Directions;a. Use as muc h spa c e as you ne e d tofullyansw er the qu e stion.;b. You are required tode m o n strate your knowled g e and thought proc e s s e s using your own words (critical t;as wellas de m o n strate thatyou co m pl et e d the reading s by citing.;c.;When indicated your answ er s should be cited and should have a corre s p o n din g refer e n c e inAPA format;d. You should use appropriate colleg e level sourc e s foryour answ er s.;Part I: Sickle Cell and NCAA Testing;Inthe last de c a d e, mor e than 20 colle g e football player s hav e died while training. Almo st 40 % are know;hav e had sickle cell trait,a condition inwhich a pers o n has one atypical he m o gl o bin gene (HbS), inadd;the typical version (HbA). Different gen e version s are known as allele s. He m o gl o bin is the protein inred;cells thatcarrie s oxyg e n through o ut the body. Under so m e conditions, he m o gl o bin produc e d from the m;form ofthe gen e willcrystallize, conv erting the disk shap e d red blood cells into a sickle shap e. Th e s e d;cells can clog blood ves s e l s, disrupting blood flowinthe body, potentially leading tomor e seriou s healt;Ifan individual has two sickle cell allele s (HbS/Hb S), they are said tohav e sickle cell dise a s e, which ca;pre s e nt so m e health proble m s. Pe opl e withsickle cell dise a s e often hav e sym pto m s such as ane mi a;numb e r ofred blood cells) and periodic epis o d e s ofpain cau s e by clog g e d blood ves s e l s. Block e d bloo;deprive organ s ofoxyg e n, cau sing dam a g e. Oc c a si o n ally, high blood pre s s ur e inlung blood ve s s e l s ca;heart failure.;Sickle cell trait, in which individuals have one normal allele and one mutated;allele (HbS/HbA)is relatively co m m o n, occ urring inapproxi m at ely 8% ofAfricanAmeric an s and;approxi m at ely 1% ofCau c a si a n Americ an s. Bec au s e individuals withsickle cell traithav e one norm al a;addition tothe one mutated copy, they produc e norm al he m o gl o bin inaddition tothe sickling form. As a;mo st live perfe ctly norm al lives, showing few sym pto m s, infact, many don't ev e n know thatthey carry t;trait.Howev e r, sickling be c o m e s mor e co m m o n atlow oxyg e n levels suc h as thos e cre ate d by strenu ou;Astring ofde ath s incolle g e football player s from 2000 to2009 led the National Colle giate Athletic;Asso ci ation (NCAA) toinstitute a new sickle cell policy forallinco ming Division Istud e nt athlete s. Start;the 2010 2011 acad e m i c year, stud e nt athlete s must be tested forsickle cell trait,sh ow proof ofa prio;s ign a waiver rele a sing an institution from liabilityifthey de cline tobe teste d (Brutlag Hosick, 2010).;Isaac and Adriana willbe attending colle g e next year on athletic sch olars hip s. Th e twohav e be e n datin;the last year and hav e just heard about the new sickle cell policy instituted by the NCAA. Isaac is conc e;about the policy be c a u s e he thinks thatitcould unfairly prev e nt him from playing or, ev e n wors e, result;loss ofhis sch olar s hip. He knows his father has the sickle cell trait.Most importantly, he thinks thatthe;results inracially bias e d con s e q u e n c e s be c a u s e stud e nts ofAfrican, Mediterran e a n, andSouth Americ;are mor e likely tocarry the trait.Adriana shar e s his conc e r n s, butthinks thatthe policy willsav e lives.;Refer e n c e s;Brutlag Hosick, M.(2010). Protoc ol de cid e d forsickle NCAANews.;cell testing.;1.Whatisthemutationthatoccurstoproducesicklecelldiseaseandhowdotheredbloodcellsresultina;sickleshape(aftercompletingresearch,includeinternalcitationandareferenceinreferencepageinproper;APAformat)?;2. IfIsaacsmotherdoes nothav e the allele forsickle cell, what is the proba bility that;Isaac has the trait(Sickle cell trait = individuals have one normal allele and one;mutated allele (HbS/HbA)??;3. IfIsaacs moth er doeshav e the allele forsickle cell, what is the proba bility that;Isaac has the trait(Sickle cell trait = individuals have one normal allele and one;mutated allele (HbS/HbA)?;4. Why are so m e group s mor e likely tohav e the allele (trait) forsickle cell than other;group s (after co m pl eting res e a r c h, includ e internal citation and a refere n c e in;refer e n c e pag e inprop er APA format)?;5. Historically, thos e with sickle cell diseasedied prior toreprod u ctive ag e. How;then has the allele forsickle cell re m ain e d within the population? Inother words, why;wouldntnatural sel e ction reduc e d the alleles frequ e n c y (after co m pl eting res e ar c h;includ e internal citation and a refer e n c e inrefere n c e pag e inprop er APA format)?;6. Sh ould the NCAA require testing ofstud e nt athlete s? Why or why not? Justify;your answ er withevid e n c e (after co m pl eting res e a r c h, includ e internal citation and a;refer e n c e inrefer e n c e pag e inprop er APA format).;Part II: Concern About Offspring;Five years later, Isaac and Adriana graduate d from colle g e and de cid e d toget married.;Both attend e d colle g e on athletic sch olars hip s and did wellboth acad e mi c ally and;athletically. Adriana was tested forthe sickle cell traitand disc ov e r e d thatsh e had it.;Sh e mad e only minor adjustm e nts toher training and nev er had any notice a bl e;sym pto m s ofthe sickle cell trait.Isaac de cid e d not tobe teste d, signing the waiver that;allowe d him toWSBCT C 5 co m p e t e. Isaac mad e no adjustm e nt s tohis training;be c a u s e he was alread y cautious. Isaac knew his father had the sickle cell trait,so he;ass u m e d there was a chanc e thathe had itas well.;The coupl e is con sid e ring having children. Howev e r, knowing thatAdriana has the;sickle cell traitand thatIsaacs father has the sickle cell trait,they de cid e d todiscu s s;sickle cell witha doctor befor e making their de ci sion. Ifyou were Isaac s and Adriana's;doctor, what would you tellthe m?;7. What are the 3 pos si bl e gen otyp e s their children could hav e?;8. What are the 3 pos si bl e phe n otyp e s their children could hav e?;9. Is sickle cell diseasedominant, rec e s siv e, or co dominant (includ e internal;citation and a refere n c e inrefer e n c e pag e inprop er APA format)?;10. IfIsaac do e s hav e the sickle cell trait,what is the proba bility thattheir firstchild;would hav e the sickle cell trait(Sickle cell trait = individuals have one normal;allele and one mutated allele (HbS/HbA)??
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