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Which statement is consistent with a reductionistic perspective?




Psych 100 Wk 2 Test;1. Which statement is consistent with a reductionistic perspective?;Most aspects of human behavior are easily explained by biological factors, environmental influence on behavior is negligible.;Studying the brain at the cellular level is not necessary to explain human behavior, understanding brain function at the anatomical level is sufficient.;Understanding how isolated brain regions integrate information at the cellular level is sufficient for explaining human behavior.;Understanding brain cell communication is important for understanding human behavior, but it is just one component that ties into the bigger picture.;2. Hal meets some friends at a local sports bar. After drinking several beers, Hal picks a fight with someone that he thinks is giving him "dirty" looks. Normally very mellow and calm, the alcohol has interfered with Hal's judgment, causing him to lose control. Which theory BEST explains Hal's behavior?;Dawson's theory that people use alcohol as an excuse to act in ways they truly desire.;Jackson's theory that the nervous system is organized as a hierarchy.;Anderson's theory that our behavior is linked more to physiological cues than environmental cues.;Friedrich's theory that the brain behaves differently when people are in groups vs. isolation.;3. Mariah is a neuroscience graduate student interested in understanding how the human brain processes early childhood memories. What techniques should Mariah use to determine which brain regions are activated when someone recalls their first memory?;single cell recording;positron emission tomography (PET);evoked potential;transcranial magnetic stimulation;4. Prof. Kingston is interested in understanding the origins of gambling addictions. To study the brain activity of gambling addicts, Prof. Kingston tracks oxygen flow in their brains while they engage in online gambling. What method is he MOST likely using?;single cell recording;transcranial magnetic stimulation;functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI);magnetoencephalography;5. If channels in the outer membrane of a neuron were blocked, what would be the consequence?;Membrane fluidity would be impaired and the neuron would undergo apoptosis.;Osmosis would be disrupted and the neuron would be unable to communicate.;Many chemicals would not be able to move into and out of the neuron, disrupting communication.;The neuron would be deprived of oxygen and would undergo necrotic death.;6. In hopes of better understanding how glia affect brain repair, Dr. Jennings develops a special mouse lacking specific types of glia. In her experimental design, Dr. Jennings injures the brain of this special mouse and monitors neuronal repair. What is Dr. Jennings likely to observe?;Action potentials can no longer propagate in unmyelinated nerves.;Cell debris from damaged neurons is not cleared.;A blood-brain barrier is formed in response to the injury.;Neurons undergo hypermyelination.;7. Following a spinal cord injury, formation of the _____ prevents neuronal regeneration in the _____.;blood-brain barrier, central nervous system;blood-brain barrier, peripheral nervous system;glial scar, central nervous system;glial scar, peripheral nervous system;8. Neuronal communication is a 2-step process. In the 2nd step, which takes place between two neurons, what does the arrival of an action potential at the axon terminal of the first neuron signal?;The synthesis of neurotransmitters by specialized enzymes.;The uptake of neurotransmitters from the extracellular space.;The enzymatic breakdown of residual neurotransmitters.;The release of neurotransmitters into the extracellular fluid.;9. A squid axon is large enough to be visible to the naked eye, while a human axon can only be viewed with a microscope. Compared with an action potential for a human axon, the size of an action potential for a squid axon will be ____.;the same;smaller;larger;smaller or larger depending on the length of the axon;10. Prof. Freeman calls on his student Maya to describe how the presence of myelin affects an action potential. Maya should repsond with which of the following statements?;Current flows along the unmyelinated segments and action potentials propagate along the myelinated portions of the axon, decreasing the speed and efficiency of the action potential.;Current flows under the myelin segments and action potentials propagate along the unmyelinated segments of the axon, decreasing the speed and efficiency of the action potential.;Current flows under the unmyelinated segments and action potentials propagate along the myelinated portions of the axon, increasing the speed and efficiency of the action potential.;Current flows under the myelin and action potentials propagate along the unmyelinated segments of the axon, increasing the speed and efficiency of the action potential.;11. The arrival of a(n)_____ causes synaptic vesicles to be released from their protein anchors, allowing the vesicles to fuse with the cell membrane and release ____ into the synaptic cleft.;action potential, neurotransmitters;neurotransmitter, an electrical charge;action potential, an electrical charge;neurotransmitter, more neurotransmitters;12. Molly, a 2nd year neuroscience graduate student, treats neurons grown in a petri dish with drugs that "block" the function of neuronal receptors. What is a consequence of the drug treatment?;The neurons will become hyperpolarized, initiating a refractory period.;The neurons will not be able to "sense" neurotransmitters, blocking neuronal communication;The synaptic vesicles will be void of neurotransmitters, blocking neuronal communication.;Action potentials will fire immediately, enhancing neuronal communication.;13. How do drugs classified as "SSRIs," such as Prozac, alter neuronal communication?;They increase the effectiveness of the neurotransmitter serotonin by stopping its diffusion from the synaptic cleft.;They decrease the effectiveness of the neurotransmitter serotonin by returning it to the axon terminal for recycling.;They increase the effectiveness of the neurotransmitter serotonin by blocking its reuptake from the axon terminal.;They decrease the effectiveness of the neurotransmitter serotonin by facilitating its metabolism by neuronal enzymes.;14. A well-known local herbalist sells the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) as "the body's natural tranquilizer," stating that it helps to calm the central nervous system and prevent anxiety and stress-related messages from reaching the motor centers of the brain. This portrayal reflects GABA's _____.;inhibitory effect on brain activity;depolarizing properties;lack of hyperpolarization;excitatory effect on brain activity;15. Washington State is one of several states that actively tracks and investigates pesticide-related illnesses. In an attempt to understand how to minimize the devastating effects of these illnesses, the state initiated a research program to study the relationship between pesticides and the neurotransmitter _______.;endorphins;acetylcholine;noreprinephrine;dopamine;16. Doris's heart suddenly races as a speeding car nearly collides with hers on the highway. Which neurotransmitter is playing a role in this response?;norepinephrine;GABA;serotonin;dopamine;17. Rodney, who has _____, takes medication to help offset the depletion of _____ in his brain. However, although the medication is helping his condition, his wife is alarmed that as a consequence of the medication, Rodney recently developed a gambling addiction.;Parkinson's disease, dopamine;posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), serotonin;bipolar disorder, norephinephrine;Alzheimer's disease, acetylcholine;18. John reports to his doctor that he has been experiencing changes in his appetite. This suggests that John is experiencing fluctuations in which neurotransmitter?;acetylcholine;histamine;glutamate;serotonin;19. The nervous system is divided into two major components: the ____ and the _____.;autonomic nervous system, somatic nervous system;central nervous system, somatic nervous system;central nervous system, peripheral nervous system;peripheral nervous system, autonomic nervous system;20. Officers of the federal Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) recently broke up a ring of drug traffickers involved in dealing oxycodone, a prescription pain killer that mimics the action of ______ at the synapse.;acetylcholine;endorphins;serotonin;dopamine;21, The brain and the spinal cord form the ______.;autonomic nervous system;peripheral nervous system;central nervous system;somatic nervous system;22. What system transmits commands for voluntary movement from the central nervous system to the muscles and brings sensory input back to the CNS for further processing?;autonomic;somatic;parasympathetic;sympathetic;23. What is the major function of the spinal cord?;It provides structural support for the trunk of the body.;It serves as a major conduit for information flowing to and from the brain.;It sends sensory information from the brain to the peripheral nervous system.;It serves as a centralized muscle mass that coordinates intricate muscle movements.;24. A(n)______ is a neuron that carries information from the external environment, or from the body, back to the central nervous system.;sensory neuron;interneuron;cerebellar neuron;motor neuron;25. What is an accurate statement regarding interneurons found in the central nervous system?;They form bridges between sensory and motor neurons.;They block motor output to allow for sensory input.;They block sensory input to allow for motor output.;They as as either sensory or motor neurons.;26. The _____ is the part of the peripheral nervous system that directs the activity of glands, organs, and smooth muscles.;somatic nervous system;endocrine system;autonomic nervous system;central nervous system;27. Which of the following is an example of the autonomic nervous system at work?;Manoj enjoys listening to bird songs early in the morning.;Rachel's foot kicks out when her physician taps her knee.;Peter struggles to scratch an itch in the middle of his back.;Gina salivates at the smell of fresh bread baking in her grandmother's kitchen.;28. The ______ is the division of the autonomic nervous system associated with rest, repair, and energy storage.;parasympathetic nervous system;somatic nervous system;endocrine system;sympathetic nervous system;29. Which of the following is an accurate match between a division of the autonomic nervous system and a bodily function or state?;sympathetic, constricts pupils;parasympathetic, stimulates digestion;sympathetic, stimulates immune response;parasympathetic, induces rapid heart beat;30. When do sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions cooperate, rather than antagonize one another?;during sexual activity;at times of relative calm;when a fight-or-flight response is required;following the ingestion of a meal;31. The allocation of responsibilities between the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system are least effective at appropriately dealing with ______.;battle;natural disasters;bountiful harvests;chronic stress;32. Damage to which part of the brain would result in death due to the loss of heart function and blood pressure regulation?;midbrain;medulla;pons;cerebellum;33. Police Officer Amy Randall suspects that the driver of a car in front of her is driving under the influence of alcohol. She pulls the driver over and administers a field sobriety test. She asks the driver to stand on one leg so that she can evaluate the driver's balance. This test is performed because the ______ is one of the first structures in the brain to be affected by alcohol.;cerebellum;cerebral cortex;pons;medulla;34. Damage to the midbrain would MOST likely result in ______.;the inability to speak;changes in pain perception;the inability to regulate blood pressure;difficulties with facial expressions;35. Stephanie reports to her physician that she suddenly cannot sleep because she is unable to tune out noises such as the humming of the refrigerator or an occasional car driving down the street. After undergoing an MRI, she finds out that she has a tumor in her _____.;reticular formation;cerebellum;hippocampus;thalamus;36. Why is the thalamus referred to as the "gateway to the cortex?;Motor outputs generated in the cerebral cortex are funneled first through the thalamus, which then sends inputs to the motor neurons.;Input from most of our sensory systems travels first to the thalamus, which then funnels the information to the cerebral cortex.;Motor outputs generated in the thalamus are funneled first through the cerebral cortex, which then sends inputs to the motor neurons.;Input from most of our sensory systems travels first to the cerebral cortex, which then funnels the information to the thalamus.;37. Parkinson's disease, characterized by difficulties in initiating voluntary movements, is caused by degeneration of the _____.;amygdala;cerebral cortex;basal ganglia;cerebellum;38. Rima washes her hands repeatedly, unable to find relief from the thought that they are dirty or contaminated. This obsessive behavior may be related to a disorder of the _______.;thalamus;hippocampus;nucleus accumbens;basal ganglia;39. Christopher suffered a traumatic brain injury in an automobile accident. Since the accident, he has great difficulty in forming new memories but remembers his childhood well, which suggests that his _____ was damaged.;hippocampus;hypothalamus;basal ganglia;amygdala;40. The cingulate cortex is a subcortical structure above the corpus callosum. Its anterior (forward) segment participates in _____, and its posterior (rear) segment participates in _____.;memory & visual processing, decision-making and emotion;the four F's, formation of long-term memories;decision-making && emotion;memory & visual processing;formation of long-term memories, the four F's;41. Dr. Stevens, a drug addiction researcher, hopes to find a drug that will stop heroin addiction. Which area of the brain is MOST likely a focus of Dr. Steven's research?;hypothalamus;hippocampus;nucleus accumbens;amygdala;42. What would be a consequence of destroying the corpus callosum?;The left & right cerebral hemispheres would not be able to effectively communicate.;A person would have difficulty breathing.;A severe movement disorder would eventually emerge.;A person would lose the ability to experience fear.;43. Comprised primarily of ____, the degree of convolutions in the cerebral cortex positively correlates with the ____ of a species.;white matter, size;gray matter, size;gray matter, intellectual capacity;white matter, intellectual capacity;44. Mrs. Agos is unable to recognize her husband by sight when he enters her hospital room. However, once she hears his voice, she recognizes him. Mrs. Agos has likely suffered damage to her _____.;Wernicke's area;temporal lobe;Broca's area;parietal lobe;45. When a specialized function of the cerebral cortex occurs on either the right or the left hemispheres, this is referred to as ______.;bipolarity;localization;lateralization;categorization;46. Stefan is ____, therefore, he is nearly certain to lateralize language to his left hemisphere.;left-handed;ambidextrous;right-handed;bidextrous;47. The endocrine system is directly involved with _____.;movement and balance;pleasure and pain;arousal, metabolism, growth and sex;vision, hearing, and taste;48. Piya suffers from severe jet lag when traveling between Bangkok and Boston. He might benefit from an added dose of the chemical messenger_____, which is endogenously released by the _____.;thyroid hormone, thyroid gland;melatonin, pineal gland;Oxytocin, pituitary gland;insulin, islets of Langerhans;49. Henry works the night shift at a convenience store. He sees a man entering the store with his hood up, hands in his pockets, and eyes darting around. This causes Henry's stress level to surge. At times of stress, pituitary hormones activate the ____ gland(s), which release(s) other hormones, including _____, that travel throughout the body & brain to provide a general "wake up" message.;Pancreatic, insulin;Pineal, melatonin;c. thyroid, serotonin;d. adrenal, cortisol;50. Lower than normal levels of hormones released from the ______, which raises or lowers metabolism, can mimic the symptoms of ______.;a. islets of Langerhans, diabetes;b. pineal gland, insomnia;c. thyroid gland, depression;d. adrenal gland, chronic stress


Paper#21022 | Written in 18-Jul-2015

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