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Which of the following is NOT one of the three fundamental features of science?




1 Which of the following is NOT one of the three fundamental features of science?;a empirical questions;b public knowledge;c mathematical equations;d systematic empiricism;2 A set of beliefs can be said to be pseudoscientific if it lacks one or more of the three features of science and _____.;a its adherents claim or imply that it is scientific;b it has been discredited by scientific research;c it seems ?crazy?;d it refers to phenomena that cannot be directly observed;3 Research questions in psychology can come from which of the following?;a previous research;b informal observations;c practical problems to be solved;d all of the above;4 Which of the following is a categorical variable?;a eye color;b IQ;c number of lifetime sexual partners;d shoe size;5 A research methods student conducts a study on the relationship between people?s level of extroversion and the number of close friends they have. She computes Pearson?s r, which comes out to be ? 1.70. Which of the following is most clearly true?;a The relationship between the two variables is weak.;b More extroverted people have fewer friends.;c She ought to use a bar graph to display her results.;d She made an error in computing Pearson?s r.;6 When you want to show that Variable X has a direct effect on Variable Y, what is the best kind of study to conduct?;a a nonexperimental study;b an experiment;c an observational study;d a survey;7 The relationship between people?s heights and weights is positive. a True;b False;8 In a negative relationship, higher scores on one variable are associated with lower scores on another variable.;a True;b False;9 Pearson?s r cannot be negative.;a True;b False;10 What three groups must be taken into account in the consideration of the ethics of a research project?;a society;b clinical practitioners;c the scientific community;d research participants;11 In Milgram?s famous study, who was the confederate?;a the person being shocked;b the experimenter;c the person doing the shocking;d none of the above;12 Which of the following occurred in the infamous Tuskegee syphilis study?;a Research participants were told they had syphilis even though they did not to see how they would react.;b Research participants were denied treatment for their syphilis.;c Research participants were injected with syphilis bacteria.;d Research participants were give experimental treatments for syphilis.;13 Research on the effectiveness of normal educational activities would generally be categorized as which of the following?;a exempt;b minimal risk;c at risk;d none of the above;14 Measuring characteristics of potential participants to identify those who may be at risk of harm in the study is called _____.;a debriefing;b prescreening;c informed consent;d risk reduction;15 The difference between phenomena and theories is essentially the same as the difference between which of the following?;a observations and models;b correlational studies and experiments;c significant and nonsignificant results;d models and hypotheses;16 How does a framework differ from a theory?;a A framework is usually more specific than a theory.;b A framework is usually more general than a theory.;c A framework cannot be tested but a theory can.;d A framework can be tested but a theory cannot.;17 For every _____ there are many plausible _____.;a fact, phenomena;b theory, researchers;c phenomenon, theories;d researcher, variables;18 As a general rule, every phenomenon has which of the following? a no real explanation;b one clear explanation;c many plausible explanations;d one discoverer;19 Theories in evolutionary psychology tend to take which approach?;a functional;b mechanistic;c typological;d stage;20 A theory that explains a behavior primarily in terms of why it happens is which of the following?;a a mechanistic theory;b a typology;c a functional theory;d a hypothesis;21 The general approach that scientists use to create and test theories is called which of the following?;a the functional-mechanistic method;b the theory-model-phenomenon approach;c the quasi-logical hypothesis;d the hypothetico-deductive method;22 What is the first thing that you should do in constructing a new theory?;a Create a set of mathematical equations that might account for the phenomena of interest.;b Understand the phenomena of interest in detail, along with any existing theories of them.;c Conduct at least four to six new empirical studies.;d Decide which type of theory you want to construct.;23 Measurement is best defined as which of the following?;a. directly comparing one individual to a standard reference individual b. the assignment of scores to individuals so the scores represent some characteristic of the individuals;c. the use of an established measuring instrument such as a ruler or scale to describe an individual;d. an objective method of counting individuals;24. Which of the following is the best example of a construct?;a. depression;b. number of siblings;c. height;d. annual income;25. What is it called when a researcher measures the same construct in different ways?;a. multiple measurement;b. exploratory research;c. inconsistent assessment;d. converging operations;26. There is a single best conceptual definition of every psychological construct.;a. True;b. False;27. There is a single best way to measure every psychological construct.;a. True;b. False;28. Face validity is the extent to which a psychological measure appears to measure the construct of interest.;a. True;b. False;29. A Cronbach?s alpha of.90 would indicate good internal consistency.;a. True;b. False;30. A psychological measure is valid to the extent that the scores it produces are consistent over time.;a. True;b. False;31. Psychological constructs can be observed directly by looking or listening.;a. True;b. False;32. What are the two defining features of an experiment?;a. control of extraneous variables, statistical analysis of the results;b. statistical analysis of the results, a comparison of two groups;c. a comparison of two groups, manipulation of an independent variable;d. manipulation of an independent variable, control of extraneous variables;33. Why are confounding variables bad?;a. They provide an alternative explanation for any observed difference between conditions.;b. They reduce internal validity.;c. They make it difficult to tell if the independent variable was responsible for the effect on the dependent variable.;d. all of the above;34. Why do researchers randomly assign participants to conditions?;a. to control extraneous variables;b. to ensure that they find a strong statistical relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variable;c. to discover whether there is a placebo effect;d. to avoid fatigue effects;35. Imagine that you are a participant in an experiment on the effects of morning exercise on mathematics performance. If this study uses a within-subjects design, which of the following would you do?;a. One day you take a math test after having exercised in the morning, another day you take a math test after not having exercised in the morning.;b. Either you exercise in the morning and then take a math test or you do not exercise in the morning and then take a math test.;c. You eat a healthy breakfast consisting of milk, juice, toast, and eggs.;d. You take a math test and then tell the researcher whether or not you exercised that morning.;36. Imagine an experiment with one independent variable: noise level (quiet vs. noisy). If the researcher is using a between-subjects design and wants to have 20 participants per condition, how many participants will he need all together?;a. 10;b. 20;c. 40;d. 400;37. What is the main advantage of conducting an experiment using a within-subjects design rather than a between-subjects design?;a. A within-subjects design eliminates the need for pilot testing.;b. A within-subjects design controls more extraneous variables.;c. A within-subjects design does not require manipulation of an independent variable.;d. A within-subjects design prevents carryover effects.;38. A researcher is conducting a study in which the dependent variable is mental concentration. If it is a within-subjects design with lots of different conditions, then which of the following is most likely to be a problem for the researcher?;a. practice effect;b. fatigue effect;c. context effect;d. floor effect;39. Experimenters manipulate independent variables and control extraneous variables.;a. True;b. False;40. In a between-subjects experiment, each participant is tested in only one condition.;a. True;b. False;41. In a within-subjects experiment, each participant is tested in more than one condition.;a. True;b. False;42. Researcher Robert Rosenthal is known for his work on which of the following?;a. the effect of smiling on helping;b. cultural differences in time perception;c. social anxiety;d. experimenter expectancy effects;43. What is the defining feature of nonexperimental research?;a. It is about personality and individual differences.;b. It lacks the manipulation of an independent variable, random assignment, or both.;c. It involves only one variable.;d. It has high external validity.;44. Which of the following is a reason to conduct nonexperimental research?;a. The researcher is interested in thinking.;b. The researcher wants to maximize the internal validity of the study.;c. The researcher wants to avoid carryover effects.;d. It would be unethical to manipulate the independent variable.;45. Which of the following is a type of nonexperimental research?;a. qualitative studies;b. correlational studies;c. quasi-experiments;d. all of the above;46. Which of the following is the defining feature of correlational research?;a. An independent variable is manipulated while extraneous variables are controlled.;b. One variable is measured and described.;c. Research participants are interviewed in depth about their experiences.;d. Two variables are measured and the relationship between them is assessed.;47. Coding of participant behaviors is generally an important part of which of the following?;a. archival data collection;b. sport psychology;c. quasi-experimental research;d. naturalistic observation;48. Archival data would be least likely to be used in which of the following?;a. an experiment;b. a correlational study;c. a qualitative study;d. a single-variable study;49. Qualitative research is meant to do which of the following?;a. generate novel research questions;b. explore people?s ?lived experience?;c. address broad questions;d. all of the above;50. Which of the following is a common data collection method in qualitative research?;a. administering questionnaires with rating scale responses;b. taking multiple physiological measures;c. using computer simulations;d. giving unstructured interviews;51. Data analysis in qualitative research is most likely to include which of the following?;a. means and standard deviations;b. inferential statistics;c. unfalsifiable theories;d. detailed examples of participant responses;52. What are the two main characteristics of survey research?;a. large random samples and self-report measures;b. self-report measures and face-to-face interviews;c. face-to-face interviews and statistical analysis;d. statistical analysis and large random samples;53. ?Is there anything else you would like to tell us about?? is an example of an open-ended item.;a. True;b. False;54. Closed-ended items provide a set of response options for respondents to choose from.;a. True;b. False;55. A researcher who stands in a shopping mall and approaches anyone who looks to him like they would complete a survey is using random sampling.;a. True;b. False;56. Researchers are most likely to use open-ended items under which of the following conditions?;a. They have a specific construct that they want to measure.;b. They do not have preconceived ideas about how people will respond.;c. They want their data to be quick and easy to analyze.;d. They are conducting their survey over the Internet.;57. The BRUSO model is a model of which of the following?;a. how people respond to survey questionnaire items;b. the process of administering a survey;c. good survey questionnaire items;d. none of the above;58. Survey research tends to use which of the following?;a. nonrepresentative sampling;b. convenience sampling;c. nonprobability sampling;d. probability sampling;59. What is the best way to address the problem of nonresponse bias?;a. ignore the nonresponders when analyzing the data;b. force everyone to respond;c. do everything possible to maximize response rates;d. write unbiased questionnaire items;60. What are the two main functions of the introduction to a survey questionnaire?;a. to encourage participation and establish informed consent;b. to establish the legitimacy of the survey and put respondents at ease;c. to inform the respondents of their rights and protect the researcher from lawsuits;d. to hide the true purpose of the survey and to establish rapport with respondents;61. High-level APA style consists of rules about grammar, spelling, punctuation, and formatting.;a. True;b. False;62. An APA-style abstract is usually about two pages long.;a. True;b. False;63. Which of the following presents the major sections of an APA style empirical research report in the correct order?;a. Introduction, Method, Results, Discussion;b. Method, Results, Discussion, Abstract;c. Abstract, Discussion, Method, Results;d. Method, Introduction, Discussion, Results;64. The two broad themes of high-level APA style writing are that it is _____ and _____.;a. technical, thought provoking;b. creative, engaging;c. formal, straightforward;d. interesting, controversial;65. Which of the following is an example of a low-level rule of APA style?;a. Avoid personally insulting other researchers.;b. Use number words for numbers lower than 10.;c. An empirical research report should start with a title page.;d. Write in a simple and clear manner.;66. The title of an APA style research report should generally be which of the following?;a. typed in all capital letters;b. cute and attention grabbing;c. highly technical;d. no more than 12 words long;67. The literature review of an APA style introduction section should do which of the following?;a. cite and discuss the three most important studies on the current topic;b. provide an exhaustive list of all research conducted on the current topic;c. make an argument for why the current research question is worth addressing;d. discuss only new research that has been published in the past five years


Paper#19231 | Written in 18-Jul-2015

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