapter 2: Essential Chemistry for Biology;1.;What is matter? What are its three physical states?;2.;What is an element? How many elements occur naturally? How many are essential for life? Which 4 elements are most abundant in living things (including humans)?;What are trace elements?;3.;What are compounds?;4.;List the 3 main subatomic particles, their charge, and their location in the atom.;5.;Define the atomic number and the mass number of an atom. If given these, be;able to calculate the number of each subatomic particle.;6.;What are ions? What are ionic bonds?;7.;What are covalent bonds? What are hydrogen bonds?;8.;Explain why the covalent bonds in H2O are polar covalent bonds.;9.;What are the two components of a chemical reaction?;10.;Why do water molecules stick to other water molecules? What is surface tension?;11.;What is the relationship between solution, solute and solvent?;12.;What is an acid? a base? Complete the following sentence by circling the correct;choice or filling in the blank with the correct term: At lower pHs, there are more/less;(circle one) _______ (a.k.a. ________ ions) present in the solution, at higher pHs there;are more/less (circle one) _______ present in the solution.;13.;What is the range of the pH scale? What is the pH of pure water (a neutral solution)? What is a buffer?;Chapter 3: The Molecules of Life;1.;What are organic compounds? Why is carbon such a versatile atom?;2.;What is a hydrocarbon? What is the simplest one?;3.;What is a macromolecule? What are monomers and polymers? Which biological;molecules form polymers? Contrast dehydration reactions and hydrolysis reactions?;4.;What are the four categories of large molecules?;5.;What roles do carbohydrates play in humans? Define the terms monosaccharide;disaccharide, and polysaccharide. Give examples of each.;6.;Define hydrophilic and hydrophobic.;7.;What characteristic do all lipids share? What is a triglyceride? What is the function of lipids?;8.;What is meant by saturated and unsaturated fats?;9.;What are steroids? Which compound are they made from?;10.;What are the functions of proteins? Give specific examples.;11.;What is a polypeptide?;12.;What basic structure do all amino acids have? How many amino acids are used to;build proteins? What type of bond links amino acids to each other?;13.;Describe the four levels of protein structure.;14.;What happens when a protein is denatured?;15.;What is the function of nucleic acids?;16.;What three parts does every nucleotide have? What are the four bases in DNA?;17.;Describe the structure of the DNA double helix. What makes up the backbone?;Which bases are bonded to each other?;18.;List the three main differences between DNA and RNA.;Chapter 4: A Tour of the Cell;1.;Give examples of unicellular and multicellular organisms.;2.;How are light microscopes used? Define magnification and resolving power.;3.;What are the three statements of the cell theory?;4.;What are the two types of electron microscopes? How is each of them used?;5.;Compare and contrast eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.;6.;What are organelles?;7.;What are the components of the cell membrane? How is the bilayer structure;formed?;8.;Describe the structure and function of the following organelles/structures;Nucleus, Nucleolus, Ribosomes, Rough ER, Smooth ER, Golgi apparatus, Lyso -;somes;Vacuoles, Mitochondria, Chloroplasts, Cytoskeleton, Cilia, Flagella;Chapter 5: The Working Cell;1.;Define the following terms: energy, kinetic energy, potential energy, heat, entropy;2.;What is the principle of conservation of energy?;3.;What is a calorie? What is a food calorie?;4.;What does ATP stand for? What functional group is typically removed from;ATP (often transferred to another molecule) when it is used?;5.;List the three types of energy-requiring work that go on in cells.;6.;What is the ATP cycle?;7.;What are enzymes? How would an enzyme speed up a reaction occurring;between two starting materials? Define the terms: induced fit, active site, substrate.;8.;What determines in which direction a substance dissolved in water diffuses?;9.;What is the difference between passive transport and active transport?;10.;How is facilitated diffusion different from regular diffusion?;11.;What is osmosis? Define the terms: isotonic, hypotonic, and hypertonic medium.;What happens to an animal and a plant cell placed in each of these types of environ ments?;12.;Define exocytosis and endocytosis. What are the three types of endocytosis?;Chapter 6: Cellular Respiration: Obtaining Energy from Food;1.;Define autotroph and heterotroph.;2.;In which organelles do photosynthesis and cellular respiration occur? In which organisms?;3.;In what ways is cellular respiration similar to breathing?;4.;Write the equation that summarizes the process of cellular respiration.;5.;What is the role of NAD+? How is it related to NADH?;6.;cur?;List the three stages of cellular respiration. Where in the cell does each stage oc-;7.;Make a table in which you summarize the following information for each of these;three stages: 1) the starting material and final product (for example, glycolysis begins;with glucose and ends with pyruvate), 2) whether electron carriers are produced, 3);whether CO2 is produced, and 4) whether ATP is produced.;8.;What happens to sugar in glycolysis, which gives this pathway its name? What;are the three different products that result from this pathway?;9.;How many cycles of the citric acid cycle are required for the complete catabolism;of one molecule of glucose? (Hint: it is important to understand how many products;come out of glycolysis per glucose.) In what way is this pathway cyclical?;10.;What is the electron transport chain? What happens to the energy of electrons as;they travel along the chain? To what form of energy do the chain molecules transfer the;energy of the electrons? How does the chain depend on oxygen?;11.;12.;What does ATP synthase do and how?;Up to how many ATP molecules can be generated via cellular respiration?;13.;Which food molecules, other than glucose, can be used in cellular respiration?;14.;Define fermentation. What molecule must be recycled for this process to continue;for a period of time? What byproduct is also produced during this type of fermentation?;15.;What is yeast? Which type of fermentation do they perform?;16.;Up to how many ATP molecules can be generated via fermentation?;Chapter 7: Photosynthesis: Using Light to Make Food;1.;What is photosynthesis? Which organisms use it?;2.;Define the following terms: thylakoid, grana, chlorophyll, stroma, stomata.;3.;Write the equation that summarizes the process of photosynthesis.;4.;List the two stages of photosynthesis.;5.;What is the electromagnetic spectrum?;6.;Describe the types of pigments found in chloroplasts.;7.;What are photons? What happens when these are absorbed by chlorophyll molecules?;8.;What are photosystems? List the two types involved in the light reactions of photosynthesis.;9.;Summarize how ATP and NADPH are produced during the light reactions.;10.;Summarize how glucose is produced during the Calvin cycle.


Paper#18071 | Written in 18-Jul-2015

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