WEEK 3;Applying the Death Penalty (graded);First, here is a word of caution. With this discussion comes a tasking to discuss the death penalty in two ways: first, as an expression of the social contract, where one person has killed another in a violation of that other person?s right to peace and safety, and second, as a rules-based function of the justice system being applied to a difficult situation.;What do you see going on that is a violation of the Hobbes/Locke social contract idea?;And you might also connect it with any of the Three Schools, plus Aristotle, that you have read in past weeks?and especially with the rules-based ethics model.;Here's the situation: In Manatee County, Florida, a judge sentenced a man to death?the first time this had happened in the county for over 19 years. Sentenced to death was a 25-year-old man for the January 7, 2004, murder of both of his parents by bludgeoning them to death in their bed with a baseball bat.;Now, with your social contract ethicist hats on, tell us what you make of this quote by the judge at the sentencing, quoted from the front page of the November 17, 2007 Bradenton Herald: "You have not only forfeited your right to live among us, but under the laws of the state of Florida, you have forfeited the right to live at all.;Have at it, good folks. But, rather than running off with reactions and opinions about the death penalty in general, please do keep it in the context of our social contract discussion for this week and also connected with ethics of justice.;Living in Our State of Nature (graded);Social Contract theorists say that morality consists of a set of rules governing how people should treat one another that rational beings will agree to accept for their mutual benefit, on the condition that others agree to follow these rules as well.;Hobbes runs the logic like this in the form of a logical syllogism;1) We are all self-interested;2) Each of us needs to have a peaceful and cooperative social order to pursue our interests;3) We need moral rules in order to establish and maintain a cooperative social order;Therefore, self-interest motivates us to establish moral rules.;Thomas Hobbes looked to the past to observe a primitive ?State of Nature? in which there is no such thing as morality, and that this self-interested human nature was "nasty, brutish, and short" -- a kind of perpetual state of warfare;John Locke disagreed, and set forth the view that the state exists to preserve the natural rights of its citizens. When governments fail in that task, citizens have the right?and sometimes the duty?to withdraw their support and even to rebel. Listen to Locke's audio on the lecture tab and read his lecturette to be able to answer this thread.;Locke addressed Hobbes's claim that the state of nature was the state of war, though he attribute this claim to "some men" not to Hobbes. He refuted it by pointing to existing and real historical examples of people in a state of nature. For this purpose he regarded any people who are not subject to a common judge to resolve disputes, people who may legitimately take action to themselves punish wrong doers, as in a state of nature.;Which philosophy do you espouse?;In coming to grips with the two and considering your experience of society as it is today, think out loud about what you experiences as the State of Nature, and tell us what you would be willing to give up in exchange for civil order and personal security?;You might consider what you have already given up in exchange for security as well as what might be required in coming days.;WEEK 4;Ethics of Controlling Environmental Innovation (graded);Increasing food supplies are necessary to sustain growing populations around the world and their appetites for great food, quality products, and continuous availability.;A great deal of expensive research is invested in developing technologies to deliver productive agriculture. Horticultural efforts to breed hybrid crops are seen as far back as history can observe, and there have been efforts to domesticate improved animals, as well. Gene splitting was a 1990s technology to improve the health and productivity of farm crops. With the 21st century have come genetically modified foods (GMF) through the use of nanotechnology to cause changes at the genetic and even molecular levels. These are very expensive technologies, and many new products have been patented and otherwise protected as proprietary products of intellectual property.;Drive out to the country during growing season, and you will see signs identifying that the crop has been grown with a protected seed that cannot be used to produce retained seed for planting in the next growing season.;In terms of this week?s TCOs, what ethical issues are raised by this legal process of patent protection, and how do we see the primary schools of ethics used in these proprietary measures? What, in this deontological week and in our learning to date, informs our understanding of this situation, and what should be done about it?;Kant - Accomplice to Crazed Murderer? (graded);Kant?s famous First Formulation of the Categorical Imperative reads;?Act only according to that maxim whereby you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law.? Kant taught morality as a matter of following maxims of living that reflect absolute laws. ?Universal? is a term that allows for no exceptions, and what is universal applies always and everywhere. Lying, for any reason, is universally wrong.;Be sure to listen to Kant's audio lecture before posting this week!;So, consider the famous case of the Crazed Murderer. In your town the Crazed Murderer comes to your door looking for your friend and wanting to kill him. You know that your friend went home to hide. What do you tell the murderer? When he leaves and runs up the street to your friend?s house, what do you do?
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