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Seaport ECOL100 Midterm Exam 2014..................................................

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1. Ecology is the study of;plants.;animals.;global climate change.;relationships between organisms and their environment.;the chemistry of living things;2. Which of the following is not a renewable resource?;groundwater;trees;soil;oil;wildlife;3. Large ecological regions with characteristic types of natural vegetation and distinctive animals adapted to them are called;communities;ecosystems;biomes;ecospheres;populations;4. The first law of thermodynamics tells us that;Doing work always creates heat.;Altering matter is the best source of energy.;Energy cannot be recycled.;Energy is neither created nor destroyed.;Energy cannot be converted.;5. Nature reveals three basic principles that could help transition to sustainable societies. Which of the following is NOT one of those principles?;reliance on solar energy;biodiversity;nutrient cycling;survival of the fittest;none of these answers;6. Which of the following is an example of a density dependent population control;parasites;predators;infectious diseases;competitors with high niche overlap;all of these answers;7. One way that species evolve over time to reduce niche overlap is called;competitive exclusion principle;resource partitioning;population distribution;chemical warfare;mimicry;8. Which of the following would exhibit primary succession?;a rock exposed by a retreating glacier;an abandoned farm;a clear-cut forest;newly flooded land;a recently burned forest;9. Complex feeding patters for consumers in an ecosystem are called;food webs;food chains;trophic levels;pyramids of energy;trophic chains;10. What is the primary difference between renewable resources and nonrenewable resources?;how easily they are discovered;the amount of the resource;the length of time it takes for the resource to be replenished or renewed;how fast they are being used up;the quality of the resource;11. Emigration is;the one-way movement of individuals into an established population;the one-way movement of individuals out of an uninhabited area;the one-way movement of individuals out of a population to another area;the repeated movement into and out of an area;the lack of immigration into an area;12. Parasites;harm but do not kill hosts immediately;are usually larger then their hosts;must be internal to their hosts;may strengthen their hosts over a long period of time;are usually microscopic (cannot be seen with naked eye);13. A species in an ecosystem that plays a central role in the health of that ecosystem, and whose removal may cause the collapse of the ecosystem, is called a(n);foundation species;indicator species;native species;keystone species;specialist species;14. Which of the following would NOT be organic molecules?;lipids;nucleic acids;hydrocarbons;proteins;water;15. A negative feedback loop is illustrated by all of the following EXCEPT;decelerating loss of heat as a pan of hot water is removed from the stove;exponential population growth rate;sweating to cool your body during and after vigorous exercise;a thermostat maintaining a certain temperature in your house;None of the above;16. Exponential growth followed by a steady decrease in population growth until the population size levels off is typical of;logistic growth;environmental resistance;exponential growth;carrying capacity;biotic potential;17. Some individuals in a population have genetic traits that enhance their ability to survive and produce offspring, a process called;natural selection;adaptability;genetic drift;mutation;theory of acquired traits;18. Which of the following is the usual order of applying the scientific process to a problem?;hypothesis-question-observation-experimentation-conclusion-analysis;hypothesis-conclusion-question-observation-experimentation-analysis;observation-hypothesis-conclusion-experimentation-analysis-question;observation-question-hypothesis-experimentation-analysis-conclusion;hypothesis-experimentation-observation-analysis-question-conclusion;19. Large terrestrial regions with similar characteristics are;ecosystems;communities;populations;habitats;biomes;20. Each trophic level in a food chain or food web contains a certain amount of organic matter, called;food;energy;biomass;organisms;decomposition;21. Which of the following is said to occur when an interaction benefits one species but has little, if any, effect on the other;interspecific competition;predation;parasitism;mutualism;commensalism;22. The combination of all factors that limit population growth are known as?;physical tolerance;chemical tolerance;physical & chemical tolerance;environmental resistance;population age structure;23. Geographic isolation may result from which of the following?;volcanic eruption;river;mountain range;road;All of the above;24. Which of the following is NOT an example of an indicator species?;trout in water with a specific temperature requirement;birds that need a large forested area;butterflies that use a specific plant as food;frogs that take in water and air though their skin;All are example of indicatory species;25. Density dependence population controls means;high rate of population increase.;low rate of population increase.;population growth declines as density increases;population growth increases as density increases;all of these answers;26. Which is our best immediate energy option?;Find and burn more forms of oil, natural gas, and coal.;Cut out unnecessary energy waste by improving energy efficiency.;Build more and better conventional nuclear power plants.;Increase efforts to develop breeder nuclear fission and nuclear fusion.;Discover a new form of energy.;27. The ocean zone that covers the continental shelf is the;bathyal zone;coastal zone;littoral zone;benthic zone;abyssal zone;28. In lakes, the nutrient-rich water near the shore is part of the;limnetic zone;benthic zone;littoral zone;profundal zone;abyssal zone;29. A type of inland wetland that are depressions that have been carved out by ancient glaciers are known as;floodplains;swamps;marshes;prairie potholes;arctic tundra;30. Which of the following would be characteristic of the profundal zone?;rooted plants;low oxygen levels;nourished by dead matter;main photosynthetic layer;turtles, frogs, crayfish, perch;31. Oysters, clams, and lobsters would be part of which of the following;phytoplankton;zooplankton;nekton;benthos;decomposers;32. The world's second fastest growing energy resource is;hydropower;wind power;nuclear power;solar power;tidal energy;33. The deepest part of the ocean is the;abyssal zone;euphotic zone;estuary zone;bathyal zone;benthic zone;34. Widely scattered clumps of trees, warm temperatures year-round, alternating dry and wet seasons, with herds of herbivores are the characteristics of which of the following?;tall-grass prairie;temperate grasslands;temperate forest;coastal forest;savanna;35. The severity of an earthquake is a measure of its seismic waves, and is called;epicenter;focus;magnitude;ridges;valleys;36. Clear-cutting does all of the following EXCEPT;greatly increases water runoff;increases loss of soil nutrients;increases death of vegetation;increases recreation;increases pollution of streams;37. All of the following are part of the saltwater or marine aquatic life zones, EXCEPT;oceans;estuaries;inland wetlands;coastal wetlands;shorelines;38. CITES is a(n);regulations controlling the introduction of exotic species;treaty controlling the international trade in endangered species;pact that supports critical ecosystems that support wildlife;international organization dedicated to the preservation of endangered species;policing agency for the protection of threatened species;39. Which of the following is the biggest problem for US national parks today?;huge number of park visitors;habitat destruction;invasion of alien species;pollution;all of these answers;40. Because birds live in every climate and biome, and because they are easy to track and count, they serve as excellent;keystone species;foundation species;indicator species;aesthetic indicators;habitat indicators;41. Some toxic chemicals, such as those in DDT, can be stored in the fat tissue of animals. As these animals become food for larger and larger animals, the amount of toxin gets larger and larger. This process is called;biotoxification;ecotoxification;biosystemics;biomagnification;bioremediation;42. Renewable energy resources include all of the following, EXCEPT;the sun;the wind;biomass;natural gas;water;43. Which of the following would be characteristic of a eutrophic lake?;nutrient overload from human activities;nutrients levels between the extremes of too much and too little;small supply of plant nutrients;well-supplied with nutrients for producers;excessive nutrients;44. The key factors determining the types and numbers of organisms found in the various layers of both freshwater and marine systems include all of the following, EXCEPT;parasitism;availability of nutrients;temperature;dissolved oxygen levels;availability of food;45. Treeless, bitterly cold most of the year, winters are long and dark, low growing plants, permafrost are the characteristics of which of the following?;tall-grass prairie;tundra;short-grass prairie;temperate grassland;savanna;46. Organisms in this area must be able to avoid being swept away, crushed by waves, or being left high and dry at low tides, and must survive daily on seasonal salinity and temperature changes.;estuaries;coastal wetlands;bathyal zone;intertidal zone;coral reefs;47. With the Arctic warming twice as fast as the rest of the world, which of the following organisms is rapidly moving toward threatened status?;sea lions;Walrus;polar bears;Seals;arctic fox;48. A jellyfish would be considered a type of which of the following?;Benthos;Zooplankton;Nekton;phytoplankton;ultraplankton;49. On a fishing boat, someone catches a swordfish. As a biologist, you would consider this organism a type of;phytoplankton;zooplankton;nekton;benthos;decomposer;50. The weakness of electric cars is their;noise level;maintenance cost;energy-storage system;slow acceleration;price;51. The real prices of goods and services do NOT include;the cost of raw materials;the cost of manufacturing;the environmental costs of resource use;the cost of distribution;the cost of advertising;52. The highest rate at which a renewable resource can be used indefinitely without reducing its available supply is called;conservation;sustainable yield;preservation;recycling;all of these answers;53. Which of the following is said to occur when an interaction benefits one species but has little, if any, effect on the other?;interspecific competition;predation;parasitism;mutualism;commensalism;54. Which of the following statements is NOT an example of a physical change?;Confetti is cut from pieces of paper.;Water evaporates from a lake.;Ice cubes are formed in the freezer.;A plant converts carbon dioxide into carbohydrate.;A tree is cut down in the forest.;55. The organisms responsible for nitrogen fixation are;plants;animals;fungi;bacteria;viruses;56. A change in the genetic characteristics of a population from one generation to another is called;emigration;mutation;natural selection;evolution;genetic drift;57. All of the following are elements EXCEPT;water;oxygen;nitrogen;hydrogen;carbon;58. Life on earth depends on interaction of gravity, the cycling of matter, and;cycling of energy;one-way flow of energy;one-way flow of matter;the consumption of energy;the consumption of matter;59. Which of the following is a limitation of science?;use of statistical tools for estimation;human error;nothing can be absolutely proven or disproven;natural systems are very complex;all of these;60. Which of the following is an example of reuse?;re-melting aluminum cans;making compost out of kitchen scraps;using plastic butter tubs to store leftovers;using waste heat to warm a room;making paper goods from previously used paper;61. The hydrologic cycle is the movement of;carbon;hydrogen;hydrocarbons;carbohydrates;water;62. A species? way of life in a community is its;role;habitat;ecological niche;geographical location;range;63. The typical percentage of loss of energy in transfers from one trophic level to the next is about;1%;5%;35%;60%;90%;64. Isotopes are forms of an element that differ from one another by having different;atomic numbers;numbers of electrons;numbers of protons;mass numbers;electrical charges;65. An atom or group of atoms with one or more net positive or negative charges is a(n);base;isotope;ion;acid;none of these;66. Which of the following dispersion patterns is most likely for a population in an environment were resources are scarce?;clump;random;uniform;wide;diffuse;67. The number of different species an ecosystem contains is its;speciation;species evenness;species niche;species richness;habitat;68. The distinct piece of DNA containing instructions for making proteins is;the chromosome;the nucleotide;genes;the cell membrane;the hydrocarbon;69. Pollution includes;detergents dumped into streams;volcanoes spewing toxic gases into the atmosphere;CO2 releases from coal burning power plants;fertilizer runoff from golf courses;all of these;70. Which of the following is NOT a method predators use to capture prey?;pursuit;ambush;camouflage;chemical warfare;protective shells;71. Scientists classify energy as either;chemical or physical;kinetic or mechanical;potential or mechanical;potential or kinetic;chemical or kinetic;72. Which of the following is a way that humans alter the water cycle?;withdraw large quantities from streams, lakes, and aquifers;increase runoff by clearing vegetation from the land;increase flooding by draining and filling wetlands;all of these answers;none of these answers;73. Biodiversity includes all of the following components EXCEPT;functional diversity;genetic diversity;geomorphic diversity;ecosystem diversity;species diversity;74. These are the parts of the earth?s air, water, and soil where organisms are found.;habitat;niche;community;ecosystem;biosphere;75. For natural selection to occur, an adaptive trait;must be a physical trait;must be a physiological trait;must be a psychological trait;must be a heritable trait;must not be a heritable trait;76. The two most important factors that determine an area's climate are;temperature and wind;temperature and precipitation;precipitation and light;light and temperature;wind and light;76. The two most important factors that determine an area's climate are;temperature and wind;temperature and precipitation;precipitation and light;light and temperature;wind and light;77. Deep lakes with steep banks that have a small supply of plant nutrients are;oligotrophic lakes;eutrophic lakes;culturally eutrophic lakes;hypereutrophic lakes;mesotrophic lakes;78. The most effective water heater;is an electric water tank;is a gas water heater;is an oil water heater;is a tankless instant water heater fired by natural gas;is a propane water heater;79. One-third of the human food supply comes from plant that are pollinated by;bats;birds;insects;wind;mammals;80. The direct threat of climate change to marine habitat is;increase in carbon storage in oceans;spread of tropical diseases;decreased salinity of water;rising sea levels;UV radiation from ozone depletion;81. The greatest marine biodiversity is located;in the bottom region of the ocean;in the surface region of the ocean;in the coastal region of the ocean;in the open ocean;in coral reefs;82. It is necessary to use energy to get energy. The difference between what you get and what you use to get it is called;gain;loss;gross energy;profit;net energy;83. An old-growth forest would be defined as;a commercial forest older than 30 years;a forest undisturbed for at least 50 years;a second-growth forest undisturbed for at least 100 years;a re-planted forest that has had little disturbance for 100 years;an uncut or regenerated primary forest undisturbed for several hundred years;84. Which of the following is NOT one of the external geologic processes driven by energy from the sun?;formation of mountains;wind erosion;weathering;water erosion;glacial erosion;85. The dimly lit zone in which zooplankton and smaller fishes predominate, is the;abyssal zone;euphotic zone;estuary zone;bathyal zone;benthic zone;86. Forests cover about _____ % of the U.S. land area.;10;15;25;30;50;87. The continuous, low level extinction of species that has occurred since the beginning of life on earth is called;continual extinction;mass extinction;background extinction;local extinction;biological extinction;88. Which of the following countries has a significant whaling industry and whale meat market?;United States;Australia;Great Britain;Japan;China;89. The most important factor in determining which biome is found in a particular area is;soil type;topography;geology;climate;landforms;90. The root cause of food insecurity is;war;political upheaval;poverty;corruption;climate change;91. The location on the earth?s surface above where an earthquake begins is called its;apex;focus;magnitude;epicenter;fault;92. The world?s single largest cause of illness is;malaria;typhoid;mosquitoes;poor health;unsafe drinking water;93. The middle, partially melted zone of the interior of the earth is called the;crust;tectonic plate;core;mantle;magma;94. Which part of the earth?s crust makes up 71% of the crust?;oceanic crust;asthenosphere;lithosphere;continental crust;geosphere;95. Which of the following describes a local area?s short-term temperature, precipitation, and humidity?;climate;weather;rainshadow;thermal inversions;wind patterns;96. Approximately _____ of the commercial energy used in the U.S. is wasted;25%;58%;65%;78%;84%;97. In 2008 approximately 36% of the commercial honeybee colonies in the U.S. were lost due to?;habitat loss;climate change;hybridization with African honey bees;colony collapse disorder;pesticide use;98. It takes approximately ____ barrels of water to produce one barrel of shale oil;1;2;5;10;25;99. Prevailing winds are the result of what?;temperature;direction the sun strikes the earth;rotation of the earth on its axis;ocean currents;sun storms;100. Which of the following refers to the ability of a living system to be restored after a period of moderate disturbance?;stability;inertia;constancy;stability;resilience;77. Deep lakes with steep banks that have a small supply of plant nutrients are;oligotrophic lakes;eutrophic lakes;culturally eutrophic lakes;hypereutrophic lakes;mesotrophic lakes;78. The most effective water heater;is an electric water tank;is a gas water heater;is an oil water heater;is a tankless instant water heater fired by natural gas;is a propane water heater;79. One-third of the human food supply comes from plant that are pollinated by;bats;birds;insects;wind;mammals;80. The direct threat of climate change to marine habitat is;increase in carbon storage in oceans;spread of tropical diseases;decreased salinity of water;rising sea levels;UV radiation from ozone depletion;81. The greatest marine biodiversity is located;in the bottom region of the ocean;in the surface region of the ocean;in the coastal region of the ocean;in the open ocean;in coral reefs;82. It is necessary to use energy to get energy. The difference between what you get and what you use to get it is called;gain;loss;gross energy;profit;net energy;83. An old-growth forest would be defined as;a commercial forest older than 30 years;a forest undisturbed for at least 50 years;a second-growth forest undisturbed for at least 100 years;a re-planted forest that has had little disturbance for 100 years;an uncut or regenerated primary forest undisturbed for several hundred years;84. Which of the following is NOT one of the external geologic processes driven by energy from the sun?;formation of mountains;wind erosion;weathering;water erosion;glacial erosion;85. The dimly lit zone in which zooplankton and smaller fishes predominate, is the;abyssal zone;euphotic zone;estuary zone;bathyal zone;benthic zone;86. Forests cover about _____ % of the U.S. land area.;10;15;25;30;50;87. The continuous, low level extinction of species that has occurred since the beginning of life on earth is called;continual extinction;mass extinction;background extinction;local extinction;biological extinction;88. Which of the following countries has a significant whaling industry and whale meat market?;United States;Australia;Great Britain;Japan;China;89. The most important factor in determining which biome is found in a particular area is;soil type;topography;geology;climate;landforms;90. The root cause of food insecurity is;war;political upheaval;poverty;corruption;climate change;91. The location on the earth?s surface above where an earthquake begins is called its;apex;focus;magnitude;epicenter;fault;92. The world?s single largest cause of illness is;malaria;typhoid;mosquitoes;poor health;unsafe drinking water;93. The middle, partially melted zone of the interior of the earth is called the;crust;tectonic plate;core;mantle;magma;94. Which part of the earth?s crust makes up 71% of the crust?;oceanic crust;asthenosphere;lithosphere;continental crust;geosphere;95. Which of the following describes a local area?s short-term temperature, precipitation, and humidity?;climate;weather;rainshadow;thermal inversions;wind patterns;96. Approximately _____ of the commercial energy used in the U.S. is wasted;25%;58%;65%;78%;84%;97. In 2008 approximately 36% of the commercial honeybee colonies in the U.S. were lost due to?;habitat loss;climate change;hybridization with African honey bees;colony collapse disorder;pesticide use;98. It takes approximately ____ barrels of water to produce one barrel of shale oil;1;2;5;10;25;99. Prevailing winds are the result of what?;temperature;direction the sun strikes the earth;rotation of the earth on its axis;ocean currents;sun storms;100. Which of the following refers to the ability of a living system to be restored after a period of moderate disturbance?;stability;inertia;constancy;stability;resilience

 

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