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Select a neurological, psychological, or neurodevelopmental disorder.




Select a neurological, psychological, or neurodevelopmental disorder.;Write a 2,450- to 3,500-word paper comparing and contrasting three therapeutic interventions used to treat this disorder. Compare measures of effectiveness, such as validity, efficacy, symptom and behavior management, and recidivism. One therapy should be cognitive in nature, one should be pharmacological in nature, and the third should be an alternative therapeutic treatment.;Identify common symptoms associated with your disorder and rates of symptom reduction or management as reported with the three treatments. Based on your research, what would be your approach to treating the condition? Identify which treatments you would use. Explain why.;Analyze the neurophysiological underpinnings of diseases and disorders.;Examine contemporary attitudes toward the three treatments you selected.;Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines.;Include 7 to 10 peer-reviewed sources.;Additional Requirements;Min Pages: 8;Max Pages: 10;Level of Detail: Show all work;Other Requirements: I already started on a paper I just need to add more information;The paper;Disorder;Around the world different people suffers from different types of disorder. Some affect their ability to cope around others, while others affect their ability to function and no normal things. There are different symptoms for different disorders, but some share common symptoms. In treating different behavior people use different types of therapeutic interventions to help make a person suffer from a certain disorder get better and minimize certain symptoms.;Schizophrenia;One disorder that has been affecting about one percent of the world population is Schizophrenia (Carlson, 2011). van Os and Kapur (2009) believes that schizophrenia ?is still one of the most mysterious and costliest mental disorders in terms of human suffering and societal expenditure? (p. 635). Schizophrenia is a serious mental disorder and has many symptoms that cause people not to function normally if they have it. When it comes to schrizophrenia symptoms can start from the adolescent years to a person early adulthood. The symptoms of this disorder are categorized into three different categories. These categories are positive, negative, and cognitive. Within each category different symptoms of Schizophrenia are broken down. In the positive symptoms those that suffer from Schizophrenia would have hallucination, disorder thoughts, and be delusional (Carlson, 2010). A person suffering from Schizophrenia will have disorganized thought and would just utter words that do not make any sense. A Schizophrenic person would be delusional and think that people or groups of people are forming against them and want to harm them (Carlson, 2010). They may also hear voices talking to them, which in their mind may think is telling them who is plotting against them and what they want to do to them. The negative symptoms of schizophrenia include poor speech, social withdrawal, lack of initiative and persistence, flattered emotional response, and the inability to have sexual pleasure experiences (Carlson, 2010). Cognitive symptoms are different. Cognitive symptoms are produces because of abnormality in certain regions of the person brain. Because of this people with schizophrenia have difficult time paying attention, their abstract thinking and problem solving are poor, they are deficits in learning and memory, and their ability to do certain simple movements are low (Carlson, 2010).;There are ways that doctors diagnose someone they believe is suffering from schizophrenia. Genetics has been linked to people that suffers from schizophrenia to other family members. Van Os and Kapur (2009) stated that ?the diagnosis of schizophrenia is associated with demonstrable alterations in brain structure and changes in dopamine neurotransmission, the latter being directly related to hallucinations and delusions? (p. 635). There is evidence that can be seen that shows that schizophrenia is also a biological disorder. Different studies have been done to show certain biological traits to support these facts. Paternal age of a child can also predict if a child would suffer from schizophrenic if the child was born when their father being older and because of increase in mutation of a certain age in the cell that produces a man sperms (Carlson, 2010). In order to diagnose schizophrenia different five different categories are looked at and the criteria of these categories can be distinguished the categories of psychotic disorder are based on dysfunction, the bizarreness of their delusions, the duration of symptoms, the presence of depression, and association of substance use (Van Os & Kapur, 2009). Because some of these are common with people that suffer from bipolar disorder there is an overlap of the two disorders that are shown in the diagnosis process.;Different Therapies for Schizophrenia;There are different ways that those suffering from schizophrenia can be treated. Three different types of therapies that are used to help those suffering from this disorder are cognitive therapy, pharmacological therapy, and alternative therapeutic treatment. One cognitive therapy that is given to those suffering from schizophrenia is Cognitive behavioral therapy. Different techniques that are used in different therapy sessions help a person identify and correct distorted conceptualization underlying the experience of hallucinations and delusions (Beck & Rector, 2000). Studies has shown that because of cognitive behavioral therapy those that are schizophrenic have become more motived and are able to function normally among other people in social event. Cognitive behavioral therapy also he reduce the negative symptoms of the disorder. It is also shown effective when combine with based medication for the disorder (Beck & Rector, 2000). There are certain techniques that are used in cognitive behavioral therapy to help improve a person suffering from schizophrenia. Turkington, Kingdon, and Weiden (2006) state that ?Some of the key stages of cognitive behavior therapy include 1) developing a therapeutic alliance based on the patient's perspective, 2) developing alternative explanations of schizophrenia symptoms, 3) reducing the impact of positive and negative symptoms, and 4) offering alternatives to the medical model to address medication adherence? (p.267). There should be a certain amount of therapy session over a certain period of time to get better results.;Another type of therapy that is used to help those suffering from schizophrenia is pharmacological therapy. ?The principal pharmacological treatment for schizophrenia, antipsychotic medication, reduces the severity of positive symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions? (Lewis & Sweet, 2009). When it comes to antipsychotic s the impact that they have on both negative and positive symptom of the disorder is minimal. Antipsychotic drugs are known to be the primary pharmacologic treatment for those suffering from schizophrenia. One of the most effective medications that help those with schizophrenia is Atypical Antipsychotic drug. These types of drugs are known to be most effective with both the negative and positive symptoms of schizophrenia (Ananth & Hare, 2004). Drug, such as Clozapine with the average daily dose of 200 mg is used to treat those that suffer from acute, refactor, and chronic schizophrenic patients (Ananth & Hara, 2004). Some side effects of this medication are dry mouth, weight gain, hypotension, and constipation. Different types of antipsychotic medication are offered to people suffering the disorder and the effect it have on a person depends on the individual. What may work for one person may not work for the other. When given treatment the positive symptoms are the first to improve. Some improve within a day or two and at times within hours. Symptoms like hallucinations and delusions will take up to about three months to improve (Ananth & Hara, 2004). Because people boy reacts differently to certain drugs at times there may be changes in medication depending on how a person body reacts to that drug. In the case of a person suffering from this disorder s is best for that person to continue taking medications indefinitely. Injection medication reduces relapse of a person than oral medication (Ananth & Hara, 2004). Doses of a medication are important and it is best to use minimum dosage to prevent relapse of a patient.;Beside cognitive and pharmacological therapy for schizophrenia there are other types of alternative therapies. One is psychological treatment for schizophrenia. Within this type of treatment different options are looked for short term and long term use and also studying the individual needs. Psychological treatment also implements family intervention to those that are suffering from the disorder. Depending on the nature of an individual illness they may require a longer term of treatment. According to Bellack and Mueser (1993) ?Psychosocial treatment may not ?work? if this term is narrowly applied to remission of acute episodes and complete prevention of symptom exacerbations and relapses?. In this type of treatment where family intervention is involved it is very important because the family get to learn more about the disorder and may help in finding ways for the person that has schizophrenia manage certain behaviors.;Research Indication;Based on research the type of therapy that can be best used to provide treatment for a person that is schizophrenic would have to be depending on the person. Everyone case is different and depending on what stage of the disorder they are in some will be more effective than others. At times two of the therapeutic treatment will work better in improving the condition of the disorder for a person. For treatment such a pharmacological different people body reacts to the same medication in the same way. To know which medication works best for a person would be based on observation of a period of time and looking at the changes in behavior of that person. The alternative therapy of psychological treatment is also good as well because it involves people that care about those that suffer from the disorder, which can make it easier for patients to function with more support and people observing them. Because Psychological treatment looks as an individual need that is a great way to focus on the issue and steps that can be taking to try and minimize certain symptoms of an individual with the disorder depending on the symptoms they suffer from. Medications are good because it help in changing the behavior of a person with schizophrenic and helps them function in social environment. Certain antipsychotic medication help reduce hallucinations and delusion, which in many ways has help a person back from functioning normally among others because of certain thoughts they will have.;Depending on a person case each drug has different impact in how they help a person. With pharmacological treatment if a person stop taking it they may suffer from relapse, which will cause them to have symptoms back ad behave a certain ways. Cognitive therapy is good because of different session and reviewing each patient to find ways to better improve certain symptoms they may have. As for alternative therapy that may also come and handy and with other therapies together have an impact on each patient individually.;Conclusion;A schizophrenic symptom varies among different people. Different types of therapies, scuh as cognitive, pharmacological, and alternatives therapies help those with the disorder function better. At times more than one treatment together help an individual have better results in how fast they function normally among other.;Reference;Ananth, J., Parameswaran, S., & Hara, B. (2004). Drug therapy in schizophrenia. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 10(18), 2205-17. doi:;Beck, A. T., & Rector, N. A. (2000). Cognitive therapy of schizophrenia: A new therapy for the new millennium. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 54(3), 291-300. Retrieved from;Bellack, A. S., & Mueser, K. T. (1993). Psychosocial treatment for schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 19(2), 317-336. Retrieved from;Carlson, R.H.(2010). Physiology of Behavior. Boston MA, Allyn&Bacon.;Lewis, D. A., & Sweet, R. A. (2009). Schizophrenia from a neural circuitry perspective: Advancing toward rational pharmacological therapies. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 119(4), 706-16. Retrieved from;Turkington, D., Kingdon, D., & Weiden, P. J. (2006). Cognitive behavior therapy for schizophrenia. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 163(3), 365-73. Retrieved from;van Os, J., & Kapur, S. (2009). Schizophrenia. The Lancet, 374(9690), 635-45. Retrieved from


Paper#21642 | Written in 18-Jul-2015

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