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Which of the following statements are true regarding Thermodynamics?

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Which of the following statements are true regarding Thermodynamics? There may be more than one correct answer!;A. If the reactants have a lower free energy than the products, the reaction is spontaneous.;B. Endergonic reactions typically have a large increase in enthalpy.;C. A positive?G will result in an exergonic reaction.;D. A spontaneous reaction will have an increase in S;? Which of the following is NOT an example of an energy change?;A. A shoe drops, converting potential energy to kinetic energy.;B. A chemical reaction converts the energy in sunlight into the chemical energy in formaldehyde.;C. All of these are true.;D. Sunlight strikes a prism, separating the light into distinct wavelengths.;E. The electrical energy flowing through a lightbulb's filament is converted into light and heat.;The electrons in the covalent bonds of glucose are storing energy in the form of kinetic energy.;True;False;? In a RedOx reaction, electrons are often transferred as...;A. hydrogen ions;B. heat;C. oxygen atoms;D. None of the above.;E. electrons;In photosynthesis, carbon dioxide (CO2) is converted to glucose. During this process, the carbon atoms...;A. are hydrated because water (H2O) is added to the system.;B. None of these are true.;C. are oxidized because they have lost electrons with the removal of oxygen.;D. are reduced because the electrons from the oxygen atom have moved closer to the carbon atom.;E. are energetically coupled to the reduction of water to oxygen gas (O2).;? A molecule that is reduced is known as an electron?;1. Why are endergonic and exergonic reactions typically coupled?;A. Newton's laws of motion state that every action has an equal and opposite reaction. Therefore, in a chemical reaction, energy must both be released and absorbed.;B. The free energy released from the exergonic reaction is used to drive the non-spontaneous endergonic reaction.;C. An exergonic reaction will proceed too slowly without an endergonic reaction to stabilize the transition state.;D. In order to maintain equilibrium, the heat lost in an exergonic reaction is absorbed by the endergonic reaction, to keep the free energy at 0.;1. ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is an excellent source of energy because...;A. It stores the energy released during glucose oxidation as potential energy in its phosphate bonds.;B. It can donate its sugar molecule, adenosine, directly to the Krebs cycle for respiration.;C. It can function both as an nucleotide for DNA and supply energy for the cell.;D. It is able to efficiently break down glucose into CO2 and H2O, releasing the potential energy stored in the bonds.;1. Which is false regarding a catalyst?;A. A catalyst provides a stable transition state for a reaction.;B. A catalyst can either increase or decrease the rate of a reaction.;C. A catalyst will remain unchanged after the reaction is complete.;D. A catalyst is used to lower the activation energy of a reaction.;Casein is a protein found in milk. Rennilase breaks the bonds of casein, converting it into paracasein and water. Rennilase is a /an;A. Substrate;B. Inhibitor;C. Product;D. Enzyme;1. Which statement concerning competitive and allosteric inhibitors is FALSE?;A. Allosteric inhibitors do not depend on substrate concentration;B. Allosteric inhibitors will change the shape of the active site;C. The function of a competitive inhibitor is dependent on its concentration compared to that of the substrate;D. Competitive inhibitors bind reversibly to the active site;E. Both inhibitors bind to the active site of an enzyme;?G =?H-T?S is the equation for thermodynamics where?G is the free energy of the reaction. What determines if a reaction is spontaneous?;A. The temperature only - reactions are only spontaneous at high temperatures;B. If it decreases the potential energy (H) of the substances involved;C. The combined effect of changes in potential energy and entropy;D. If it increases the disorder (entropy, S) of the substances involved;An enzyme is a protein that functions to;A. Destabilize the transition state;B. Increase the activation energy of a reaction;C. Decrease the activation energy of a reaction;D. Lower the free energy of a reaction;If an enzyme had a mutation in a single amino acid that caused the active site to have a charged lysine residue in place of a non-polar leucine residue which is the most likely scenario?;A. The substrate would enter the active site and form a product, but the products would be trapped.;B. The enzyme would require a metal ion, such as Zinc (Zn) or Iron (Fe), in order to function normally.;C. An allosteric activator would be required to change the shape of the active site, allowing the substrate to bind.;D. The substrate would no longer fit in the active site, so the enzyme specificity is lost.

 

Paper#18075 | Written in 18-Jul-2015

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