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Cellular Respiration: Obtaining Energy from Food




Chapter 6;Cellular Respiration;Obtaining Energy from Food;the... Show more;BSC1020_Chapter07_PPT.ppt Download Attachment;Chapter 7;Photosynthesis: Using Light;to Make Food;BIOLOGY AND SOCIETY Biofuels;Wood has historically been the main fuel used to;Cook, Warm homes;Provide light at night;Industrialized societies replaced wood with fossil;fuels, including coal, gas, and oil.;To limit the damaging effects of fossil fuels;researchers are investigating the use of biomass;(living material) as efficient and renewable;energy sources.;Capturing solar energy;Figure 7.0;There are several types of biofuels.;Bioethanol is a type of alcohol produced by the;fermentation of glucose made from starches in crops;such as grains, sugar beets, and sugar cane.;Bioethanol may be used directly as a fuel;source in specially designed vehicles or as a;gasoline additive;Cellulosic ethanol is a type of bioethanol made from;cellulose in nonedible plant material such as wood;or grass.;Biodiesel is made from plant oils or recycled frying;oil.;THE BASICS OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS;Photosynthesis;Is used by plants, some protists, and some;bacteria;Transforms light energy into chemical energy;Uses carbon dioxide and water as starting;materials;The chemical energy produced via;photosynthesis is stored in the bonds of sugar;molecules.;Organisms that use photosynthesis are;Photosynthetic autotrophs;The producers for most ecosystems;LM;PHOTOSYNTHETIC AUTOTROPHS;Plants;Photosynthetic Protists Photosynthetic Bacteria;(aquatic);(mostly on land);(aquatic);Forest plants;Kelp, a large alga;Micrograph of cyanobacteria;Figure 7.1;Chloroplasts: Sites of Photosynthesis;Chloroplasts are;The site of photosynthesis;Found mostly in the interior cells of leaves;Inside chloroplasts are membranous sacs called;thylakoids, which are suspended in a thick fluid;called stroma.;Thylakoids are concentrated in stacks called;grana.;The green color of chloroplasts is from;chlorophyll, a light-absorbing pigment.;Stomata are tiny pores in leaves where carbon;dioxide enters and oxygen exits.;Inner;membrane;Outer;Chloroplast;membrane;Vein;Granum Stroma Thylakoid;O2;Leaf cross section;Interior cell;TEM;Stomata;LM;CO2;Figure 7.2;The Simplified Equation for Photosynthesis;In the overall equation for photosynthesis, notice;that the reactants of photosynthesis are the waste;products of cellular respiration.;Light;energy;6 CO2;Carbon;dioxide;6 H2O;Water;Photosynthesis;C6H12O6;Glucose;6 O2;Oxygen gas;In photosynthesis;Sunlight provides the energy;Electrons are boosted uphill and added to;carbon dioxide;Sugar is produced;During photosynthesis, water is split into;Hydrogen;Oxygen;Hydrogen is transferred along with electrons and;added to carbon dioxide to produce sugar.;Oxygen escapes through stomata into the;atmosphere.;A Photosynthesis Road Map;Photosynthesis occurs in two multistep stages;The light reactions convert solar energy to;chemical energy;The Calvin cycle uses the products of the;light reactions to make sugar from carbon;dioxide;A Photosynthesis Road Map;The initial incorporation of carbon from the;atmosphere into organic compounds is called;carbon fixation.;This lowers the amount of carbon in the air.;Deforestation reduces the ability of the;biosphere to absorb carbon by reducing the;amount of photosynthetic plant life.;BioFlix Animation: Photosynthesis;CO2;H2O;Light;Chloroplast;NADP+;ADP;P;Light;reactions;Calvin;cycle;ATP;NADPH;O2;Sugar;(C6H12O6);Figure 7.3;THE LIGHT REACTIONS: CONVERTING;SOLAR ENERGY TO CHEMICAL ENERGY;Chloroplasts;Are chemical factories powered by the sun;Convert solar energy into chemical energy;The Nature of Sunlight;Sunlight is a type of energy called radiation, or;electromagnetic energy.;The distance between the crests of two adjacent;waves is called a wavelength.;The full range of radiation is called the;electromagnetic spectrum.;Visible light is the fraction of the spectrum;that our eyes see as different colors;Increasing wavelength;105 nm 103 nm 1 nm 103 nm 106 nm;Gamma;rays;X-rays;UV;1m;MicroInfrared waves;103 m;Radio;waves;Visible light;380 400;500;Wavelength (nm);600;700;750;Wavelength =;580;nm;Figure 7.4;The selective absorption of light by leaves explains why;they appear green to us;Light;Light of that;color is poorly;absorbed by;chloroplasts;and is thus;reflected or;transmitted;toward the;observer;Chloroplast;Reflected;light;Absorbed;light;Transmitted;light (detected;by your eye);Figure 7.5;The Process of Science;What Colors of Light Drive Photosynthesis?;Observation: In 1883, German biologist Theodor;Engelmann saw that certain bacteria tend to cluster;in areas with higher oxygen concentrations.;Question: Could this information determine which;wavelengths of light work best for photosynthesis?;Hypothesis: Oxygen-seeking bacteria will;congregate near regions of algae performing the;most photosynthesis.;Experiment: Engelmann;laid a string of freshwater algal cells in a drop;of water on a microscope slide;added oxygen-sensitive bacteria to the drop;used a prism to create a spectrum of light;shining on the slide;Results: Bacteria;mostly congregated around algae exposed to;red-orange and blue-violet light;rarely moved to areas of green light;Conclusion: Chloroplasts absorb light mainly in;the blue-violet and red-orange part of the;spectrum.;Light;Prism;Figure 7.6;Number of bacteria;Microscope slide;Bacterium;Algal cells;400;500;600;Wavelength of light (nm);700;Chloroplast Pigments;Chloroplasts contain several pigments;Chlorophyll a;Absorbs mainly blue-violet and red light;Participates directly in the light reactions;Chlorophyll b;Absorbs mainly blue and orange light;Participates indirectly in the light reactions;Carotenoids;Absorb mainly blue-green light;Participate indirectly in the light reactions;Absorb and dissipate excessive light;energy that might damage chlorophyll;The spectacular colors of fall foliage are due;partly to the yellow-orange light reflected;from carotenoids.;Figure 7.7;How Photosystems Harvest Light Energy;Light behaves as photons, a fixed quantity of;light energy.;Chlorophyll molecules absorb photons.;Electrons in the pigment gain energy.;As the electrons fall back to their ground;state, energy is released as heat or light.;Excited state;e;Light;Heat;Light (fluorescence);Photon;Chlorophyll;molecule;(a) Absorption of a photon;Ground state;Figure 7.8;(b) Fluorescence of a glow stick;Figure 7.8;In the thylakoid membrane, chlorophyll;molecules are organized with other molecules;into photosystems.;A photosystem is a cluster of a few hundred;pigment molecules that function as a lightgathering antenna.;When a photon strikes one of the pigment;molecules, the energy jumps from molecule;to molecule until it arrives at the reaction;center of the photosystem;Chloroplast;Cluster of pigment;molecules;Thylakoid membrane;Figure 7.9;Photon;e;Electron;transfer;Primary;electron;acceptor;Reactioncenter;chlorophyll;a;Reaction;center;Pigment;molecules;Transfer;of energy;Photosystem;Figure 7.9;How the Light Reactions Generate ATP and;NADPH;Two types of photosystems cooperate in the;light reactions;1. the water-splitting photosystem and;2. the NADPH-producing photosystem.;The light reactions of photosynthesis;Energy;ATP;to make;Primary;electron;acceptor;2e;Light;2e;NADP;2e;NADPH;Ele;ctr;on;tra;ns;po;rt c;Reactioncenter;H2O;Primary;electron;acceptor;chlorophyll;Light;ha;in;Reactioncenter;chlorophyll;NADPH-producing;photosystem;2e;1;2;2 H+ + O2;Water-splitting;photosystem;Figure 7.10;Chapter Review Figure;ADP;ATP;e;acceptor;2e;NADP+;e;2e;acceptor;2e;Ele;ctr;o;Photon;NADPH;nt;ran;sp;o;rt c;Photon;ha;in;Chlorophyll;Chlorophyll;H2O;2e;Water-splitting;+ +1;2H;2 O2 photosystem;NADPH-producing;photosystem;The light reactions are located in the thylakoid;membrane.;An electron transport chain;Connects the two photosystems;Releases energy that the chloroplast uses to;make ATP;How the thylakoid membrane converts light energy to the;chemical energy of NADPH and ATP;To Calvin cycle;Light;Light;H;Stroma;Thylakoid;membrane;Photosystem;NADPH;NADP;Electron transport;chain;Photosystem;H;H;O2;ADP P;Electron flow;2e;1;2;ATP;ATP;synthase;Inside thylakoid;H2O;H;H;H;H;Thylakoid;membrane;Figure 7.11;H;Stroma;Electron transport;chain;Photosystem;Thylakoid;membrane;Inside thylakoid;2e;H2O;H;1;2;Thylakoid;membrane;O2;To Calvin cycle;Light;H;NADPH;NADP;H;Electron transport;chain;Photosystem;ATP;ADP P;ATP;synthase;Electron flow;H;H;H;H;H;A hard-hat analogy for;the light reactions;e;ATP;e;e;NADPH;e;e;Photon;e;Photon;e;Water-splitting;photosystem;NADPH-producing;photosystem;Figure 7.12;THE CALVIN CYCLE: MAKING SUGAR;FROM CARBON DIOXIDE;The Calvin cycle;Functions like a sugar factory within the;stroma of a chloroplast;Regenerates the starting material with each;turn;Blast Animation: Photosynthesis: Light-Independent Reactions;CO2 (from air);P;RuBP sugar;Three-carbon molecule;P;P;ADP P;ATP;ADP P;Calvin;cycle;NADPH;ATP;NADP;G3P sugar;G3P sugar;P;P;G3P sugar;P;Glucose;(and other;organic;compounds);Figure 7.13;CO2;ADP;ATP;Calvin;cycle;NADPH;Chapter;Review;Figure;P;NADP;G3P;P;Glucose and;other compounds;Chloroplast;Light;CO2;H2 O;Stack of;thylakoids;NADP+;Stroma;ADP;Light;reactions;P;Calvin;cycle;ATP;NADPH;Chapter;Review;Figure;O2;Sugar;(C6H12O6);View Full Attachment;BSC1020_UnitD_Homework_1.doc Download Attachment;BSC 1020 Homework;Unit D;The Energy of Life;This homework is worth 25 points. Please use the textbook, the PPT lecture handouts of;Chapter 6 and 7, and the internet, to answer the following five questions;Question 1 (8 points);Many foods and beverages are the product of fermentation by microorganisms. Use;the internet to find out the main microorganism involved in the production of each of the;following. Please include the genus and species (For example, Escherichia coli) If several;species are involved, then simply state the genus followed by the term spp. (For example;Staphylococcus spp.). You have to also indicate whether the organism is a bacterium or;fungus.;Food/beverage;Bread;Swiss cheese;Sauerkraut;Chocolate;Soy sauce;Roquefort cheese;Yoghurt;Beer;Name of Organism;Bacterium or Fungus;Question 2 (8 points);Cellular respiration is divided into three different stages: Glycolysis, the Citric;Acid Cycle, and the Electron Transport Chain.;Refer to your lecture notes and textbook to complete the table below. Each box;has to be filled with the following terms.;Used if the compound is consumed in that stage;Produced if the compound is released in that stage;N/A (Non-applicable) if the compound is not directly involved in that stage;Compound;Glycolysis;Citric Acid Cycle;Electron Transport Chain;ATP;O2;CO2;NADH;NAD+;NADPH;Question 3 (3 points);How efficient is fermentation? How efficient is cellular respiration? The;efficiency of a process can be determined by dividing the amount of useful energy (as;ATP) gained during the process by the total amount of energy available in glucose. Use;the following values: 686 kcal as the total energy available in 1 molecule of glucose, and;8 kcal as the energy available in 1 molecule of ATP. Please show calculations.;Efficiency of Fermentation;Efficiency of Cellular Respiration;Question 4 (3 points);Each of the 50 states in the US has its own state flag, state flower, state bird, etc.;However, only one state has chosen an official microbe to represent it. Name the state;the microbe, and the reason it was chosen.;Name of State;Name of Microbe;Reason;Question 5 (3 points);Your professor tells you that the process of photosynthesis is important to feeding;our entire planet. Do you agree or disagree? Briefly explain why. Can you think of any;living thing that does not depend on plants (either directly or indirectly)?;View Full Attachment;Requirement.docx Download Attachment;Write a 2 full page reflection paper include summarize of chapters and self-reflection. 12size, double space and also please named your reflection paper.;View Full Attachment


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