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Evaluating claims about cancer

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Page 1 of 10;Section 3: Evaluating claims about cancer;Review this media items below. First, identify the claims the item makes about the product;ultraviolet light, and cancer. Then, describe the evidence on which these claims are based. If;no evidence is given then report that also.;10. Identify the claims: Ask;yourself,Whatarethe;explicit(obvious,stated)and;i mplicit(lessobvious,not;stateddirectly)clai msbeing;madehere?;11. List the evidence: A sk;yourself,Whatevidenceis;offeredtosupporteachof;theseclai ms?;12. Evaluate the evidence;A skyourselfquestionssuch;asthefollowing;Whatisthesourceofthe;evidence?;Whodidtheexperi ment?;Whofundedit?Isthereany;reasontothinktheresults;mi ghtbe biased?;Howmanysubjectswerein;thestudy?Werethereproper;c ontrols?;13. Evaluate the claim;Askyourselfwhether,based;ontheevidence,youaccept;theclai m,acceptittentatively;untilyoucanlearnm ore;aboutit,orrejecttheclai m.;MEDIA ITEM 1;MEDIA ITEM 1;MEDIA ITEM 2;Page 2 of 10;MEDIA ITEM 2;Section 4: Using a model system (yeast) to test claims about UV light;You will use yeast as a model system for testing a claim a media item made about a particular;product and UV light. Follow the steps below to design and conduct a controlled experiment;that tests such a claim.;Learn About UV Light and Yeast;R eadthefollowingparagraphstolearnaboutultraviolet(UV)lightandtheyeastyouwilluseto;testclai msaboutUVlight.;What is UV light?;Page 3 of 10;UVlightisoneofthefor msofradiationthatisproducedbythesunandbyavarietyofother;sources(forexa mple,c ertaintypesofartificiallights).UVlightisnotvisibletous,butitis;allaroundus.Itisthepartofsunlightthatcausessunburnsandtans.Italsoisthepartof;sunlightthatcancauseskincancer.;Why is UV light dangerous?;UVlightcandamagetheDNAinsidec ells.C ellsrepairm o stofthisdamage,but;oc casionallyac ellmakesamistakeduringthisrepairproc ess.Thismistakecausesa;mutationinoneofthec ellsgenes.The accu mulationofmutationsinsideskinc ellscanlead;toskincancer.;What are yeast? Y eastinthiscase,bakersyeast(scientificname, Saccharomycescerevisiae);areasimple,singlecelledformoffungus.Yeastreproducesbothsexuallyandasexuallyandhassimple;nutritionalneeds.Youneedamicroscopetoseeasingleyeastcell.Butthatcellcangrowintoawhole;colonyofcells(thatyoucanjustbarelysee)inonedayifitisprovidedwiththerightconditions.;Why are yeast a good organism for testing claims about UV light?;Y eastiseasytogrowinthelaboratory.The typeofyeastthatyouwilluseisespecially;sensitivetoUVlight.ItcannotrepairthedamagethatUVlightcausestoitsDNA.Thus,this;yeastiskilledbysunlight.Asyouwillse e,youcanusethisUVsensitiveyeasttom easure;thekillingeffectofsunlightunderdifferentc onditions.;Humanskinc ells(aswellasnor malyeastc ellsandm o stothernor malc ells)haveenzy m esthat;repairdamagetoDNAthatiscausedbyUVlight.Butwhentoomuchdamage oc curs(asmi ght;oc cur,forexa mple,whenapersonspendsagreatdealoftime outdoors),therepairenzy m esmay;notbeabletoke epup.A crosstime,mutationsmayaccu mulateinsideskinc ells,leadingto;cancer.UVsensitiveyeastareagood model f ortestingproductsclai m edtoprotectaperson;fro m skincancerbecausetheyeastssensitivityallowsthedamagingeffectsofUVlighttobe;observedveryquickly.;WhenUVsensitiveyeastareexposedtotoomuchUVlight,theUVsensitiveyeastdie.When;youlookunderthemi crosc opeatUVsensitiveyeast,youwillbe abletoc ountthenumberof;yeastc ells(yeastorganis ms).Whentheygrowinunhealthyc onditions,fewUVsensitiveyeast;survive.;Youaregoingtobedesigninganexperiment.Becauseyoucan'tusehumantestsubjects(thereareethicalissues;aboutexposingthemtoUVrays)youwillbeusingyeastasamodelorganismthatreactstoUV(itiskilled).;Thiswillallowyoutotestaclaim(byasunscreenmanufacturerforexample)toseeiftheyeastsurvivesordies;whenthesunscreenisused.;Anexampleofeachstepisprovidedbelowintheboxes.Theclaimmadeintheexampleis:Higherthealtitude;ontheearth'ssurface,thegreatertheamountofUVlightpresent;Nowyouneedtousetheclaimsintheadvertisements(thatwereearlierintheassignment)andthendevelopan;experimenttotestthatclaim.;Page 4 of 10;EXAMPLE;14.C h ooseoneofthem edia;ite msfro m above.Writethe;MEDIAITEMNUMBER(1or;2) Writetheclai m youwould;15.;liketotestaboutUVlight;basedonthem ediaite m you;chose The clai m mustbe;relatedtothem e diaite m;selectedinquestion14. (an;example experiment is;provided to the right);16. Nowwritetheclai m that;youwanttotestinthefor m of;aquestion.;Anexa mpleofaclai m;aboutUVlightisthatthe;higherthealtitudeonthe;earthssurface,thegreater;theamountofUVlight;present.;Doesm ore UVlight;reachtheearthssurfaceat;higheraltitudesthanat;loweraltitudes?;17. Writeatentativeanswerto;Scientistscallsuch;yourquestion.;tentativeanswers;hypotheses.;Yes,m ore UVlight;reachestheearthssurface;athigeraltitudesthanat;loweraltitudes.;18.Useyourhypothesisto;Apredictionisasentence;writeaprediction.;thatdescribesso m ething;thatwouldhappenifyour;hypothesisisc orrect.For;e xa mple,yourprediction;aboutUVlightand;altitudemi ghtread,Ifthe;amountofUVlightthat;reachestheearthssurface;increaseswithincreasing;TYPEANSWERSHERE;Design an Experiment;Using Yeast;Page 5 of 10;altitude,thenthe;maxi mu m ataltitudeX;willbegreaterthanthe;maxi mu m ataltitudeY.;19.Whatisyourvariable?That IntheUVlightand;is,whatwillyouchange?What altitudeexperi ment,you;elsemi ghtchange?;wouldneedtochangethe;altitudeatwhichyou;m easuretheUVlight;c o mingfro m thesun.Th e;amountofUVlightmi ght;alsochangeasaresultof;thedifferenceinaltitude.;20.Whatwillyoum easure?;IntheUVlightand;altitudeexperi ment,you;wouldm easurethealtitude;andthemaximu m amount;ofUVlightreceivedina;c ertainsizeareaduringa;c ertainlengthoftime.;21.Howwillyoum easure;this?;IntheUVlightand;altitudeexperi ment,you;mi ghtusepublished;valuesforaltitude,and;youmi ghtm easurethe;abilityofUVlighttokill;UVsensitiveyeastasan;indicationoftheamount;ofUVlightreceived;duringac ertainperiodof;time.;22.Whatisyourc ontrol?;Ac ontrolisagroupof;Page 6 of 10;individualsinan;experi mentthatdonot;rec eivethetreatment;giventothetestsubjects.;IntheUVlightand;altitudeexperi ment,you;mi ghtprepareasetof;identicalplatesandexpose;halftoUVlightatthetwo;altitudes,butleavethe;otherhalfunexposed.The;unexposedplatesareyour;c ontrols.;Unit5:ShortAnswerQuestionsandC onc eptMapping;Page 7 of 10;TYPE ANSWER HERE;a.Whichstageofm eiosis(m eiosisIor;m eiosisII)ism o stsi milartomitosis?Why?;b.Explainatleast3waysthatareusedduring;m eiosistoincreasethegeneticvariabilityof;resultantga m etes(note:rando m fertilization;iswhatcausesgeneticvariabilityinthe;offspringNOTthega m etes[sper m/egg]).;ASSIGNMENTCONTINUEDONNEXTPAGE;Concept mapping:Aconceptmapisadiagramofboxesandlinesshowingtherelationshipsbetweenideas.Youare;goingtobecompletingaconceptmapthathasbeenstartedforyou(partc)andthenyouwilldesignyourownconcept;maps(partd&e).;RULES;1.Whencreatingac onc eptmapthemainter msorc onceptsshouldgointoboxes.;2.The c oncepts(boxes)shouldbe c onnectedwithlines.;3.Eachlinemusthaveanexplanationofhowthec onceptsarerelated.;4.C onc eptmapsdonothavetobesy m m etrical.;Page 8 of 10;c. Use the terms (possible answers) in the table below to fill in the missing areas on the;concept map numbered 1 - 6.;MISSING;TERM;Possibleanswers: Somatic cells, Growth/Repair, Meiosis, Diploid, Egg;Produces;T YPEANSWERSBELOW;1.;2.;3.;4.;5.;6.;Page 9 of 10;Nowyouwillbecreatingyourownc onc eptmapstohelpyouunderstandtheideasfro m thisunit.Please;watchthis;videotutorialonhowtousetheprogrambubbl.ustocreateconceptmapsandinsertthemintothis;document.Thengotohttps://bubbl.us/andclickonstartbrainstormingtobegin.Onceyouhavefinished;yourmapyoucanexportitasajpg.file,saveitandinsertitbelow.;d.UseALLoftheter mslistedbelowasthec onceptsinyourmap.Youareresponsiblefor;c onnectingthec onceptswithlinesanddevelopingwordsthatshowtheaccuraterelationships;betweenthec oncepts.;CONCEPTS TO USE IN YOUR MAP;C ellC y cle;Interphase;Mitosis;Prophase;Metaphase;Anaphase;Telophase;C ytokinesis;INSERTY OURC ON CEPTMAPHEREFORPARTD;e.Use ALLoftheter mslistedbelowasthec onceptsinyourmap.Youareresponsibleforadding;5 new concepts.Youarealsoresponsibleforc onnectingthec onc eptswithlinesandaccurate;developingwordsthatshowtherelationshipsbetweenthec oncepts.;Whatarethe5c onc eptsyouaddedtoyourmapinadditiontotheter msgiven?;1.;2.;3.;Page 10 of 10;4.;5.;CONCEPTS TO USE IN YOUR MAP;C ellC y cle;C hro m oso m es;DNA;C h e ckpoint(s);Apoptosis;Cancer;C ell;Benign;Malignant;INSERTY OURC ON CEPTMAPHEREFORPARTE;View Full Attachment

 

Paper#18412 | Written in 18-Jul-2015

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