List and describe the techniques used to increase hypnotic responsiveness.;2. Explain why it can be said that hypnosis is largely a participant variable.;3. Which of the following statements best describes the study of personality?;Select one;a. Personality psychologists are interested in how people react to different situations.;b. Personality psychologists now recognize that early explanations of personality, such as Freud's psychoanalytic theory, are incorrect.;c. Personality psychologists are interested in consistent behavior patterns and intrapersonal processes originating within the individual.;4. A personality psychologist who focuses on the stable patterns of aggressive behavior in schoolchildren that may be related to genetic predispositions follows the;Select one;a. psychoanalytic approach.;b. biological approach.;c. humanistic approach;5. To explain depression, trait theorists would most likely focus on;Select one;a. identifying people prone to depression.;b. the genetic susceptibility individuals have toward depression.;c. the unconscious feelings of anger within people.;6. A woman feels she is successful when she contributes to a group effort that succeeds. She prefers to not draw attention to herself and cooperation over competition. The woman is probably from a(n);Select one;a. individualistic culture.;b. collectivist culture.;c. male-dominated family.;7. Which of the following statements is true about theories of personality?;Select one;a. They provide only a part of the picture of human personality.;b. They support the expert?s viewpoint.;c. Theories are predicted from one hypothesis or another.;d. They are directly tested using empirical methods.;8. A researcher maintains that a person's self-esteem level is largely inherited from his or her parents. From this she derives the prediction that children with low self-esteem probably come from homes where one or both parents have low self-esteem. In this case, the prediction is the;Select one;a. theory.;b. hypothesis.;c. independent variable.;d. dependent variable.;9. Personality researchers take steps to discover the nature of personality in which order?;Select one;a. Generate hypotheses, evaluate data, speculate;b. Generate hypotheses, collect data, evaluate data;c. Collect data, evaluate data, speculate;d. Speculate, collect data, generate hypotheses;10. A researcher divides participants into those who suffer from insomnia and those who sleep well. He compares the two groups on the number of hours each spends at leisure activities in an average week. He finds the insomniacs spend significantly fewer hours at such activities than do the participants who sleep well. In this example, the number of hours spent at leisure activities is;Select one;a. the independent variable.;b. the dependent variable.;c. confounded with which group the participant is in.;d. the hypothesis.;11.To obtain an interaction in your research findings, you would need more than one;Select one;a. independent variable.;b. dependent variable.;c. hypothesis.;d. statistical test.;12. A researcher finds that males make fewer errors than females when working in a competitive situation. However, women make fewer errors than men when working in a cooperative situation. This is an example of;Select one;a. a confound.;b. two manipulated independent variables.;c. an interaction.;d. a failure to replicate.;13. You are studying the immediate effects of alcohol on people?s feelings of well-being. Which of the following could be the dependent variable in this study?;Select one;a. Score on a measure of well-being;b. Amount of alcohol consumed within one hour prior to test;c. Level of alcohol in the blood;d. Either b or c;14. Typically, a case study;Select one;a. has no comparison group.;b. is of little interest to personality theorists.;c. reports a large amount of numerical data.;d. allows researchers to draw strong conclusions about cause and effect.;15. Some researchers try to understand personality with in-depth evaluations of individuals or groups of people. This approach is better known as;Select one;a. the hypothesis-testing method.;b. the experimental approach.;c. the correlation coefficient.;d. the case study method.;16. Among the disadvantages of the case study method is;Select one;a. the problem of replicating a treatment.;b. the difficulty with determining relationships among variables.;c. the difficulty of examining certain concepts experimentally.;d. the possibility of subjective judgments.;17. Which of the following describes the relationship between your credit card balance each month and the amount of interest you are paying (not interest rate)?;Select one;a. A perfect negative correlation;b. A weak negative correlation;c. No correlation;d. A strong positive correlation;18. Which of the following does a correlation coefficient not tell us?;Select one;a. If the difference between two means reflects a real difference or can be attributed to chance fluctuation.;b. The strength of a relationship between two measures.;c. The direction of a relationship between two measures.;d. How well a score on one measure can be predicted by a score on another.;19. What is made difficult by the ?file drawer? problem?;Select one;a. Determining if the prediction was made before or after seeing the results;b. Determining if the appropriate statistical tests were used;c. Determining the strength of an effect by how often it is replicated;d. Determining how valid the measures were;20. A reliable test;Select one;a. measures what it was designed to measure.;b. measures what it measures consistently.;c. has good validity.;d. measures many different concepts at once.;21. A test is said to have good validity if there is good evidence that;Select one;a. all the test items are measuring the same thing.;b. it has been used previously by many different researchers.;c. test scores are relatively stable over time.;d. the test measures what it was designed to measure.;22. The case of Anna O. helped Freud develop an early appreciation for;b. unconscious determinants of behavior.;c. Freudian slips.;d. free association.;23. Information about where you parked your car or the name of your uncle is probably stored in which part of the mind, according to Freud's topographic model?;Select one;b. Preconscious;c. Unconscious;d. Subconscious;24. Freud said the actions of the ego were characterized as following which principle?;Select one;a. Pleasure principle;b. Ethical principle;d. Reality principle;25. A patient in psychoanalysis begins to speak to the therapist as if the therapist were the patient?s deceased brother. This is an example of;Select one;b. transference.;c. countertransference.;d. denial.;26. Freud and Breuer used which procedure when working with Anna O.?;Select one;a. Hypnosis;c. Dream interpretation;d. Projective tests;27. Which of the following best summarizes research on the frequency of male and female characters in dreams?;Select one;a. Both men and women have more male than female characters in their dreams.;b. Men have more male than female characters in their dreams, whereas women have more female than male characters in their dreams.;c. Men have more female than male characters in their dreams, whereas women have more male than female characters in their dreams.;d. Men have more male than female characters in their dreams, but women have approximately equal numbers of male and female characters in their dreams.;28. When people have dreams about falling or being chased that they have dreamed before, we call these dreams;Select one;a. conscious.;b. paradoxical.;c. surreal.;d. recurrent.;29. Which of the following best describes the cross-cultural findings when comparing the frequencies of male and female characters in dreams?;Select one;a. Although there are a few exceptions, the frequencies found in American samples tend to be found in other cultures as well.;b. American and European samples show different frequencies than non-Western samples.;c. Male characters tend to show up in dreams more frequently in male-dominated societies.;d. Although a consistent pattern is found in the results from different American samples, no clear pattern emerges when looking at studies using participants from other cultures.;30. Suppose you had to go all night without sleep in order to study for a final exam. If you suffer from _____, you will receive more REM sleep the next night.;Select one;a. recurrent dream phenomenon;b. the rebound effect;c. extreme relaxation associated with having the final exam finished;d. the paradox of sleep;31. According to recent research findings, REM sleep appears to be necessary to;Select one;a. maintain one?s mental health.;b. guard against serious psychological disturbances.;c. prepare us for dealing with anxiety-arousing events.;d. all of these;32. In one dream study, researchers compared the dreams of Palestinian children who lived in the Gaza Strip where they had experienced years of violence with children living in the more peaceful Galilee area. The findings from dream reports revealed that;Select one;a. children living under constant stress had fewer dreams.;b. the dreams of children living under constant stress included more threatening events.;c. those who received suggestions prior to sleep had more threatening events in their dreams regardless of living circumstances.;d. both a and b;33. Which of the following conclusions has been supported by the results of REM sleep research?;Select one;a. Depriving someone of REM sleep can lead to psychological disturbances.;b. REM sleep and dreams may help us work through unresolved problems while asleep.;c. A great deal of REM sleep indicates psychological problems.;d. A lack of REM sleep indicates a lack of anxiety.;34. Researchers draw a distinction between defense mechanisms and coping strategies, in that defense mechanisms are _____ whereas coping strategies are _____.;Select one;a. negative, positive;b. ineffective, effective;c. innate, learned;d. unconscious, conscious;35. Which of the following do researchers commonly use to measure defense mechanisms?;Select one;a. Self-report inventories;b. Projective tests;c. Behavioral interviews;d. Hypnosis;36. Based on research findings, which of the following defense mechanisms would we expect to find children use most frequently?;Select one;a. Denial;b. Identification;c. Reaction formation;d. Sublimation;37. According to Freud, a good joke teller should;Select one;a. get to the punch line quickly.;b. get people to relax as the punch line approaches.;c. build tension in the audience as the joke is told.;d. avoid jokes with hostile or aggressive content.;38. According to Freud, which of the following functions is served by telling or listening to jokes?;Select one;a. One?s enemy can be attacked through humor.;b. The punch line of a joke provides the satisfaction that comes with tension release.;c. Sexual thoughts can be expressed in socially acceptable outlets.;d. All of these;39. When researchers asked people to rate cartoons for funniness, they found that;Select one;a. each participant experienced a cathartic release of tension.;b. cartoons with sexual and aggressive themes were rated as funnier than cartoons with other themes.;c. the likelihood of participants acting aggressively significantly increased.;d. funniness ratings were inconsistent with predictions from Freudian theory.;40. According to Freud, which type of joke should you tell an angry person to reduce that person?s likelihood of acting aggressive?;Select one;a. A hostile joke;b. A sexual joke;c. A insulting joke;d. A really funny joke;41. One problem researchers have had in finding experimental evidence in support of Freud?s theory of humor is that;Select one;a. many of the findings are subject to alternative explanations.;b. predictions can?t be derived from Freud?s theory.;c. very few, if any, of the findings have been replicated.;d. researchers are unable to manipulate the participant?s unconscious thoughts.;42. The view that deeply hypnotized people experience a division of their consciousness is known as;Select one;a. neodissociation theory.;b. sociocognitive theory.;c. trance theory.;d. neonatal theory.;43. What concept do sociocognitive theorists often use to explain the behavior of hypnotic subjects?;Select one;a. Expectancy;b. Altered state of consciousness;c. Divided consciousness;d. Repression;44. How responsive you are to hypnotic suggestions;Select one;a. depends largely on how good the hypnotist is.;b. is fairly stable over time, like a personality trait.;c. changes with your amount of experience with hypnosis.;d. can be predicted from personality trait measures like intelligence and extraversion.;45. In which of the following circumstances are people more responsive to hypnosis?;Select one;a. When the situation is not defined as hypnosis;b. When the participant has not been responsive to hypnosis in the past;c. When the cooperation and trust of the participant is established;d. Both a and b;46. A stage hypnotist arranges chairs so that only a few of the many volunteers who rush to the stage are able to participate in the show. She does this to capitalize on which responsiveness-enhancing variable?;Select one;a. Expectancy;b. Attitude;c. Motivation;d. Absorption;47. ?Posthypnotic amnesia? refers to the hypnotic subjects? inability to recall;Select one;a. whether or not they have been hypnotized.;b. what happened under hypnosis.;c. what happened under hypnosis when the hypnotist tells them they cannot remember.;d. events that happen after hypnosis.
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