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Christine has just taken a drug. She experiences a short-lived high that lasted




1);Christine has just taken a drug. She experiences a short-lived high that lasted a few hours and reports that she feels warm, friendly, sensual, and insightful. Additionally her blood pressure has increased and shows sweating, insomnia and transient anxiety. It is most likely that Christine has taken;(2pts);MDMA.;morphine or heroin.;barbiturates or Quaaludes.;cocaine or amphetamines.;2);Which of the following categories of psychoactive drugs results in a gradual development of a tolerance for the drug?;(2pts);alcohol;sedatives;stimulants;narcotics;3);A synergistic effect is one in which;(2pts);a drug suppresses the action of a neuromodulator.;the combined effects of two drugs are more than what would be predicted by the simple addition of the effects in isolation.;a person addicted to one drug is more susceptible to be addicted to a similar drug.;a drug affects the myelin sheath of a neuron and 'short-circuits' its insulation properties.;4);Most psychoactive drugs work primarily by altering;(2pts);the functioning of the endocrine system.;the functioning of sensory receptor cells.;neurotransmitter activity in the brain.;neurotransmitter activity in the peripheral nervous system.;5);Which of the following statements regarding the study of consciousness is accurate?;(2pts);Psychology began as the study of behavior rather than the study of consciousness.;John Watson and others viewed psychology as the science of consciousness.;The 1960s saw an increase in the study of variations of consciousness.;Today, psychologists are generally not interested in studying issues related to consciousness.;6);The fact that the alterations of consciousness produced by drugs depend significantly on personal expectations illustrates which of the following unifying themes?;(2pts);Psychology is empirical.;Psychology evolves in a sociohistorical context.;Behavior is determined by multiple causes.;Our experience of the world is highly subjective.;7);Lauren has been having trouble sleeping, and she decides to take a sedative to help her get a good night"s sleep. The use of a sedative is likely to;(2pts);increase the amount of time she spends in both slow-wave and REM sleep.;increase the amount of time she spends in slow-wave sleep, but decrease her overall REM sleep.;decrease the amount of time she spends in both slow-wave and REM sleep.;increase the amount of time she spends in REM sleep, but decrease her overall slow-wave sleep.;8);Which of the following is NOT one of the text"s suggestions for helping to avoid sleep problems?;(2pts);try to establish a regular bedtime;avoid going to bed either very hungry or full;avoid daytime naps;have a glass of warm milk before going to bed;9);People can often exert some control over the events unfolding in their dreams when experiencing;(2pts);somnambulism.;night terrors.;latent dreaming.;lucid dreaming.;10);Which of the following statements regarding the debate over whether alcoholism is a disease is LEAST accurate?;(2pts);One can inherit a genetic vulnerability to alcoholism.;Alcoholism disrupts a variety of vital functions.;More research is needed to determine whether or not alcoholism is a disease.;The question of whether alcoholism is a disease is a matter of definition.;11);Concluding that a person drinks too much because he/she is an alcoholic, is an example of;(2pts);logical reasoning.;circular reasoning.;inductive reasoning.;deductive reasoning.;12);Which brain wave is probably operating while you are taking this exam?;(2pts);alpha;beta;theta;delta;13);Persons can be made to act as if they are hypnotized even without the use of hypnotic induction. This statement is;(2pts);true;false;14);Which of the following statements is MOST accurate?;Most people do not dream in color.;Practice will not improve the ability to recall dreams.;Dreams generally last only 1 or 2 minutes.;From birth until death everyone dreams.;15);Avoidance conditioning develops through;negative reinforcement.;positive reinforcement.;punishment.;modeling.;16);Angela used to really enjoy diving for her school team, but at their most recent diving practice she hit her head on the diving board during her last dive. Since then she hasn"t attended any of the team practices, and she refuses to dive. In this case, hitting her head on the board acted as;punishment for diving.;negative reinforcement for diving.;an unconditioned response to diving.;a discriminative stimulus for attending team practices.;17);Although there are many controversies surrounding punishment it is used frequently for disciplinary purposes. Which of the following are desirable aspects surrounding the use of punishment?;It suggests alternative behaviors.;It can be modeled as a positive problem solving method.;It reduces the probability of undesirable behavior.;It will often trigger strong emotional responses.;18);You eat a new food and that night become ill with nausea and vomiting. Later you experience nausea whenever you taste or smell the new food. Why did you not associate your nausea with the cues of the room, the people present, the bathroom, and so on?;You were biologically predisposed to associate taste and nausea.;The nontaste cues were too weak.;The taste cues were more immediate.;There was less contiguity for the other cues.;19);The rapid acquisition of conditioned taste aversions is consistent with Domjan"s focus on;ecologically relevant conditioned stimuli.;arbitrary or neutral conditioned stimuli.;ecologically relevant unconditioned stimuli.;arbitrary or neutral unconditioned stimuli.;20);If a baseball player who has been in a batting slump for several weeks alters his batting stance and wears a new batting glove one day and gets three hits, the cognitive explanation of conditioning suggests that for the next game, the baseball player will continue to;experiment with another batting stance and batting glove.;use the new batting stance.;use the new batting glove.;use both the new batting stance and new batting glove.;21);Your younger daughter watches your older daughter wash the breakfast dishes. Later, your younger daughter attempts to wash some dishes. The older daughter has acted as;a noncontingent reinforcer.;a negative reinforcer.;a positive reinforcer.;a model.;22);Which of the following statements is MOST accurate?;Observational learning is entirely separate from both classical and operant conditioning.;Observational learning is a form of classical conditioning.;Observational learning is a form of operant conditioning.;Both classical and operant conditioning can take place vicariously through observational learning.;23);The research of both Tolman and Bandura distinguishes between;positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement.;the acquisition of a learned response and the performance of the response.;reinforcement of a response and punishment of a response.;classical conditioning and operant conditioning.;24);Research into the debate on the role of media violence on children suggests that;media violence contributes to increased aggression among children but not adults.;media violence contributes to increased aggression among adults but not children.;media violence contributes to increased aggression among children and adults.;no conclusion as to the cause and effect relationship between media violence and aggression because the majority of the studies have been correlational.;25);Research on conditioning generally has demonstrated the importance of ____, but findings regarding the biological constraints on conditioning have shown that ____ is also very important.;nature, nurture;nurture, nature;heredity, biology;instincts, training;26);A systematic approach to changing behavior through the application of the principles of conditioning is known as;behavior modification.;cognitive engineering.;modeling.;insight training.;27);Application of conditioning principles to solve behavior problems is generally known as;behavior modification.;cognitive engineering.;modeling.;insight training.;28);When gathering baseline data for a behavior modification program, it is necessary to record all of the following EXCEPT;monitor the antecedents of the target behavior.;monitor the consequences of the target behavior.;determine the initial frequency of the target behavior.;determine how you can reduce the frequency of the target behavior.;29);If you devise a self-modification program in which you systematically reward yourself for studying, you are applying the principles of;classical conditioning.;operant conditioning.;observational learning.;Pavlovian conditioning.;30);When the US is removed and the CS is presented alone for a period of time, what will occur?;classical conditioning;generalization;acquisition;extinction;31);The contingencies are as follows: if the response occurs, a stimulus is presented, if the response does not occur, the stimulus is not presented. Under this procedure the strength of the response decreases. What procedure is being used?;positive reinforcement;negative reinforcement;punishment;avoidance training;32);Animal studies show that manipulations that suppress neurogenesis lead to;enhanced learning on many types of tasks.;organic anterograde amnesia.;non-orgranic retrograde amnesia.;memory impairments on many types of learning tasks.;33);Which of the following processes has not been suggested as a biochemical process involved in memory?;protein synthesis;hormonal levels;consolidation;alterations in synaptic transmission;34);Retrograde amnesia is a type of organic amnesia in which;new information impairs the retention of previously learned information.;previously learned information interferes with the retention of new information.;a person loses memories of events that occurred prior to a head injury.;a person loses memories of events that occur after a head injury.;35);Victims of organic amnesia who can recall memories stored before a head injury but can not recall information processed after the injury are showing;retrograde amnesia.;pseudoforgetting.;anterograde amnesia.;retroactive interference.;36);Which area of the brain is associated with the consolidation of long-term memories?;hippocampal region;hypothalamus;cerebral cortex;medulla;37);Your memory of general knowledge or facts that is not tied to or associated with memories for when you first learned the fact is contained in the;procedural memory.;episodic memory.;semantic memory.;nondeclarative memory.;38);Savanna is trying to remember the names of the first twelve vice-presidents for her history exam. She has read the names through six times, and she is ready to test herself on how well she can recall them. Based on research studies that have shown memory failures for lists of unfamiliar material often follow a pattern called a serial position curve, you should predict that Savanna will remember the names of the vice-presidents;at the beginning of the list better than the names in the middle or at the end.;at the end of the list better than the names at the beginning or in the middle.;in the middle of the list better than the names at the beginning or at the end.;at the beginning and the end of the list better than the names in the middle.;39);Children often have difficulty remembering the letters in the middle of the alphabet because of;overlearning of the first letters in the alphabet.;distributed practice.;the serial-position effect.;the use of mnemonic devices.;40);If you associate a word with an image to represent the word, you are using;an acrostic.;the link method.;the keyword method.;a semantic network.;41);If you attempt to improve your memory by focusing on attention, levels of processing, elaboration, and visual imagery, you are focusing on the memory process of;retrieval.;memorization.;encoding.;storage.;42);Most students find recognition tests easier than recall tests because ____ tests provide ____.;recall, relearning cues;recall, retrieval cues;recognition, relearning cues;recognition, retrieval cues;43);Which of the memory stores can hold the LEAST amount of information?;sensory store;short-term memory;long-term memory;declarative memory;44);When you violate the encoding specificity principle, you are likely to experience an inability to;encode information.;store information.;retrieve information.;form a visual image of the material you want to retrieve.;45);The failure to seek out disconfirming evidence can often lead to;the overconfidence effect.;the reconstructive bias.;the hindsight bias.;a source monitoring error.;46);Wilson is watching two different roulette-type games at a local charity bazaar. Each game costs $1.00 to play. In one game there are ten different numbers, and if the number he selects comes up, he will win $12.00. In the other game there are 100 different numbers, but if the number he selects comes up, he will win $50.00. Based on expected value theory, Wilson should;play the second game because it has a higher expected value.;play either one of the games because they both have the same expected value.;not play either game because they both have such low odds of winning.;play the first game because it has a higher expected value.;47);During the 1950s and 1960s, creative new ways of measuring mental processes paved the way for the cognitive revolution. The development of new research methods helps to illustrate which of your text"s unifying themes?;Our experience of the world is highly subjective.;Psychology is theoretically diverse.;Psychology is empirical.;Behavior is determined by multiple causes.;48);Christine has been following the state lottery for over a year, and she has a record of the number of times every number has been selected. She is ready to invest $1000 in lottery tickets with the same six-number combination on each ticket. She is going to choose the six numbers that have occurred the least frequently in the last year because she is sure they will be picked eventually. In this case, Christine is showing evidence of;the availability heuristic.;the base rate fallacy.;the gambler"s fallacy.;the conjunction fallacy.;49);Maribel is on a jury, and she is already convinced that the defendant in the case is not guilty. She listens very attentively to everything the defense attorneys have to say, but she tends to pay less attention when the prosecution is presenting evidence. In this instance, Maribel is showing evidence of;a confirmation bias.;the conjunction fallacy.;the base-rate fallacy.;the overconfidence effect.;50);The word SLOWLY would be an example of a;metalinguistic;phoneme;syntactical unit;morpheme


Paper#24491 | Written in 18-Jul-2015

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