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1. ?Men can?t cook.? This is all that Jim heard for the week leading up to his

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1. ?Men can?t cook.? This is all that Jim heard for the week leading up to his;fi rst attempt at making Thanksgiving dinner for his family, despite the fact;that he had plenty of experience cooking for these same people. When he;fi nally attempted to cook the dinner, he panicked, and burnt the turkey. Such;a result is a demonstration of;(a) latent learning;(b) a forgetting curve;(c) stereotype threat;(d) performance dissociation;2. The term is used to describe the study of how we have come to;have knowledge.;(a) nativism;(b) rationalism;(c) epistemology;(d) none of the above;3. Latent learning occurs when a behavioral change;(a) is observed at the time of initial learning;(b) is not observed until some time has passed between initial learning and;demonstration of that learning;(c) is never observed;(d) none of the above;4. In the past, the term ?learning? has been used in reference to;(a) conditioning and reinforcement tasks;(b) verbal recall tasks;(c) the conscious recollection of past experiences;(d) material presented for study on one occasion;5. In the past, the term ?memory? has been used in reference to;(a) conditioning and reinforcement tasks;(b) skills requiring repeated trials for acquisition;(c) the conscious recollection to past experiences;(d) none of the above;6. Changes due to maturation are excluded from the defi nition of learning because;(a) they may arise from innate forces;(b) they may involve neural growth that occurs at its own rate;(c) all of the above;(d) none of the above;7. Schmidt and Bork argue that learning and memory;(a) are entirely separate from one another and cannot be studied together;(b) measure the same thing;(c) cannot be studied because they cannot be observed;(d) should be studied together, as one?s degree of memory depends on one?s;level of learning;8. When one learns very quickly at the start of a training period, but the amount;of learning slows down during later trials, what type of learning curve is;produced?;(a) an ?S? shaped curve;(b) a positively accelerated curve;(c) a power curve;(d) a negatively accelerated curve;9. The rats in Dr. Smith?s experiment on maze running took a few trials before;they started to show any learning ability, although this ?slow? early period;was followed by a dramatically quick improvement in performance, followed;by a slowing down of learning. This data pattern suggests which of the following;types of learning curves?;(a) an ?S? shaped curve;(b) a positively accelerated curve;(c) a power curve;(d) a negatively accelerated curve;10. Dr. Woods is conducting basic research on the different types of sensory neurons;that carry input to spinal neurons. Her research on these neurons will;most likely lead to an increased understanding of the biological nature of;(a) habituation;(b) sensitization;(c) orienting responses;(d) response generalization;11. In describing the nature of the relationship between habituation and sensitization;Dual- Process theory argues that;(a) habituation plays a more dominant role in learning than sensitization;(b) habituation may be a more dominant process in some learning situations;but sensitization may be more dominant in others;(c) sensitization plays a more dominant role in learning than habituation;(d) habituation and sensitization are always equally balanced in any learning;environment.;12. Gibson & Walk?s classic perceptual learning experiment found that;(a) infants exposed to English phonemes demonstrate language skills earlier;than Hindi infants;(b) preexposure to stimuli inhibits later learning;(c) preexposure to stimuli facilitates later learning;(d) the more one knows about a learning environment, the less one can learn in;the future;13. As a result of his past experiences with police, whenever Pat hears a police;siren, he expects that he will soon be arrested. This type of a reaction arises;from which model of habituation?;(a) behavioral;(b) non-learning;(c) cognitive;(d) physiological;14. Aplysia have been used to study the physiological properties of learning;because;(a) they only have one neuron, which makes it easy to see and study;(b) they only have a few neurons, which are relatively large in size;(c) they have the same number of neurons as humans, so generalizations can be;made from Aplysia to humans;(d) none of the above;15. An Aplysia?s siphon, when stimulated by touch, withdraws into its body.;Repeated tactile stimulation produces;(a) sensitization;(b) habituation;(c) effector fatigue;(d) response generalization;16. Studying the interaction between neurons in Aplysia has led to the conclusion;that habituation occurs;(a) within sensory neurons;(b) within motor neurons;(c) at synapses between neurons;(d) within neuronal receptors;17. In a classical conditioning experiment, an experimenter declares a fl ash of;light to be the CS, an electric shock as the US, and a fear reaction as the UR;(as well as, eventually, the CR). The acquisition phase of this experiment;would involve presenting;(a) the shock by itself;(b) the light by itself;(c) the light with the shock;(d) none of the above;18. Using the situation described above in question #17, an unpaired control;condition would involve;(a) having the light presented after the shock;(b) always presenting the light and shock separate from each other;(c) presenting the light and shock at the same time;(d) presenting the light by itself;19. Using the situation described above in question #17, a truly random control;condition would involve;(a) having the light presented after the shock;(b) always presenting the light and shock in distant temporal orders;(c) presenting the light and shock in an completely non-correlated manner;(d) presenting the light by itself;20. Using the situation described above in question #17, after conditioning has;been completed, the occurrence of spontaneous recovery suggests that;(a) presenting the shock by itself suppresses the CS-US association;(b) presenting the light by itself causes the CS-US association to be unlearned;(c) presenting the light by itself causes the CS-US association to be suppressed;(d) none of the above;21. After using classical conditioning to train a child to stand whenever a;teacher calls their name, the child begins to stand whenever any adults refer;to them. What has occurred?;(a) generalization;(b) spontaneous recovery;(c) extinction;(d) discrimination;22. A dog is trained to salivate in the presence of a blue light, but not in the;presence of a green light. What has occurred?;(a) generalization;(b) spontaneous recovery;(c) extinction;(d) discrimination;23. Research on people with PTSD shows that when attempting to classically;condition a response in these individuals, their anxiety;(a) inhibits learning;(b) heightens a learning response;(c) has no effect on learning ability;(d) only inhibits learning after prolonged exposure to CSs;24. Once extinction has occurred, previously-learned Pavlovian associations can;(a) never be recovered;(b) only be recovered if the CS and US are presented in close temporal order;(c) be recovered by re-exposure to the CS alone;(d) only be recovered if the US is presented;25. pairings are effective in producing a CS that will elicit conditioned;responses.;(a) simultaneous;(b) backward;(c) forward;(d) all of the above lead to equally strong CRs;26. Skinner, concerning reinforcement, made the argument that reinforcers;(a) only have their reinforcing qualities in their originally-used context;(b) lead to satisfaction;(c) increase the frequency of the operant response;(d) possess transsituationality;27. A reinforcer;(a) possesses transsituationality;(b) does not always lead to satisfaction;(c) decreases the frequency of the operant response;(d) only has its reinforcing qualities in its originally-used context;28. James has an intense, physiological desire for a hamburger. Which of the;following approaches could offer the best explanation for the effect that a;hamburger would have on James at this moment?;(a) incentive motivation;(b) reinforcer priming;(c) the Premack Principle;(d) drive reduction;29. Which is NOT a theory of reinforcers as stimuli?;(a) incentive motivation;(b) brain stimulation;(c) drive reduction;(d) biofeedback;30. Professor Smith is conducting an experiment where she is studying the;degree to which drives can be increased in young lab rats. This experiment;seems to be testing the basic idea underlying which approach to reinforcement?;(a) incentive motivation;(b) brain stimulation;(c) the Premack Principle;(d) drive reduction;31. The idea that reinforcers can be behaviors, and not stimuli, is central to;which reinforcement approach?;(a) incentive motivation;(b) brain stimulation;(c) the Premack Principle;(d) drive reduction;32. James loves candy and hates vegetables. However, his father wants to make;sure that James eats his vegetables, since they?re good for him. To ensure;vegetable consumption, James is only allowed to have candy after he has;eaten his vegetables. This situation illustrates the application of;(a) intrinsic motivation;(b) reinforcer priming;(c) the Premack Principle;(d) drive reduction;33. The idea that reinforcers allow previously-established neural connections to;become stronger is an attempt to connect the concept of reinforcement to;(a) incentive motivation;(b) memory consolidation;(c) biofeedback;(d) drive reduction;34. Which of the following is the reinforcement-related role that biofeedback is;said to play?;(a) informational;(b) drive-reducing;(c) strengthening;(d) all of the above;35. James has found that whenever he talks back to a school bully, the bully;leaves him alone, but when he ignores the bully, the bully attacks him.;Talking back to the bully would be an example of;(a) active avoidance;(b) two-process theory;(c) punishment;(d) passive avoidance;36. Two-Process theory suggests which of the following procedural orders when;training avoidance?;(a) instrumental conditioning followed by classical conditioning;(b) classical conditioning followed by instrumental conditioning;(c) punishment followed by reinforcement;(d) passive avoidance followed by active avoidance;Final Examination;37. Which of the following can be found within the context of Two-Process;theory?;(a) escape learning;(b) helplessness;(c) punishment;(d) all of the above;38. Eric is trying to teach a pigeon to peck at a lighted pad in order to avoid;receiving a shock while in a operant learning chamber, but is fi nding that the;pigeon is having a diffi cult time learning this association. This problem is;expected, according to which theory of avoidance learning?;(a) cognitive;(b) approach-avoidance;(c) functional;(d) learned helplessness;39. Samantha has decided to change her fear of multiple choice exams by altering;her expectancies of what will happen to her when she takes such a test.;Such an occurrence is a critical element of;(a) active avoidance;(b) two-process theory;(c) escape learning;(d) a cognitive approach to avoidance;40. An approach-avoidance confl ict involves;(a) having an approach tendency that is stronger than an avoidance tendency;(b) having an approach tendency that is weaker than an avoidance tendency;(c) having an approach tendency that is equal to an avoidance tendency;(d) not knowing if one should escape or avoid a stimulus;41. Which of the following is characteristic of an avoidance coping style?;(a) selective attention;(b) intrusion;(c) blunting;(d) sensitization;42. As a result of taking this test today, you are having a diffi cult time recalling;the material you studied yesterday, for a test in tomorrow?s calculus class.;The memory defi cit described here illustrates;(a) retroactive interference;(b) proactive interference;(c) anchoring;(d) remote associations;43. The stimulus-response nature of learning can be seen most directly in which;of the following memory tasks?;(a) the serial position effect;(b) proactive interference;(c) anchoring;(d) paired associate learning;44. The occurrence of highly similar items on a paired-associate learning task;tends to;(a) enhance one?s generalization ability;(b) lead to cognitive elaboration;(c) inhibit one?s generalization ability;(d) all of the above;45. A group of children are presented with a list of 20 words that they are told to;remember. Upon engaging in a free-recall task after the list is presented;which of the following children is likely to recall the most words?;(a) Joe, a 10-year-old boy;(b) Toni, an 8-yearold girl;(c) Susan, a 5-year-old girl;(d) Bob, a 5-year-old boy;46. Which of the following groups of words has the highest chance of being;recalled perfectly?;(a) cat, automobile, phone, light, word;(b) garbage, wood, television, basket, carpet;(c) apple, orange, banana, pear, watermelon;(d) all have equal chances of being recalled;47. Which of the following is not an effect that organization has on memory?;(a) directs memory search during recall;(b) provides stronger primacy and recency effects;(c) reduces one?s memory load;(d) infl uences the sequence in which items are recalled;48. Recalling the words DOG, CAR, SNEAKER, BIKE, CAT, and SANDAL as;?DOG, CAT, CAR, BIKE, SNEAKER and SANDAL? is an example of;(a) categorical clustering;(b) matrix recall;(c) associative clustering;(d) all of the above;49. Mary?s knowledge of how to drive a car is most likely originating from her;(a) procedural memory;(b) explicit memory;(c) episodic memory;(d) semantic memory;50. A common fi nding obtained when comparing the memory abilities of normal;individuals to amnesics is;(a) the normals and amnesics have equal explicit memory skills;(b) the amnesics have better implicit memory abilities than the normals;(c) the normals and amnesics have equal implicit memory skills;(d) the amnesics have better explicit memory abilities than the normals;51. The contamination of an implicit memory test with explicit retrieval can be;reduced by;(a) making sure subjects understand their implicit memory instructions;(b) using subliminal presentations;(c) using amnesia patients as subjects;(d) using individuals below the age of 18 in experiments;52. Which of the following can be taken as evidence that implicit memories arise;from a different memory system than explicit memories?;(a) performance on implicit and explicit tests are positively correlated;(b) individual differences seem to affect explicit, but not implicit, abilities;(c) experimental treatments tend to have equal effects on implicit and explicit;memory;(d) all of the above;53. Episodic and semantic LTM have been suggested to be elements within;(a) declarative memory;(b) non-declarative memory;(c) working memory;(d) implicit memory;54. Which of the following is not a step in the Stage Model of memory?;(a) storage;(b) retrieval;(c) encoding;(d) none of the above;55. Forgetting where you placed your car keys can be due to a defi cit;during which stage of memory?;(a) storage;(b) retrieval;(c) encoding;(d) forgetting could arise from problems at any one of these stages;56. Studies of Delayed Matching to Sample are used to assess which memory;system in animals?;(a) sensory memory;(b) procedural memory;(c) short-term memory;(d) long-term memory;57. As stated in your text, animal research shows that animals possess which of;the following human-like skills? (Box 8.1);(a) STM;(b) control processes;(c) LTM;(d) A and B only;58. Which is NOT listed in your text (Box 8.2) as a condition which can cause;memory loss?;(a) alcohol poisoning;(b) toxic poisoning from bad shellfi sh;(c) Lyme disease;(d) overexposure to high altitudes;59. Which of the following is NOT a component of Working Memory?;(a) phonological loop;(b) central executive;(c) visuospatial sketchpad;(d) sensory memory;60. Joe is having a hard time taking notes in Professor Jones?s class, because;he can?t repeat the professor?s words fast enough to hold them in his mind;and write them down. Joe?s memory diffi culty is most likely stemming from;a diffi culty within which working memory component?;(a) phonological loop;(b) central executive;(c) visuospatial sketchpad;(d) sensory memory;61. Mary is at a party, talking to Tom. However, in the middle of her conversation;she hears her name mentioned across the room, and almost immediately;turns her attention to the place in the room from where she believes she;heard her name. The element of Working Memory most responsible for this;shifting of attention is most likely the;(a) phonological loop;(b) central executive;(c) visuospatial sketchpad;(d) sensory memory;62. Professor Smith believes that one?s immediate memory can hold a variety of;pieces of information, from different domains, simultaneously. Such an;ability would be possible only if which system functions properly?;(a) Short-Term Memory;(b) Long-Term Memory;(c) Working Memory;(d) Sensory Memory;Final Examination;63. Mary suffered a stroke, the result of which damaged the Episodic Buffer of;her Working Memory. As a result, Mary will likely have diffi culty when she;(a) tries to connect the contents of Working Memory to Sensory Memory;(b) attempts to retrieve data from Long Term Memory to use in Working Memory;(c) retain visual images;(d) allocate her attentional skills across a variety of tasks;64. At the start of his 90-minute lecture on child development, Professor Mentyl;shows his class a 10 minute home video of his own young children playing;with their pet dog. When students later take an exam on this lecture, Professor;Mentyl fi nds that the students didn?t remember the details of the critical;child development theories that were the focus of the above lecture. This;effect has come to be known as;(a) the spacing effect;(b) the seductive detail effect;(c) the generation effect;(d) verbal overshadowing;65. Which of the following is not an explanation for the spacing effect?;(a) encoding variability;(b) retrograde amnesia;(c) attention defi cit;(d) anterograde amnesia;66. One should not study information in a massed manner on more than one;occasion because the second session may interfere with the processing of;the fi rst session. This statement is consistent with which explanation of the;spacing effect?;(a) encoding variability;(b) retrograde amnesia;(c) attention defi cit;(d) anterograde amnesia;67. Mary fi nished studying for her physics exam at 10pm last night. Upon returning;to the library to continue studying this morning, Mary found it diffi;cult to focus on the task at hand. This is illustrative of which explanation of;the spacing effect?;(a) encoding variability;(b) retrograde amnesia;(c) attention defi cit;(d) anterograde amnesia;68. John is studying for his psychology exam on 4 successive nights, and each;night he studies in a different location, at a different time of day, and comes;up with different examples of the theories he is trying to learn. This is illustrative;of which explanation of the spacing effect?;(a) encoding variability;(b) retrograde amnesia;(c) attention defi cit;(d) anterograde amnesia;69. Depth of processing explicit memory and implicit memory.;(a) enhances, has little or no effect on;(b) inhibits, enhances;(c) enhances, enhances;(d) inhibits, has no effect on;70. Which of the following scenarios is most likely to produce the best retention;of studied material, according to the optimal spacing theory?;(a) spacing 2 study periods 1 day apart from each other, followed by a test 3;days later;(b) spacing 2 study periods 1 day apart from each other, followed by a test 4;days later;(c) spacing 2 study periods 2 days apart from each other, followed by a test 10;days later;(d) spacing 2 study periods 4 days apart from each other, followed by a test 5;days later;71. The generation effect gets its name from;(a) comparing performances on a memory test between groups from older and;younger generations;(b) forcing an experimenter to generate stimuli that a subject must attend to;(c) forcing a subject to generate their own stimuli in a memory experiment;(d) none of the above;72. An experimenter presents a subject with the words CAR and CLOUD. If this;was an experiment studying the generation effect, the subject?s task would;involve;(a) repeating the words CAR and CLOUD over and over;(b) counting the number of letters in the words CAR and CLOUD;(c) Using the letters in the words CAR and CLOUD to form a new word;(d) none of the above;73. The idea that remembering actually improves over successive attempts and;reproduction of the studied material is illustrated by the notion of;(a) distinctiveness;(b) encoding specifi city;(c) hypermnesia;(d) all of the above;74. To have the best chance of retrieving information during an exam, students;should;(a) study the examples their teachers used in class;(b) only study in a happy mood;(c) create their own examples related to material that was presented in class;(d) study in a room that is different from the room where they?ll take their exam;75. Encoding specifi city refers to the idea that;(a) retrieval is enhanced when multiple recall attempts are made;(b) retrieval is enhanced when retrieval cues are similar to encoding cues;(c) retrieval is inhibited when multiple recall attempts are made;(d) retrieval is inhibited when retrieval cues are similar to encoding cues;76. Since John drank 10 cups of coffee while studying for his chemistry exam;he drinks 10 more while taking the test in order reinstate the physiological;state he was under while studying. This behavior suggests that John is a fi rm;believer in;(a) distinctiveness;(b) encoding specifi city;(c) hypermnesia;(d) state dependent learning;77. Whenever Julie is sad, she can only remember sad events. In these cases;Julie?s memory ability seems to be based on;(a) dependent memory;(b) encoding specifi city;(c) hypermnesia;(d) mood-congruent memory;Final Examination;78. Not all scientists are convinced of the validity of encoding-retrieval paradigm;effects because;(a) not all cues/states become connected to all targets;(b) state-dependent effects are not always found in experiments investigating;these effects;(c) tests of recognition tend to not yield encoding-retrieval effects;(d) all of the above;79. While working at her desk, Mary remembers that it is her turn to cook dinner;tonight. She then writes a quick reminder note to herself to stop by the supermarket;on the way home to pick up some groceries to use for dinner.;Mary?s actions here are illustrative of;(a) encoding specifi city;(b) hypermnesia;(c) spreading of activation;(d) prospective memory;80. Which of the following is NOT an example of prospective memory?;(a) remembering that one has a dentist appointment next week;(b) remembering that one has to pick up one?s child from football practice;tomorrow;(c) remembering that you were sexually abused 15 years ago, as a child;(d) none of the above;81. The existence of partial retrieval is supported by effects.;(a) tip-of-the-tongue and feeling-of-knowing;(b) tip-of-the-tongue and prospective memory;(c) feeling-of-knowing and prospective memory;(d) tip-of-the-tongue, feeling-of-knowing, and prospective memory;82. If you were presented with the words NURSE, SICK, HOSPITAL, and MEDICINE;and when asked to recall these words at a later time, which of the;following words has the highest likelihood of being FALSELY recalled?;(a) DOCTOR;(b) HOMEWORK;(c) MOUNTAIN;(d) BUS;83. The beliefs and self-knowledge that individuals possess about what they?ve;learned are central to;(a) metacognition;(b) knowledge of results;(c) practice-independent learning;(d) implicit learning;84. Implicit learning;(a) is the same as implicit memory;(b) tends to be impaired in amnesics;(c) involves unconscious learning of complex information;(d) all of the above;85. The 10-year rule applies to the amount of time it takes to;(a) become an expert in a given fi eld;(b) extinct conditioned responses;(c) develop implicit learning abilities;(d) become a Psychologist;86. When damaged, this part of the brain impairs skill learning, but leaves word;priming intact. It is also the area of the brain which is affected in Huntington?s;and Parkinson?s diseases.;(a) hippocampus;(b) basal ganglia;(c) amygdala;(d) all of the above;87. Implicit learning ability;(a) can only be used in the context it was initially acquired;(b) tends to be impaired in amnesiacs;(c) can be transferred to new contexts;(d) only involves motor skill ability;88. Joe, a normal high school sophomore, has just started to learn how to play;chess, although his goal is to become a world-class chess expert. Joe will;most likely be able to attain this goal;(a) a few years after he graduates from college;(b) immediately after graduating high school;(c) before he graduates from high school if he practices hard enough;(d) none of the above-- either you are born with expert skills or you?re not;89. Huntington?s and Alzheimer?s patients show patterns of ability across;different implicit tests of their knowledge.;(a) identical;(b) similar;(c) different;(d) none of the above-- these individuals lose their implicit processing skills;90. Which of the following notions concerning expertise tends to be disputed?;(a) it is a function of practice;(b) it is inherited;(c) proper motivation to become am expert is essential;(d) experts need to persevere in learning their specifi c skill;91. Developmental disabilities can be caused by;(a) birth defects;(b) head injury;(c) malnutrition;(d) all of the above;92. The cognitive impairment of Down Syndrome is the result of;(a) lack of formal education;(b) a genetic defect;(c) head injury;(d) malnutrition;93. Barry has three copies of chromosome 21. Which of the following tasks will;he most likely have diffi culty with?;(a) reciting his telephone number;(b) tracing the correct path though a maze;(c) stating the names of his brothers and sisters;(d) stating the names of his cat and dog;94. Julie, a ten year old, has impairment with visual-spatial tasks, but performs;quite well with verbal tasks. Her diagnosis is most likely;(a) Dyslexia;(b) Down Syndrome;(c) Williams Syndrome;(d) all of the above;95. The mnemonist ?S.? can be said to have had a memory problem in the sense;that he had problems;(a) encoding information;(b) retrieving information;(c) forgetting information;(d) with Korsakoff?s Disease;96. Learning disabled children tend to exhibit problems with;(a) memory encoding;(b) memory retrieval;(c) attention;(d) all of the above;97. While sitting in class, Jamie, a 10-year-old girl with a learning disability, is;very distracted, fi dgeting in her chair and not focusing on the lesson being;delivered by the teacher. Which approach is most consistent with Jamie?s;behavior?;(a) the comprehension defi cit hypothesis;(b) the attentional defi cit hypothesis;(c) disconnection syndrome;(d) classical conditioning;98. Which type of cognitive process has not been found to be dysfunctional in;learning disabled individuals?;(a) working memory;(b) implicit learning;(c) short term memory;(d) semantic memory;99. Dual-task experiments using learning-disabled individuals as participants;have suggested that the problems experienced by people with learning disabilities;is due to a problem with;(a) attention;(b) retrieval;(c) working memory;(d) LTM;Final Examination;100. Nick has the ability to memorize random strings of letters that are anywhere;from 75-125 items long. If his brain were to undergo functional brain imaging;while he was attempting to memorize such a stimulus, which area would;likely show heightened activity?;(a) those involved with verbal memory;(b) those involved with letter processing;(c) those involved with spatial processing;(d) no areas would be heightened in relation to others;Attachment Preview;PSY270FN_0309.pdf;PSY 270;Learning Theories...;Additional Requirements;Min Pages: 21;Level of Detail: Only answer needed;Other Requirements: All multiple choice. From the text;Text;Authors;Publisher;Learning and Memory;4th Edition, 2009;ISBN: 10: 0205658628 / 13: 9780205658626;Scott Terry;Pearson

 

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