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Do you think poverty alleviation can be seriously addressed as tourism develops

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1. Do you think poverty alleviation can be seriously addressed as tourism develops? What examples can you give based on what you have seen in your own country regarding tourism development and poverty alleviation?;2. Identify concrete activities local government units can initiate and support to address poverty alleviation;through tourism development.;3. Identify paradoxes and problems that must be negotiated as poverty alleviation and tourism development are considered. How can these paradoxes and problems be managed and converted into opportunities to ensure that marginalized individuals get the support they need?;Those questions should be answered based on the attached case study.;****************************************************************;C A S E S T U D Y;Governance and Pro-Poor Tourism: The Case of Marikina City in the Philippines;(Because of space constraints, this case has been reduced, however, you may contact Dr. Rodriguez for the full version.);Come and visit the city of Marikina, in the National Capital Region of the Philippines, to examine the;incredible example of how a city can successfully adopt a governance and pro-poor tourism program.;Pro-poor tourism was chosen as a major theme for this case because of the following;? As tourism takes center stage in developing countries, the tourism sector is increasingly perceived as;being able to contribute to the proliferation of economic activities, which if managed in a specific way;can address poverty alleviation issues.;? Ashley asserts that community-based tourism projects are not necessarily pro poor because the;revenues derived from tourism activities can be confined to serve the interests of relatively well-off stakeholders.;1. The proliferation of books and articles related to pro-poor tourism makes it an interesting topic especially for the academe and the poor. The presentation and exchange of data on the planning and implementation of pro-poor tourism especially in Asian countries can help inform many stakeholders who are interested in understanding the contribution of tourism development in poverty alleviation.;Marikina City as a Tourism Site;Twenty years ago, Marikina was an unremarkable town littered with trash and where sidewalk vendors ruled the streets. Marikina now wants to be known as ?the shoe capital of the Philippines. ?Located near the city of Manila, it is believed to be where the shoe industry in metro Manila started. Many residential villages within the municipality were formerly farms used for agricultural crops until these were converted to provide housing for migrants from other provinces seeking work in the metropolis.;Marikina in the late 1980s was not considered a popular tourism destination. An election in the early 1990s catapulted a local executive who introduced radical changes in governance. This led to the emergence of Marikina as a model city. To date, many visitors are pleasantly surprised to see thoroughfares free of clutter and vendors and a municipal hall that enforces its own definition of order. As a result of these changes, Marikina has garnered and continues to garner many awards that generated interest among other cities? executives eager to learn from its experience. This started the ball rolling for domestic tourism despite the fact that Marikina has few tourism assets. Marikina has no beach resorts and no first-class hotels and places of interests are limited to the city proper.;Now, however, Marikina is hailed as a model city for tourism development, and the interesting thing is that many of the tourists are other cities? municipal officials who have come to see for themselves just how a city should be governed. Tourists, along with the other municipalities? officials, enjoy the city?s attractions: Sentrong Pangkultura: Built in 1887, this historical edifice, which was the actual home of Kapitan Moy, the recognized father of the shoe industry, takes tourist?s down memory lane of rustic Spanish villas and airy capiz windows.;Teatro Marikina: The city?s commitment to the arts is manifest in the modern arts facility for plays, concerts, shows, seminars, exhibits, and conventions.;World of Butterflies: A 2000-meter expanse of lush gardens that is home to 20 species of butterflies.;The Marikina River Park: The Marikina River Park is a 10-kilometer-long riverside park of 220 hectares. The river park is for all citizens and tourists to enjoy as a sports and recreational park?even for fishing in the river.;The Shoe Museum and Shoe Industry: Former First Lady Imelda Marcos?s 4,000 pairs of shoes had to be housed somewhere, so why not the shoe capital of the Philippines? Shoes of other notables are also on display. The shoe industry in Marikina has long been unable to compete with imported Chinese shoes, but has discovered a captive market niche of tourists and excursionists. Individuals and groups go on field trips to Marikina and are brought to small shoe factories to watch how shoes are produced using labor-intensive methods and are encouraged to buy finished products.;How It Happened;In three words: leadership and governance. Take, for example, the mayor?s presentation to the Asian Development Bank: ?Our targets and goals are clear, our performances are properly measured. We are challenged and motivated to continuously meet our productivity and excellence. Public order and safety are excellent;the police force is cited as the most outstanding in the region. Taxes due are collected?something that does not often happen in the Philippines?this facilitates the budgeting process and avails the city of funds for the many social programs that citizens and tourists can enjoy.?;World Bank executives were so impressed after touring the city and its Marikina River Park, Homeowners Drive Settlements site, Marikina Public Market, and bikeways. The bikeways network is a recipient of a US$1.3 billion grant from the Global Environment Facility of the World Bank. Additionally, the World Bank named Marikina City one of the model cities in the world.;Poverty Alleviation;The city?s approach to poverty alleviation is multipronged, addressing the health, housing, education and livelihood, and values of our people. Tourism helps poverty alleviation by providing employment opportunities, by bringing new money into the city for the ?multiplier effect? to happen, by producing tax revenues for community services, infrastructure, and education. In fact, the city is so well run that many other cities are sending officials to see how they do it, resulting in a boost to tourism.;Ashley emphasizes the value of supply chains, enterprise linkages, nonfinancial partnerships, and capability building and translates these into specific activities that can be planned and implemented at the level of local government officials.2 An investigation of the Marikina government unit in this study focuses on the context of tourism development as an alternative source of livelihood and the manner in which the tourism office is managed, including the leadership style of the local executive directly responsible for the promotion of tourism. The problems were as follows;1. What are the tourism-related programs, projects and activities that are being done at the level of Marikina?s local government units?;2. What insights on governance can be generated from the investigation of tourism-related portfolios of this local government unit to link tourism to pro-poor concerns?;Data obtained given the variables enumerated by Ashley are shown in Table5?1.;The data presented in Table 5?1 are not exhaustive in the sense that there may be other programs/projects that are operating but that were not observed and sourced using secondary documents. A comparison of data shows the diversity of what can be considered pro-poor projects in Marikina.;Table 5?1 Comparative Data on Marikina Using Ashley?s Matrix;Is there government to: City of Marikina;Boost local inputs into the tourism supply Local government unit (LGU) manages tours that;chain? This question addresses the presence showcase local cuisine and manufactured products. It;of leakages of tourism earnings. It emphasizes manages museums, one of which displays the famous;the importance of local sourcing that opens ?shoes of Imelda Marcos.?Conscious efforts are also;more opportunities for marginalized groups. exerted to source materials and local manpower for;festivals sponsored by the local government unit.;(Source: MCTTIPO brochure);???;Support micro/small/community tourism The LGU has a micro lending project. In addition, it;entrepreneurs? Lack of financing and training manages a ?Manpower House Livelihood Skills Training;in developing countries are often cited as and Productivity Center?to encourage businesses in the;reasons why marginalized sectors are unable food trade, cosmetology, dressmaking, spa/massage;to benefit from tourism development. reflexology. (Source: Marikina City, 2007, Annual Report);It has an investment promotions plan that gives;incentives to ?local... micro, small scale enterprises.?;(Source: Marikina Chamber of Commerce and Industry;Information Kit). It also supports a shoe caravan;composed of small shoe manufacturers that go to the;countryside.;Support craft makers and vendors? Several areas are designated by the LGU to provide;support for groups of entrepreneurs.;Provide a market space for tourist craft sales? The LGU has a ?cooperatives month? to support micro;entrepreneurs.;Accredit a ?local guide? category? Employees of the LGU, particularly MCTTIPO, are hired;Employment of local guides provides as guides in the tours that it manages.;opportunities to common folks.;Apply levy or rebate to tourism-related No data;businesses?;Apply a minimum wage? No data;Stimulate partnerships between the private The LGU does not depend on a privately controlled;sector and communities? tourism association. MCTTIPO, an office attached to;the office of the city mayor, manages tourism. The LGU;has linkages with 62 local sister cities and 12 foreign;sister cities. (Source: MCTTIPO brochure);Influence private sector behavior via No data;concessions, licensing, or codes?;Catalyze destination linkages among The LGU plans and implements several festival projects;stakeholders? every year. Examples of these are Ka Angkan(Our;Ancestors), Ilog- Nayon(River-Countryside), Sapatos;(Shoe), Christmas, Rehiyon?Rehiyon(Regional Festivals).;Share poverty alleviation revenues with The LGU leases spaces for local artists (Teatro Marikina);communities? for gatherings of groups (Sentrong Pangkultura), it has;a program to help senior citizens have access to;Medicare (Privilege card). (Source: Marikina City 2007;Annual Report);Channel donations from tourists to No data;communities?;Address social, cultural costs of tourism? No data;Address environmental, physical costs of Traffic because of busloads of visitors is a problem;tourism? identified as a result of tourism. The absence of;sidewalk vendors probably minimizes the;inconvenience.;Involve poor in plans and policy making? There is diverse representation of stakeholders in policy formulation.;Make strategic choices based on evidence for No data;pro-poor impact?;Many of these projects have direct links with tourism development even if their effects on poverty alleviation cannot be directly established.;The material by Ashley is the only one that details the connection between governance and pro-poor;tourism. The material is impressive because it contains data obtained from collaborative work of SNV;Netherlands Development Organization with ?ministries of tourism, tourism boards, hotel associations;community based tourism organizations as well as associations of tour operators?3. and contains information in tourism sites in Asia (Lao PDR) and Africa (Ethiopia, Tunisia, Gambia, Kenya, Mozambique, Rwanda;Tanzania, and Uganda).;Insights from Marikina City;1. On the Value of a Tourism Council as a Vehicle for Tourism Development. Marikina does not rely on an active tourism council with heavy participation of the private sector. It has an office?Marikina Culture, Tourism, Trade, Investment Promotions Office (MCTTIPO)?that operates under the office of the city mayor. This office manages tour packages like Lakbay Aral(educational trips) with students as its market segment. These trips are designed to showcase shoe factories, a hat factory, a shoe museum, and a miniature museum among others.;MCTTIPO collects statistics of tours it manages. The data on types of tours, number of visitors, and dates of visit are used to identify markets served by the touristic offerings.;As the city mayor was provided data on tourism revenues, the decision to invest in related tourism assets became more justified. This could be one of the reasons why the city is offering diverse tourism attractions. It has publicly owned museums, shopping malls, a new convention center, and a hotel. In addition, it manages a number of festivals regularly. The Ka Angkan (Our Ancestors) festival has developed to be a well-attended activity of original families who settled in Marikina when it was still an agricultural municipality. The festival has evolved to a level where interpretive materials on family monikers are shared in an exhibit that is part and parcel of the festival. The Rehiyon-Rehiyon (regional) festival has also reached a spectacular combination of street dancing and performance where constituent barangays (villages) are represented in performances.;In the last Rehiyon-Rehiyon (regional) festival (December 2008), MCTTIPO said costumes of the barangay (village) performers were farmed out to local dressmakers. Skills training, job fairs, promotion of local products, and provision of financing (microfinance) under the office of the city mayor provide the linkage with diverse stakeholders who stand to benefit from tourismic activities.;Given the example of Marikina, one can ask whether a centrally managed tourism organization can be a more effective vehicle for tourism to be pro poor. The desire to involve diverse tourism stakeholders;cognitively should lead to more equalized sharing of the benefits of tourism, and this is widely accepted in Marikina. The active control of the management of a tourism office by the city mayor provides the where-withal to address issues related to managing supply chains, diversifying touristic offerings, and providing the infrastructure and the linkages needed by marginalized members of the community.;2. On the Role of Leadership Styles in Pro-Poor Tourism.MCTTIPO?s role in maximizing tourismic revenues;can also be attributed to the style of leadership of the city mayor. MCTTIPO is managed like an investment;center where ?return on investments? is included as part of the control system. The supervisor of MCTTIPO;regularly reports on performance of the office and is ?rewarded? or ?punished? depending on how the office;operates to produce results. This style of leadership makes the supervisor of MCTTIPO conscious of the need to aggressively promote the tourismic packages and be on the constant lookout for new tourismic offerings.;3. On the Context of Tourism Development as It Relates to the Propensity to Be Pro Poor. Tourism;development in Marikina came at a point when the city had proven itself to be competent in the many areas;of governance. Marikina received local as well as international recognition for efficient and effective delivery;of public services. The infrastructure to include diverse stakeholders to participate in tourism development;was in place before tourism was recognized as a sector worth investing in. This is an interesting phenomenon in the management of tourism councils. Could it be possible to put up pro-poor projects and struggle to;develop tourism at the same time? If the council is composed of only private business interests, how great;will the propensity be to include pro-poor projects in the development of tourism? How decisive is the role;of the local executive in this scenario?;4. On Impact Studies of Tourism on Marginalized Sector. Last but not least, Cattarinich mentions the;complex nature of the phenomenon of poverty.4. Is it economic, social, cultural, or political? How can local;government units minimize poverty if they do not attempt to define poverty given its unique context? This;could also be the reason why ?addressing cultural, social and physical impacts?was mentioned by Ashley as;one of the tools for local government units to be pro poor. How can pro-poor tourism projects be evaluated;to address the concern of Ashley, that is, net benefits of tourism projects in relation to costs? Tourism devel-;opment has unintended results, and the brunt of the negative effects are said to be heavier on disadvantaged;groups. Tourism that is led by private capital is said to be insensitive to these concerns.5. Using an economic;definition of poverty, one may ask if beneficiaries earned more as a result of pro-poor tourism.;Conclusion;For this case, the tools prescribed by Ashley regarding pro-poor tourism were used to examine Marikina City;intheNationalCapitalRegion.Theprograms,projects,activitiesinthesiteofinvestigationwereenumerated;and analyzed. The insights from the analysis of data show areas of concern that can be used as inputs in;making tourism development more sensitive to the needs of marginalized sectors.;Questions;1. Do you think poverty alleviation can be seriously addressed as tourism develops? What examples can you give based on what you have seen in your own country regarding tourism development and poverty alleviation?;2. Identify concrete activities local government units can initiate and support to address poverty alleviation;through tourism development.;3. Identify paradoxes and problems that must be negotiated as poverty alleviation and tourism development are considered. How can these paradoxes and problems be managed and converted into opportunities to ensure that marginalized individuals get the support they need?;Attachments;C_A_S_E_S_T_U_D_Y.doc (47 KB)

 

Paper#30824 | Written in 18-Jul-2015

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