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8. ____8. Pauline is unable to recognize her husband by sight, even though she can iden- tify

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8. ____8. Pauline is unable to recognize her husband by sight, even though she can iden- tify him by his voice as soon as he speaks. She is displaying the symptoms of: (A) achromatopsia, (B) prosopagnosia, (C) visual neglect, (D) Wernicke?s aphasia.;9. ____9. The optic nerves send visual information to the ______, which sends it to the ______. (A) limbic system, occipital lobes, (B) thalamus, primary visual cortex, (C) cerebellum, occipital lobes, (D) hypothalamus, primary visual cortex.;10. ____10. Despite changes in the size of the retinal image, an object that is viewed from different distances does not appear to become larger or smaller. The perceptual principle here is ______, which results from ______. (A) distance relativity, visual adaptation, (B) distance constancy, visual accommodation, (C) size relativity, bottom-up processing, (D) size constancy, top-down processing.;11. ____11. Which of the following tasks would a patient who has sustained damage to the pathway between her occipital cortex and her parietal cortex most likely have difficulty with? (A) identifying an object, (B) reaching for an object, (C) seeing an object, (D) responding with the emotional response.;12. ____12. Research on language acquisition in deaf persons indicates that: (A) no system of functional communication can be developed in the absence of auditory stim- uli, (B) sign language is unlike spoken language, because it has few morphemes and lacks syntactical structure, (C) similar developmental stages exist for the acquisition of sign language in deaf children and spoken language in hearing children, (D) sign language only permits very primitive and basic communica- tion between individuals.;13. ____13. What is meant by the statement that ?perception is overdetermined by the stim- ulus?? (A) People perceive things in so many different ways, that there is not enough overlap in how two people perceive the same stimulus. (B) So many areas of the brain are involved in perception, that too much of our mental energy is focused on it. (C) For any given percept, we have available much more infor- mation than is needed to identify the object or event. (D) We attribute far too much importance to the study of perception.;14. ____14. Which of the following would best predict a college senior?s current IQ score? (A) her IQ score from one year ago, (B) her IQ score from around her high school graduation, (C) her IQ score taken upon entrance to high school;(D) her IQ score from age six.;PSYC 100 - Introductory Psychology University of Maryland University College Second Examination ? DUE May 4, 2014 Spring, 2014;15. ____15. Which of the following tasks would a patient who has sustained damage to the pathway between her occipital cortex and her temporal cortex most likely have difficulty with? (A) identifying an object, (B) reaching for an object, (C) seeing an object, (D) keeping track of time.;16. ____16. What happens when congenitally deaf persons learn American Sign Language (ASL) as a first language in adolescence? (A) They have difficulty in commu- nicating in ASL, even after over 30 years of practice. (B) They have an easier time learning to read English, compared to congenitally deaf people who learned ASL earlier. (C) They fail to use function words consistently, even after over 30 years of practice. (D) all of the above.;17. ____17. The behaviorist idea that children learn their native language via reinforcement has the greatest difficulty explaining which fact? (A) Children say one word, rather than another, when referring to a particular object. (B) Children learn to take turns in a conversation. (C) Children learn grammar, even though they are seldom corrected for grammatical mistakes. (D) Children talk for no reason except to get attention.;18. ____18. As a result of brain damage, D.F. cannot recognize the faces of her relatives and friends or identify common objects. She says she can?t perceive the differences among various objects. She can, however, walk across a room without bumping into anything, and is able to insert an object into a rectangular slot when asked to do so. Why is D.F. able to maneuver in her environment despite being unable to consciously identify objects? (A) Symptoms like D.F.?s are invariably linked to conversion disorders. (B) D.F.?s symptoms suggest that she is malingering (i.e., lying about her disability). (C) Humans have multiple brain pathways for processing visual information. (D) Some brain damaged people develop a ?sixth sense? when they have an impairment in one of the other five senses.;19. ____19. What is responsible for the visual blind spot? (A) the absence of rods where the optic nerve exits the retina, (B)) the absence of cones where the optic nerve exits the retina, (C) the absence of rods and cones where the optic nerve exits the retina, (D) the absence of photopigments where the optic nerve exits the retina.;20. ____20. Despite changes in the size of the retinal image, an object that is viewed from different distances does not appear to become larger or smaller. The perceptual principle here is ______, which results from ______. (A) distance relativity, visual adaptation, (B) distance constancy, visual accommodation, (C) size relativity, bottom-up processing, (D) size constancy, top-down processing.;PSYC 100 - Introductory Psychology University of Maryland University College Second Examination ? DUE May 4, 2014 Spring, 2014;21. ____21. Jean Piaget is best known for his efforts to understand: (A) the way children interpret their emerging sense of sexuality, (B) the way children think, reason, and solve problems, (C) language development, (D) bystander intervention.;22. ____22. A child has two favorite glasses, each of which will hold eight ounces of liquid. One glass is a tall, skinny one with a picture of a giraffe, the other is a short, fat one with a picture of a hippopotamus. When her mother pours some of her juice into the ?hippo glass,? the girl asks her mother to move the juice into the ?giraffe glass,? because she is really thirsty. If the girl believes that transferring the juice into the taller glass increases the amount of juice, she probably: (A) is capable of mental operations, (B) is capable of accommodation, (C) is in Piaget?s stage of formal operations, (D) has not yet reached the concrete operational stage.;23. ____23. According to Piaget, a child who moves from the observation that 4+1 and 6+1 both produce odd numbers to the principle that adding 1 to any even number will produce an odd number is in which stage of cognitive development? (A) formal operational, (B) concrete operational, (C) preoperational, (D) sensorimotor.;24. ____24. Most instances of adolescent risk taking occur when an adolescent is: (A) alone, (B) with his or her family, (C) during school hours, (D) in groups of same-age peers.;25. ____25. The hypothesis that cognitive ability can be boosted by listening to classical music (i.e., the ?Mozart effect?): (A) was based on a single study conducted with college students, (B) involved a single paper-folding task, rather than the variety of tasks used in typical IQ tests, (C) has never received strong empirical support in studies of children, (D) all of the above.;26. ____26. A child that has achieved object permanence is watching a puppet show, and;the curtain closes at the end. When asked by his teacher (immediately after the curtain closes) to search for the missing puppets, the child will most likely look: (A) nowhere (i.e., the child will simply state that the puppets are no longer pres- ent), (B) on the ground around and behind him, (C) behind his teacher, thinking she is hiding the puppets, (D) behind the curtain of the stage, because he realizes they are hidden by the curtain.;27. ____27. Many of the behaviors that are performed under hypnosis: (A) have been demon- strated only under hypnosis, (B) have also been demonstrated under nonhypnotic conditions, (C) have the potential of injuring bystanders, including the hypnotist, (D) would never occur under normal states of consciousness.;PSYC 100 - Introductory Psychology University of Maryland University College Second Examination ? DUE May 4, 2014 Spring, 2014;28. ____28. Baby Otto is involved in a research study. He is shown a picture of a human face and a picture of a group of shapes at the same time. The investigators re- cord which picture he looks at longer to determine his preferences. This tech- nique is known as the: (A) picture habituation technique, (B) orienting task, (C) object permanence technique, (D) preferential looking technique.;29. ____29. You watch you newborn nephew and observe the way he tracks a moving ob- ject. You then compare it to how your 5-year-old sister tracks the same moving object. What do you observe? (A) Both your nephew and your sister track the object with saccadic eye movements. (B) Both your nephew and your sister track the object with smooth pursuit eye movements. (C) Your nephew tracks the object with saccadic eye movements and your sister uses smooth pursuit eye movements. (D) Your nephew uses smooth pursuit eye movements to watch the object, and your sister uses saccades.;30. ____30. Walter Mischel followed up on the children who had participated (at age 4) in his ?marshmallow study? 14 years later (when they were 18 years old). Mischel found that the children who had successfully waited (for 15 minutes) to receive a second marshmallow ______ those who ate their first marshmallow. (A) were more self-reliant, trustworthy, and academically successful than, (B) were not as good at planning for their futures as, (C) had poorer social adjustment than, (D) had similar SAT scores as.;31. ____31. In Harry Harlow?s research on attachment, baby monkeys that had been separ- ated from their mothers were exposed to two different surrogate mothers. One was made of wire mesh and provided food, the other was padded, covered with terry cloth, and provided ?contact comfort? but no nourishment. When present- ed with a fear stimulus, the baby monkey would: (A) run to the wire mother for protection, (B) run to the terry cloth mother for protection, (C) be just as likely to run to the terry cloth mother as it is to run to the wire mother, (D) venture out to explore the fear stimulus and then return to the terry cloth mother before ex- ploring further.;32. ____32. Female genitalia: (A) develop more quickly than male genitalia, (B) are more susceptible to damage than male genitalia, (C) do not need additional hormones to develop, (D) need androgens to develop.;33. ____33. One reason human newborns have poor visual skills is that the neurons in their visual cortex are: (A) insufficiently connected, (B) myelinated, (C) depolarized, (D) always fatigued.;PSYC 100 - Introductory Psychology University of Maryland University College Second Examination ? DUE May 4, 2014 Spring, 2014;34. ____34. If we consider the factors that determine whether an individual develops male or female genitalia, we find that: (A) genetic sex (XX or XY) is the crucial factor, because an XY fetus invariably develops as a male, (B) male hormones are critical, because in the absence of male hormones, an XY fetus will develop as a female, (C) female hormones are critical, because in the absence of female hormones, an XX fetus will develop as a male, (D) sex hormones are critical, because without male hormones, an XY fetus will develop as a female, and without female hormones, an XX fetus will develop as a male.;35. ____35. Because of a severe drought, a ban on outdoor watering has been issued. The Robinsons decide that they will not water their new shrubs because their neigh- bors would disapprove. Their reasoning places the Robinsons in which of Kohl- berg?s stages of moral development? (A) preconventional, (B) conventional, (C) postconventional, (D) unconventional.;36. Broca?s area in the brain is most closely associated with: (A) memory, (B) emo- tion, (C) language, (D) physical movement.;37. ____37. Carrie and her husband have been trying to have a baby. She is shocked to find out that the reason for her infertility is that she is biologically a man! Apparent- ly, during her prenatal development, her androgen receptors failed to function, causing her to develop as a female. Her condition is known as: (A) transgender dysfunction, (B) androgen insensitivity syndrome, (C) gender identity disorder, (D) androgyny.;38. ____38. Homer is considering the purchase of subliminal self-help tapes to aid him in losing weight. His wife Marge is skeptical about this plan and asks for your advice. Based on your knowledge of scientific psychology, what would you tell her about the effectiveness of subliminal self-help tapes? (A) They are effective. (B) They are ineffective. (C) Their effectiveness has never been scientifically tested. (D) More research is needed to assess their level of effectiveness.;39. ____39. Our ability to experience so many different tastes, despite the limited number of basic taste sensations, demonstrates the interplay between our senses of taste and: (A) smell, (B) touch, (C) vision, (D) hearing.;40. ____40. A person with visual agnosia has difficulty with: (A) remembering what particu- lar words mean, (B) recognizing what he sees, (C) perceiving and copying lines at particular orientations, (D) perceiving motion in particular directions.;PSYC 100 - Introductory Psychology University of Maryland University College Second Examination ? DUE May 4, 2014 Spring, 2014;41. ____41. Suppose you can just tell the difference between lifting 100 grams and 102 grams. According to Weber?s Law, you would need to add _____ grams to distinguish the new weight from a standard weight of 1,000 grams. (A) 2, (B) 10, (C) 20, (D) 200.;42. ____42. John Garcia?s research on conditioned taste aversion is noteworthy in the under- standing of learning because it demonstrated that: (A) organisms are biologically prepared to learn certain associations, (B) complex behaviors may be acquired by shaping of successive approximations, (C) a more probable activity can be used to reinforce a less probable one, (D) the associationist principles of learning are common to all organisms.;43. ____43. The most common way of assessing attachment in human infants is to: (A) have the child track a picture of the mother with her eyes, (B) see if the child smiles at a picture of her mother, (C) determine the predominant child-rearing style of the parents, (D) see how the child responds when separated from and reunited with her mother.;44. ____44. The most famous quotation attributed to the Gestalt psychologists is ?The whole is different from the sum of its parts.? By this, the Gestalt psychologists meant that: (A) when a group makes a decision, it will probably be very different from any decision that an individual might make, (B) appearances can be deceiving, (C) individuals are prone to making errors, even in simple mathematical prob- lems, (D) perceptual experience cannot be fully understood if it is broken down into its basic elements.;45. ____45. A toddler holds a drawing up to the telephone, in order to ?show? it to his grand- mother. This example illustrates: (A) egocentrism, (B) conservation, (C) accom- modation, (D) a concrete operation.;46. ____46. The term ?conservation? refers to a child?s (A) egocentric perspective regard- ing social issues, (B) awareness that altering the form or shape of an object does not alter the amount of that object, (C) release from lack of object permanence, (D) inability to mentally ?undo? a process or procedure.;47. ____47. Tim and Jim are identical twins who were raised apart. Ned and Ted are frater- nal twins who were raised together. Which pair of twins, if either, will have a greater degree of similarity between their IQ scores? (A) Tim and Jim, (B) Ned and Ted, (C) There will be no appreciable differences between the IQ scores of the two sets of twins. (D) none of the above.;PSYC 100 - Introductory Psychology University of Maryland University College Second Examination ? DUE May 4, 2014 Spring, 2014;48. ____48. Your mouth waters every time you hear an ice cream truck?s familiar song in the distance. One day, you hear a slightly different song, and your mouth starts to water. This phenomenon illustrates: (A) stimulus generalization, (B) stimulus discrimination, (C) extinction: (D) spontaneous recovery.;49. ____49. After being taught by his parents to wipe his face with a napkin, your toddler soon uses his shirt and the family couch to wipe his face also. Your toddler?s behavior illustrates: (A) spontaneous recovery, (B) shaping, (C) generalization, (D) discrimination.;50. ____50. John Watson?s claim that ?so-called thinking? is nothing but subvocal speech was eventually disproved by scientists who showed that: (A) eyewitness testim- ony is very accurate, showing that memory is not constructive, (B) people can still think when all of their muscles are paralyzed, (C) dolphins and monkeys are capable of problem solving, and therefore thinking like humans, (D) thought occurs after emotional reactions, proving that thought does not cause emotional responses.;Additional Requirements;Level of Detail: Only answer needed

 

Paper#22154 | Written in 18-Jul-2015

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