Which of the following is most likely to be an assumption of psychological;researchers? (A) Human behavior is unpredictable and random. (B) Behavior;follows discoverable, predictable patterns. (C) All explanations of behavior are;to be found in the environment. (D) Human behavior is the result of predeter-;mined forces acting upon the individual.;2. Which of the following outcomes is most likely when you are relearning pre-;viously learned material? (A) You will need to study twice as long, because of;interference by all the things you learned between the original learning and the;relearning. (B) Your free recall ability will increase faster than any type of rec-;ognition memory. (C) You will relearn the material faster and more easily than;you did during the original learning. (D) Although the material can be relearned;you will be more susceptible to the effects of context-dependencies (e.g., state-;specific learning, mood congruence, encoding specificity).;3. Whenever Aaron, who has been involved in his school?s Theater department for;a few years, first gets a script, he practices alone, repeating his lines until they;sound realistic to him. He has noticed that his performance improves signific-;antly whenever he participates in dress rehearsals with the other actors. Which;of the following best describes his improved performance? (A) deindividuation;(B) bystander intervention, (C) social facilitation, (D) groupthink.;4. Contemporary memory researchers: (A) are no longer conducting research on;short-term memory, (B) have turned to the study of memory for meaningful;materials, (C) have given up the goal of discovering the basic principles that;underlie human memory, (D) have concluded that there is no relationship be-;tween how well information is learned and the difficulty we?ll have remember-;ing it.;5. Kathleen trains her dog by giving him a treat every time he obeys her and;scolding him whenever he disobeys. Her training method most closely re-;sembles: (A) the law of effect, (B) the doctrine of specific nerve energies;(C) Gestalt principles of organization, (D) functionalism.;6. One important function of the sympathetic nervous system is to: (A) increase the;flow of blood to the digestive system at appropriate times, (B) increase the flow;of blood to the muscles at appropriate times, (C) activate functioning of the;kidneys and bowels, (D) stimulate the production of growth hormone.;7. Research on flashbulb memories indicates that: (A) decay does not occur for;these memories, (B) interference does not occur for these memories, (C) these;memories are largely susceptible to the same errors as other types of memory;(D) these memories are immune to the kinds of errors that occur with other types;of memory.PSYC 100 - Introductory Psychology University of Maryland University College;Final Examination Fall, 2014;8. Ebbinghaus observed that he needed fewer study-test trials to relearn a list that;he had already learned at an earlier time. He referred to this residual effect of;prior learning as: (A) priming, (B) savings, (C) partial report, (D) the serial;position effect.;9. On what basis was intelligence compared to hard-core pornography in lecture?;(A) Both are inherited. (B) Both are easy to define but difficult to recognize.;(C) Both are difficult to define but easy to recognize. (D) Both are easily ob-;tained in large cities.;10. Research shows that people who are overweight eat more chocolate than people;who are not. Jill interprets this finding as meaning that chocolate makes people;fat, whereas Bill interprets the same finding as meaning that being overweight;results in eating more chocolate. Their debate illustrates which of the following?;(A) the third variable problem, (B) the directionality problem, (C) the effect of;confounds, (D) the effect of random assignment.;11. If you want to increase your chances of successful recall, a general rule is that;your ability to remember will be greatest when: (A) there is a match between;the circumstances surrounding your encoding and your retrieval, (B) there is a;mismatch between the circumstances surrounding your encoding and your re-;trieval, (C) information from the outside world is prevented from entering your;short-term memory, (D) information from long-term memory is prevented from;entering your short-term memory.;12. During the summer, both homicide rates and ice cream consumption go up. Of;course, both of these increases are driven by increases in temperature. If some-;one concluded that increased ice cream consumption actually caused increased;homicide rates, which of the following errors would they NOT be committing?;(A) mistaking correlation for causation, (B) establishing a spurious correlation;between ice cream and homicide, (C) overlooking the third variable, temper-;ature, (D) engaging in selection bias.;13. You have been inspired to conduct your own psychology experiment and would;like some advice. You explain to your instructor that you wish to study the;effects of certain smells on anxiety, but you are unsure about how to measure;anxiety. What kind of advice would your instructor be most likely to offer?;(A) Give up now, because anxiety is impossible to measure. (B) You must rely;on common sense definitions of anxiety, that is, ask your friends what it means.;(C) Try to find the real meaning of anxiety before trying to measure it. (D) You;should study the literature to see how others have operationally defined anxiety.;14. Beth Loftus? research on eyewitness memory has shown that: (A) eyewitness;testimony is very accurate, regardless of pretrial investigation, (B) retrieval cues;can bias eyewitness accounts, (C) eyewitness memory is highly resistant to lead-;ing questions, (D) women are generally more accurate eyewitnesses than men.PSYC 100 - Introductory Psychology University of Maryland University College;Final Examination Fall, 2014;15. Which of the following conclusions was drawn from George Sperling?s (1960);studies comparing whole report and partial report of the contents of a brief;visual display? (A) Very short term sensory memory can hold more infor-;mation than was once thought possible. (B) Semantic encoding leads to the;deepest levels of processing. (C) Information that is unrehearsed will not be;transferred (i.e., ?consolidated?) to long-term memory. (D) Memory reports;of eyewitnesses are unreliable.;16. Betty, who has stopped menstruating, knows that she is grossly underweight.;Yet she claims to see ?fat? on her when she looks in the mirror. Iris, who still;menstruates and is of normal weight, regularly engages in binge eating followed;by purging. Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes;their conditions? (A) Betty suffers from anorexia nervosa and Iris suffers from;bulimia nervosa. (B) Iris suffers from anorexia nervosa and Betty suffers from;bulimia nervosa. (C) They both suffer from bulimia nervosa. (D) They both;suffer from anorexia nervosa.;17. One type of visual illusion is the ______, which requires multiple fixations be-;fore the illusion is recognized as such. (A) illusory conjunction, (B) ventrilo-;quism effect, (C) impossible figure, (D) phi phenomenon.;18. Which of the following can be concluded from Posner?s studies of mental;coding? (A) Additional processing speeds up processing time. (B) Additional;processing leads to slower response times. (C) Faster response times mean;greater task difficulty. (D) Faster response times are always associated with;greater accuracy.;19. The Gestalt group of psychologists well known for studying: (A) perceptual per-;formance in stressful conditions, (B) issues of free will and personal responsibil-;ity, (C) organizational processes in perception, (D) the physiology of the eye.;20. Using the High Amplitude Sucking Procedure (HASP), what would you expect;to happen if an auditory stimulus presented to a one month-old human infant;remains the same? (A) The rate of sucking will remain constant. (B) The suck-;ing rate will gradually increase. (C) The sucking rate will fluctuate. (D) The;sucking rate will decrease.;21. If you electrically stimulated a rat?s lateral hypothalamus (LH), what would you;expect to happen? (A) The rat would start sleeping. (B) The rat would become;alert. (C) The rat would seek food. (D) The rat would stop eating.;22. Maternal hormones: (A) have little effect on fetal development, since the fetus;is isolated from the mother?s blood supply, (B) can have important effects on;such things as intellectual development and gender identity, (C) can affect phys-;ical development, such as the time a child will begin walking, but not mental;abilities, like IQ, (D) none of the above.PSYC 100 - Introductory Psychology University of Maryland University College;Final Examination Fall, 2014;23. You and your friends go out to dinner. The waiter is slow to greet you, con-;fuses your drink orders, and forgets to bring your appetizers. Some of your;friends complain that the waiter is a jerk and that they don?t intend to tip him.;You reply that you?ve waited tables in the and that the waiter is probably;just having a bad night. Your friends are making a(n) ______ attribution;while you are making a(n) ______ attribution. (A) dispositional, situational;(B) situational, dispositional, (C) groupthink, altruistic, (D) altruistic, group-;think.;24. The separation of figure from ground is: (A) an illusion, (B) inherent in the;visual stimulus, (C) a sensory process, accomplished by the receptors, (D) a;perceptual process, accomplished by the brain.;25. After studying a textbook chapter for a test, a student goes over the material;with his study group. He knows the material from the beginning and end of the;chapter very well, but he remembers very little from the middle of the chapter.;The student?s memory for the chapter illustrates what psychologists call the;effect. (A) primacy, (B) recency, (C) serial position, (D) levels of;processing.;26. A famous study conducted by LaPiere (1934) showed that, when a Chinese;couple attempted to visit a hotel or restaurant, almost all of the establishments;them, which was ________ with their written policy. (A) accepted;consistent, (B) accepted, inconsistent, (C) rejected, consistent, (D) rejected;inconsistent.;27. Sperling?s (1960) procedure was called a ?partial report? procedure because;(A) only some of the subjects were asked to recall the displayed letters, (B) only;some of the letters of the alphabet were used, (C) some subjects were better at;recalling the displayed letters than others, (D) subjects were asked to report only;one row of the displayed letters.;28. Cannon and Washburn?s (1912) theory of hunger has been disconfirmed by evid-;ence showing that a person will still report experiencing hunger when his or her;(A) hypothalamus is damaged, (B) stomach has been removed, (C) blood sugar;level is high, (D) ability to taste food has been lost.;29. A food-deprived rat?s hypothalamus is electrically stimulated with a chronically;implanted electrode, and the rat immediately stops eating. The electrode is most;likely to be located in the rat?s: (A) stomach, (B) LGN, or lateral geniculate nu-;cleus, (C) pituitary gland, (D) VMN, or ventromedial nucleus.;30. According to the ethical principle of informed consent, before people agree to;participate in research, they should be informed about: (A) the study?s purpose;and procedures, (B) the study?s potential benefits, (C) potential risks to subjects;(D) all of the above.PSYC 100 - Introductory Psychology University of Maryland University College;Final Examination Fall, 2014;31. Which of the following correctly specifies an assumption of the James-Lange;theory? (A) Emotional feelings depend on feedback from physiological reac-;tions and behavior. (B) Physiological reactions and cognitive interpretations;together form subjective feelings. (C) The body is a machine governed by phys-;ical reactions to stimuli, while the mind is the soul and is governed by reason.;(D) Processing in subcortical pathways causes both an emotional experience;and a physical experience.;32. The problems of confounding due to placebo effects and experimenter expec-;tancy effects can both be minimized by: (A) random sampling, (B) random;assignment, (C) unobtrusive measurement, (D) a double-blind procedure.;33. Imagine that you and a friend have witnessed an accident. Afterwards, while;discussing what was seen, your friend introduces some inaccurate information;into his description of the events. If you are like many of the participants in;eyewitness memory research, when questioned at some future time: (A) both;you and your friend will have very little memory of the accident, (B) your mem-;ory is likely to be accurate and your friend?s will be inaccurate, (C) your mem-;ory is likely to be affected by your friend?s inaccurate observations, (D) your;friend?s memory is likely to be more accurate than your memory.;34. Traditionally, the ______ effect is interpreted to mean that the first few items;in a list are more readily recalled, during a free recall test, because ______.;(A) recency, they have received more rehearsal and are more likely to have;been stored in long-term memory, (B) recency, they are still in short-term;working memory, (C) primacy, they have received more rehearsal and are;more likely to have been stored in long-term memory, (D) primacy, they are;still in short-term, working memory.;35. One of the key features of George Sperling?s (1960) partial report procedure;was that: (A) subjects knew which row of the stimulus array to report before the;information was displayed, (B) subjects knew which row to report only after the;information was presented, (C) the tone was presented simultaneously with the;information to be reported, (D) some subjects were allowed to view the display;longer than the other subjects.;36. Considering what you?ve been learning about the principles of critical thinking;which of the following is probably the most problematic aspect of ESP ?re-;search? for scientists? (A) the people who conduct it are biased in favor of ESP;(B) proponents of ESP make claims that are not falsifiable, (C) ESP psychics are;not scientists, (D) whether ESP works is not an empirical question.;37. Transmission of neural impulses across synapses is accomplished by means of;(A) inorganic ions, such as sodium and potassium, (B) organic molecules, such;as acetylcholine and dopamine, (C) electrical impulses, (D) intermittent physical;contact between the relevant neurons.PSYC 100 - Introductory Psychology University of Maryland University College;Final Examination Fall, 2014;38. In a crowded and noisy bar, your friend Sean is telling you about an argument he;just had with his girlfriend. Despite the dozens of other conversations happening;around you, you have no difficulty attending to what Sean is saying. This sit-;uation is an example of: (A) instinctive drift, (B) shadowing, (C) inhibition;of return, (D) the cocktail party phenomenon.;39. The ?fight-or-flight? response is mobilized by the: (A) sympathetic nervous;system, (B) parasympathetic nervous system, (C) central nervous system;(D) somatic nervous system.;40. If differences among people in their IQ scores are based largely on differences in;heredity, we should expect to find that: (A) the correlation of IQ scores should;be higher for fraternal twins than for identical twins, (B) the correlation of IQ;scores should be higher for identical twins than for fraternal twins, (C) children;reared by their own parents should have higher IQs than do children reared by;adoptive parents, (D) children reared by adoptive parents should have higher;IQs than do children reared by their own parents.;41. Your son has been getting into a lot of fights at school, and his teachers explain;this behavior by saying he has ?a strong aggressive instinct.? Which error has;been committed? (A) the hindsight bias, (B) the either-or fallacy, (C) the Freud;problem, (D) the nominal fallacy.;42. John B. Watson was so passionate about his behaviorist perspective that he;believed that he could take 12 infants and: (A) identify their most likely pro-;fessions based on genetics, (B) identify their most likely professions based;on their personalities, (C) identify their most likely professions based on;culture, (D) train them to pursue whatever professions he chose for them.;43. In Aldous Huxley?s Brave New World, infants develop a fear of roses after roses;have been repeatedly presented with electric shock. In this fictional example;the presentation of the roses is the: (A) conditioned stimulus, (B) conditioned;response, (C) unconditioned stimulus, (D) unconditioned response.;44. The appearance of facial expressions in blind and deaf children, such as smiling;when happy, supports which statement about emotional expressions? (A) Emo-;tional expressions are innate. (B) Emotional expressions are learned. (C) Cer-;tain expressions are unique to deaf and blind children. (D) Only a very limited;number of emotion expressions are utilized by blind and deaf children.;45. Bob is American and Lee is Japanese. Which of the following best summarizes;how they will experience and display basic emotions? (A) They will experience;emotions in completely different manners. (B) They will experience emotions;differently, but display them similarly. (C) They will experience emotions sim-;ilarly, but display them differently. (D) They will both experience and display;emotions in completely different manners.PSYC 100 - Introductory Psychology University of Maryland University College;Final Examination Fall, 2014;46. One important difference between radical Behaviorism and cognitive psychol-;ogy is that cognitive psychology: (A) argues that unobservable mental states can;be scientifically studied, (B) rejects the use of human participants, (C) insists on;studying topics that can be directly and objectively observed, (D) emphasizes;the evolutionary roots of our behavior.;47. If you doubt that the answer to the next question is ?C,? because you have an-;swered ?C? for the last four or five questions, you are suffering from: (A) the;serial position effect, (B) an illusory correlation, (C) the gambler?s fallacy;(D) anterograde amnesia.;48. Reflex responses, which are central to classical conditioning, are: (A) naturally;occurring associations between stimuli, (B) learned responses to specific stimuli;(C) naturally elicited, unlearned responses, (D) conditioned behaviors.;49. Which of the following illustrates the use of a within-subjects design? (A) Chil-;dren at three different age levels are given a test of their motor coordination.;(B) Participants are given a spelling test, then asked to meditate for 10 minutes;then given another spelling test. (C) The artistic abilities of males are compared;to the artistic abilities of females. (D) One group of participants is given a com-;pliment before solving problems and a second group is criticized before solving;problems.;50. What is the main problem with research that contains confounds? (A) A clear;interpretation of the results is not possible. (B) The data do not support the;hypothesis. (C) The theory is generally regarded as incorrect. (D) None of;the above, because confounds do not pose any problems.
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