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1. ?Men can?t cook.? This is all that Jim heard for the week leading up to his




1. ?Men can?t cook.? This is all that Jim heard for the week leading up to his;fi rst attempt at making Thanksgiving dinner for his family, despite the fact;that he had plenty of experience cooking for these same people. When he;fi nally attempted to cook the dinner, he panicked, and burnt the turkey. Such;a result is a demonstration of;(a) latent learning;(b) a forgetting curve;(c) stereotype threat;(d) performance dissociation;2. The term is used to describe the study of how we have come to;have knowledge.;(a) nativism;(b) rationalism;(c) epistemology;(d) none of the above;3. Latent learning occurs when a behavioral change;(a) is observed at the time of initial learning;(b) is not observed until some time has passed between initial learning and;demonstration of that learning;(c) is never observed;(d) none of the above;4. In the past, the term ?learning? has been used in reference to;(a) conditioning and reinforcement tasks;(b) verbal recall tasks;(c) the conscious recollection of past experiences;(d) material presented for study on one occasion;5. In the past, the term ?memory? has been used in reference to;(a) conditioning and reinforcement tasks;(b) skills requiring repeated trials for acquisition;(c) the conscious recollection to past experiences;(d) none of the above;6. Changes due to maturation are excluded from the defi nition of learning because;(a) they may arise from innate forces;(b) they may involve neural growth that occurs at its own rate;(c) all of the above;(d) none of the above;7. Schmidt and Bork argue that learning and memory;(a) are entirely separate from one another and cannot be studied together;(b) measure the same thing;(c) cannot be studied because they cannot be observed;(d) should be studied together, as one?s degree of memory depends on one?s;level of learning;8. When one learns very quickly at the start of a training period, but the amount;of learning slows down during later trials, what type of learning curve is;produced?;(a) an ?S? shaped curve;(b) a positively accelerated curve;(c) a power curve;(d) a negatively accelerated curve;9. The rats in Dr. Smith?s experiment on maze running took a few trials before;they started to show any learning ability, although this ?slow? early period;was followed by a dramatically quick improvement in performance, followed;by a slowing down of learning. This data pattern suggests which of the following;types of learning curves?;(a) an ?S? shaped curve;(b) a positively accelerated curve;(c) a power curve;(d) a negatively accelerated curve;10. Dr. Woods is conducting basic research on the different types of sensory neurons;that carry input to spinal neurons. Her research on these neurons will;most likely lead to an increased understanding of the biological nature of;(a) habituation;(b) sensitization;(c) orienting responses;(d) response generalization;11. In describing the nature of the relationship between habituation and sensitization;Dual- Process theory argues that;(a) habituation plays a more dominant role in learning than sensitization;(b) habituation may be a more dominant process in some learning situations;but sensitization may be more dominant in others;(c) sensitization plays a more dominant role in learning than habituation;(d) habituation and sensitization are always equally balanced in any learning;environment.;12. Gibson & Walk?s classic perceptual learning experiment found that;(a) infants exposed to English phonemes demonstrate language skills earlier;than Hindi infants;(b) preexposure to stimuli inhibits later learning;(c) preexposure to stimuli facilitates later learning;(d) the more one knows about a learning environment, the less one can learn in;the future;13. As a result of his past experiences with police, whenever Pat hears a police;siren, he expects that he will soon be arrested. This type of a reaction arises;from which model of habituation?;(a) behavioral;(b) non-learning;(c) cognitive;(d) physiological;14. Aplysia have been used to study the physiological properties of learning;because;(a) they only have one neuron, which makes it easy to see and study;(b) they only have a few neurons, which are relatively large in size;(c) they have the same number of neurons as humans, so generalizations can be;made from Aplysia to humans;(d) none of the above;15. An Aplysia?s siphon, when stimulated by touch, withdraws into its body.;Repeated tactile stimulation produces;(a) sensitization;(b) habituation;(c) effector fatigue;(d) response generalization;16. Studying the interaction between neurons in Aplysia has led to the conclusion;that habituation occurs;(a) within sensory neurons;(b) within motor neurons;(c) at synapses between neurons;(d) within neuronal receptors;17. In a classical conditioning experiment, an experimenter declares a fl ash of;light to be the CS, an electric shock as the US, and a fear reaction as the UR;(as well as, eventually, the CR). The acquisition phase of this experiment;would involve presenting;(a) the shock by itself;(b) the light by itself;(c) the light with the shock;(d) none of the above;18. Using the situation described above in question #17, an unpaired control;condition would involve;(a) having the light presented after the shock;(b) always presenting the light and shock separate from each other;(c) presenting the light and shock at the same time;(d) presenting the light by itself;19. Using the situation described above in question #17, a truly random control;condition would involve;(a) having the light presented after the shock;(b) always presenting the light and shock in distant temporal orders;(c) presenting the light and shock in an completely non-correlated manner;(d) presenting the light by itself;20. Using the situation described above in question #17, after conditioning has;been completed, the occurrence of spontaneous recovery suggests that;(a) presenting the shock by itself suppresses the CS-US association;(b) presenting the light by itself causes the CS-US association to be unlearned;(c) presenting the light by itself causes the CS-US association to be suppressed;(d) none of the above;21. After using classical conditioning to train a child to stand whenever a;teacher calls their name, the child begins to stand whenever any adults refer;to them. What has occurred?;(a) generalization;(b) spontaneous recovery;(c) extinction;(d) discrimination;22. A dog is trained to salivate in the presence of a blue light, but not in the;presence of a green light. What has occurred?;(a) generalization;(b) spontaneous recovery;(c) extinction;(d) discrimination;23. Research on people with PTSD shows that when attempting to classically;condition a response in these individuals, their anxiety;(a) inhibits learning;(b) heightens a learning response;(c) has no effect on learning ability;(d) only inhibits learning after prolonged exposure to CSs;24. Once extinction has occurred, previously-learned Pavlovian associations can;(a) never be recovered;(b) only be recovered if the CS and US are presented in close temporal order;(c) be recovered by re-exposure to the CS alone;(d) only be recovered if the US is presented;25. pairings are effective in producing a CS that will elicit conditioned;responses.;(a) simultaneous;(b) backward;(c) forward;(d) all of the above lead to equally strong CRs;26. Skinner, concerning reinforcement, made the argument that reinforcers;(a) only have their reinforcing qualities in their originally-used context;(b) lead to satisfaction;(c) increase the frequency of the operant response;(d) possess transsituationality;27. A reinforcer;(a) possesses transsituationality;(b) does not always lead to satisfaction;(c) decreases the frequency of the operant response;(d) only has its reinforcing qualities in its originally-used context;28. James has an intense, physiological desire for a hamburger. Which of the;following approaches could offer the best explanation for the effect that a;hamburger would have on James at this moment?;(a) incentive motivation;(b) reinforcer priming;(c) the Premack Principle;(d) drive reduction;29. Which is NOT a theory of reinforcers as stimuli?;(a) incentive motivation;(b) brain stimulation;(c) drive reduction;(d) biofeedback;30. Professor Smith is conducting an experiment where she is studying the;degree to which drives can be increased in young lab rats. This experiment;seems to be testing the basic idea underlying which approach to reinforcement?;(a) incentive motivation;(b) brain stimulation;(c) the Premack Principle;(d) drive reduction;31. The idea that reinforcers can be behaviors, and not stimuli, is central to;which reinforcement approach?;(a) incentive motivation;(b) brain stimulation;(c) the Premack Principle;(d) drive reduction;32. James loves candy and hates vegetables. However, his father wants to make;sure that James eats his vegetables, since they?re good for him. To ensure;vegetable consumption, James is only allowed to have candy after he has;eaten his vegetables. This situation illustrates the application of;(a) intrinsic motivation;(b) reinforcer priming;(c) the Premack Principle;(d) drive reduction;33. The idea that reinforcers allow previously-established neural connections to;become stronger is an attempt to connect the concept of reinforcement to;(a) incentive motivation;(b) memory consolidation;(c) biofeedback;(d) drive reduction;34. Which of the following is the reinforcement-related role that biofeedback is;said to play?;(a) informational;(b) drive-reducing;(c) strengthening;(d) all of the above;35. James has found that whenever he talks back to a school bully, the bully;leaves him alone, but when he ignores the bully, the bully attacks him.;Talking back to the bully would be an example of;(a) active avoidance;(b) two-process theory;(c) punishment;(d) passive avoidance;36. Two-Process theory suggests which of the following procedural orders when;training avoidance?;(a) instrumental conditioning followed by classical conditioning;(b) classical conditioning followed by instrumental conditioning;(c) punishment followed by reinforcement;(d) passive avoidance followed by active avoidance;Final Examination;37. Which of the following can be found within the context of Two-Process;theory?;(a) escape learning;(b) helplessness;(c) punishment;(d) all of the above;38. Eric is trying to teach a pigeon to peck at a lighted pad in order to avoid;receiving a shock while in a operant learning chamber, but is fi nding that the;pigeon is having a diffi cult time learning this association. This problem is;expected, according to which theory of avoidance learning?;(a) cognitive;(b) approach-avoidance;(c) functional;(d) learned helplessness;39. Samantha has decided to change her fear of multiple choice exams by altering;her expectancies of what will happen to her when she takes such a test.;Such an occurrence is a critical element of;(a) active avoidance;(b) two-process theory;(c) escape learning;(d) a cognitive approach to avoidance;40. An approach-avoidance confl ict involves;(a) having an approach tendency that is stronger than an avoidance tendency;(b) having an approach tendency that is weaker than an avoidance tendency;(c) having an approach tendency that is equal to an avoidance tendency;(d) not knowing if one should escape or avoid a stimulus;41. Which of the following is characteristic of an avoidance coping style?;(a) selective attention;(b) intrusion;(c) blunting;(d) sensitization;42. As a result of taking this test today, you are having a diffi cult time recalling;the material you studied yesterday, for a test in tomorrow?s calculus class.;The memory defi cit described here illustrates;(a) retroactive interference;(b) proactive interference;(c) anchoring;(d) remote associations;43. The stimulus-response nature of learning can be seen most directly in which;of the following memory tasks?;(a) the serial position effect;(b) proactive interference;(c) anchoring;(d) paired associate learning;44. The occurrence of highly similar items on a paired-associate learning task;tends to;(a) enhance one?s generalization ability;(b) lead to cognitive elaboration;(c) inhibit one?s generalization ability;(d) all of the above;45. A group of children are presented with a list of 20 words that they are told to;remember. Upon engaging in a free-recall task after the list is presented;which of the following children is likely to recall the most words?;(a) Joe, a 10-year-old boy;(b) Toni, an 8-yearold girl;(c) Susan, a 5-year-old girl;(d) Bob, a 5-year-old boy;46. Which of the following groups of words has the highest chance of being;recalled perfectly?;(a) cat, automobile, phone, light, word;(b) garbage, wood, television, basket, carpet;(c) apple, orange, banana, pear, watermelon;(d) all have equal chances of being recalled;47. Which of the following is not an effect that organization has on memory?;(a) directs memory search during recall;(b) provides stronger primacy and recency effects;(c) reduces one?s memory load;(d) infl uences the sequence in which items are recalled;48. Recalling the words DOG, CAR, SNEAKER, BIKE, CAT, and SANDAL as;?DOG, CAT, CAR, BIKE, SNEAKER and SANDAL? is an example of;(a) categorical clustering;(b) matrix recall;(c) associative clustering;(d) all of the above;49. Mary?s knowledge of how to drive a car is most likely originating from her;(a) procedural memory;(b) explicit memory;(c) episodic memory;(d) semantic memory;50. A common fi nding obtained when comparing the memory abilities of normal;individuals to amnesics is;(a) the normals and amnesics have equal explicit memory skills;(b) the amnesics have better implicit memory abilities than the normals;(c) the normals and amnesics have equal implicit memory skills;(d) the amnesics have better explicit memory abilities than the normals;51. The contamination of an implicit memory test with explicit retrieval can be;reduced by;(a) making sure subjects understand their implicit memory instructions;(b) using subliminal presentations;(c) using amnesia patients as subjects;(d) using individuals below the age of 18 in experiments;52. Which of the following can be taken as evidence that implicit memories arise;from a different memory system than explicit memories?;(a) performance on implicit and explicit tests are positively correlated;(b) individual differences seem to affect explicit, but not implicit, abilities;(c) experimental treatments tend to have equal effects on implicit and explicit;memory;(d) all of the above;53. Episodic and semantic LTM have been suggested to be elements within;(a) declarative memory;(b) non-declarative memory;(c) working memory;(d) implicit memory;54. Which of the following is not a step in the Stage Model of memory?;(a) storage;(b) retrieval;(c) encoding;(d) none of the above;55. Forgetting where you placed your car keys can be due to a defi cit;during which stage of memory?;(a) storage;(b) retrieval;(c) encoding;(d) forgetting could arise from problems at any one of these stages;56. Studies of Delayed Matching to Sample are used to assess which memory;system in animals?;(a) sensory memory;(b) procedural memory;(c) short-term memory;(d) long-term memory;57. As stated in your text, animal research shows that animals possess which of;the following human-like skills? (Box 8.1);(a) STM;(b) control processes;(c) LTM;(d) A and B only;58. Which is NOT listed in your text (Box 8.2) as a condition which can cause;memory loss?;(a) alcohol poisoning;(b) toxic poisoning from bad shellfi sh;(c) Lyme disease;(d) overexposure to high altitudes;59. Which of the following is NOT a component of Working Memory?;(a) phonological loop;(b) central executive;(c) visuospatial sketchpad;(d) sensory memory;60. Joe is having a hard time taking notes in Professor Jones?s class, because;he can?t repeat the professor?s words fast enough to hold them in his mind;and write them down. Joe?s memory diffi culty is most likely stemming from;a diffi culty within which working memory component?;(a) phonological loop;(b) central executive;(c) visuospatial sketchpad;(d) sensory memory;61. Mary is at a party, talking to Tom. However, in the middle of her conversation;she hears her name mentioned across the room, and almost immediately;turns her attention to the place in the room from where she believes she;heard her name. The element of Working Memory most responsible for this;shifting of attention is most likely the;(a) phonological loop;(b) central executive;(c) visuospatial sketchpad;(d) sensory memory;62. Professor Smith believes that one?s immediate memory can hold a variety of;pieces of information, from different domains, simultaneously. Such an;ability would be possible only if which system functions properly?;(a) Short-Term Memory;(b) Long-Term Memory;(c) Working Memory;(d) Sensory Memory;Final Examination;63. Mary suffered a stroke, the result of which damaged the Episodic Buffer of;her Working Memory. As a result, Mary will likely have diffi culty when she;(a) tries to connect the contents of Working Memory to Sensory Memory;(b) attempts to retrieve data from Long Term Memory to use in Working Memory;(c) retain visual images;(d) allocate her attentional skills across a variety of tasks;64. At the start of his 90-minute lecture on child development, Professor Mentyl;shows his class a 10 minute home video of his own young children playing;with their pet dog. When students later take an exam on this lecture, Professor;Mentyl fi nds that the students didn?t remember the details of the critical;child development theories that were the focus of the above lecture. This;effect has come to be known as;(a) the spacing effect;(b) the seductive detail effect;(c) the generation effect;(d) verbal overshadowing;65. Which of the following is not an explanation for the spacing effect?;(a) encoding variability;(b) retrograde amnesia;(c) attention defi cit;(d) anterograde amnesia;66. One should not study information in a massed manner on more than one;occasion because the second session may interfere with the processing of;the fi rst session. This statement is consistent with which explanation of the;spacing effect?;(a) encoding variability;(b) retrograde amnesia;(c) attention defi cit;(d) anterograde amnesia;67. Mary fi nished studying for her physics exam at 10pm last night. Upon returning;to the library to continue studying this morning, Mary found it diffi;cult to focus on the task at hand. This is illustrative of which explanation of;the spacing effect?;(a) encoding variability;(b) retrograde amnesia;(c) attention defi cit;(d) anterograde amnesia;68. John is studying for his psychology exam on 4 successive nights, and each;night he studies in a different location, at a different time of day, and comes;up with different examples of the theories he is trying to learn. This is illustrative;of which explanation of the spacing effect?;(a) encoding variability;(b) retrograde amnesia;(c) attention defi cit;(d) anterograde amnesia;69. Depth of processing explicit memory and implicit memory.;(a) enhances, has little or no effect on;(b) inhibits, enhances;(c) enhances, enhances;(d) inhibits, has no effect on;70. Which of the following scenarios is most likely to produce the best retention;of studied material, according to the optimal spacing theory?;(a) spacing 2 study periods 1 day apart from each other, followed by a test 3;days later;(b) spacing 2 study periods 1 day apart from each other, followed by a test 4;days later;(c) spacing 2 study periods 2 days apart from each other, followed by a test 10;days later;(d) spacing 2 study periods 4 days apart from each other, followed by a test 5;days later;71. The generation effect gets its name from;(a) comparing performances on a memory test between groups from older and;younger generations;(b) forcing an experimenter to generate stimuli that a subject must attend to;(c) forcing a subject to generate their own stimuli in a memory experiment;(d) none of the above;72. An experimenter presents a subject with the words CAR and CLOUD. If this;was an experiment studying the generation effect, the subject?s task would;involve;(a) repeating the words CAR and CLOUD over and over;(b) counting the number of letters in the words CAR and CLOUD;(c) Using the letters in the words CAR and CLOUD to form a new word;(d) none of the above;73. The idea that remembering actually improves over successive attempts and;reproduction of the studied material is illustrated by the notion of;(a) distinctiveness;(b) encoding specifi city;(c) hypermnesia;(d) all of the above;74. To have the best chance of retrieving information during an exam, students;should;(a) study the examples their teachers used in class;(b) only study in a happy mood;(c) create their own examples related to material that was presented in class;(d) study in a room that is different from the room where they?ll take their exam;75. Encoding specifi city refers to the idea that;(a) retrieval is enhanced when multiple recall attempts are made;(b) retrieval is enhanced when retrieval cues are similar to encoding cues;(c) retrieval is inhibited when multiple recall attempts are made;(d) retrieval is inhibited when retrieval cues are similar to encoding cues;76. Since John drank 10 cups of coffee while studying for his chemistry exam;he drinks 10 more while taking the test in order reinstate the physiological;state he was under while studying. This behavior suggests that John is a fi rm;believer in;(a) distinctiveness;(b) encoding specifi city;(c) hypermnesia;(d) state dependent learning;77. Whenever Julie is sad, she can only remember sad events. In these cases;Julie?s memory ability seems to be based on;(a) dependent memory;(b) encoding specifi city;(c) hypermnesia;(d) mood-congruent memory;Final Examination;78. Not all scientists are convinced of the validity of encoding-retrieval paradigm;effects because;(a) not all cues/states become connected to all targets;(b) state-dependent effects are not always found in experiments investigating;these effects;(c) tests of recognition tend to not yield encoding-retrieval effects;(d) all of the above;79. While working at her desk, Mary remembers that it is her turn to cook dinner;tonight. She then writes a quick reminder note to herself to stop by the supermarket;on the way home to pick up some groceries to use for dinner.;Mary?s actions here are illustrative of;(a) encoding specifi city;(b) hypermnesia;(c) spreading of activation;(d) prospective memory;80. Which of the following is NOT an example of prospective memory?;(a) remembering that one has a dentist appointment next week;(b) remembering that one has to pick up one?s child from football practice;tomorrow;(c) remembering that you were sexually abused 15 years ago, as a child;(d) none of the above;81. The existence of partial retrieval is supported by effects.;(a) tip-of-the-tongue and feeling-of-knowing;(b) tip-of-the-tongue and prospective memory;(c) feeling-of-knowing and prospective memory;(d) tip-of-the-tongue, feeling-of-knowing, and prospective memory;82. If you were presented with the words NURSE, SICK, HOSPITAL, and MEDICINE;and when asked to recall these words at a later time, which of the;following words has the highest likelihood of being FALSELY recalled?;(a) DOCTOR;(b) HOMEWORK;(c) MOUNTAIN;(d) BUS;83. The beliefs and self-knowledge that individuals possess about what they?ve;learned are central to;(a) metacognition;(b) knowledge of results;(c) practice-independent learning;(d) implicit learning;84. Implicit learning;(a) is the same as implicit memory;(b) tends to be impaired in amnesics;(c) involves unconscious learning of complex information;(d) all of the above;85. The 10-year rule applies to the amount of time it takes to;(a) become an expert in a given fi eld;(b) extinct conditioned responses;(c) develop implicit learning abilities;(d) become a Psychologist;86. When damaged, this part of the brain impairs skill learning, but leaves word;priming intact. It is also the area of the brain which is affected in Huntington?s;and Parkinson?s diseases.;(a) hippocampus;(b) basal ganglia;(c) amygdala;(d) all of the above;87. Implicit learning ability;(a) can only be used in the context it was initially acquired;(b) tends to be impaired in amnesiacs;(c) can be transferred to new contexts;(d) only involves motor skill ability;88. Joe, a normal high school sophomore, has just started to learn how to play;chess, although his goal is to become a world-class chess expert. Joe will;most likely be able to attain this goal;(a) a few years after he graduates from college;(b) immediately after graduating high school;(c) before he graduates from high school if he practices hard enough;(d) none of the above-- either you are born with expert skills or you?re not;89. Huntington?s and Alzheimer?s patients show patterns of ability across;different implicit tests of their knowledge.;(a) identical;(b) similar;(c) different;(d) none of the above-- these individuals lose their implicit processing skills;90. Which of the following notions concerning expertise tends to be disputed?;(a) it is a function of practice;(b) it is inherited;(c) proper motivation to become am expert is essential;(d) experts need to persevere in learning their specifi c skill;91. Developmental disabilities can be caused by;(a) birth defects;(b) head injury;(c) malnutrition;(d) all of the above;92. The cognitive impairment of Down Syndrome is the result of;(a) lack of formal education;(b) a genetic defect;(c) head injury;(d) malnutrition;93. Barry has three copies of chromosome 21. Which of the following tasks will;he most likely have diffi culty with?;(a) reciting his telephone number;(b) tracing the correct path though a maze;(c) stating the names of his brothers and sisters;(d) stating the names of his cat and dog;94. Julie, a ten year old, has impairment with visual-spatial tasks, but performs;quite well with verbal tasks. Her diagnosis is most likely;(a) Dyslexia;(b) Down Syndrome;(c) Williams Syndrome;(d) all of the above;95. The mnemonist ?S.? can be said to have had a memory problem in the sense;that he had problems;(a) encoding information;(b) retrieving information;(c) forgetting information;(d) with Korsakoff?s Disease;96. Learning disabled children tend to exhibit problems with;(a) memory encoding;(b) memory retrieval;(c) attention;(d) all of the above;97. While sitting in class, Jamie, a 10-year-old girl with a learning disability, is;very distracted, fi dgeting in her chair and not focusing on the lesson being;delivered by the teacher. Which approach is most consistent with Jamie?s;behavior?;(a) the comprehension defi cit hypothesis;(b) the attentional defi cit hypothesis;(c) disconnection syndrome;(d) classical conditioning;98. Which type of cognitive process has not been found to be dysfunctional in;learning disabled individuals?;(a) working memory;(b) implicit learning;(c) short term memory;(d) semantic memory;99. Dual-task experiments using learning-disabled individuals as participants;have suggested that the problems experienced by people with learning disabilities;is due to a problem with;(a) attention;(b) retrieval;(c) working memory;(d) LTM;Final Examination;100. Nick has the ability to memorize random strings of letters that are anywhere;from 75-125 items long. If his brain were to undergo functional brain imaging;while he was attempting to memorize such a stimulus, which area would;likely show heightened activity?;(a) those involved with verbal memory;(b) those involved with letter processing;(c) those involved with spatial processing;(d) no areas would be heightened in relation to others;Attachment Preview;PSY270FN_0309.pdf;PSY 270;Learning Theories...;Additional Requirements;Min Pages: 21;Level of Detail: Only answer needed;Other Requirements: All multiple choice. From the text;Text;Authors;Publisher;Learning and Memory;4th Edition, 2009;ISBN: 10: 0205658628 / 13: 9780205658626;Scott Terry;Pearson


Paper#22110 | Written in 18-Jul-2015

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