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SlaveryintheUnitedStatesbeganinthe18thcentury

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Presentation;Discrimination;HistoryofDiscrimination;SlaveryintheUnitedStatesbeganinthe18thcenturyandwaspracticeduntilthe13thAmendmentwaspassedin1865following;theCivilWar.However,justbecauseslaverywasoutlawed,thatdidnotchangethediscriminatorypracticesintheUnitedStates for;manyyears.ThesepracticeslingeredinthesouthernpartoftheUnitedStatesforanevenlongerperiod.Infact,somelegislation;encourageddiscriminationfordecadesafterthepassingofthe13thAmendment.;ThelandmarkCivilRightsActof1964beganalonglineoflawsendingdiscriminationbasedonrace,gender,age,anddisability.;However,theselawsdonotmeanthatdiscriminationisnotstillarealforceaffectingtheworkplace.;Discrimination;Overthelasthalfcentury,therehasbeenadramaticchangeinthedemographicsofboththepopulationandtheworkforce.Thishas;beenmainlybecauseofthegrowthofminorityracialgroups,primarilyintheAfricanAmericanandHispanicraces.;Youngergenerationsmaynotonlybemoretolerantofworkingalongsidepeopleofdifferentraces,theymaynotevennoticethe;divide.However,oldergenerations,steepedinracialdiscrimination,mayharborresentmentsagainstworkcolleaguesofdifferent;races.;DiscriminationandStereotypes;Eachgroup,whetherethnic,religious,gender,orrace,hasitsownhistoryuponwhichitformsitsvalues.Thiseffectsthegroups;interactionswithpeoplefromothergroups.Thesedifferencesarethefoundationofdiscriminationandstereotyping.Theserealor;preconceivednotionsaboutindividualsofotherethnicitiesorgenderscancauseproblemsindaytodayinteractionsandaffectwork;performance.Thisispreciselythereasonthatdiversitytraininghasbecomesowidespread,atleastinmediumandlargesized;organizations.;Ifthereisapreconceivednotionamongworkersofoneracethatindividualsofanotherraceareinherentlylazy,thatcanaffect;teamworkandaltertheperceptionoftheequalityofworkassignments.Conversely,racialgroupsthatmaybeperceivedashaving;aninferiorworkethicmayassumethatotherracesareinherentlybiasedagainstthembecauseofstereotyping.;Someracialgroupshavemoretraditionalvalues,suchasstrongfamilyvalues,thatplaceimportanceonmarriage,whileother;groupsmayhaveveryhighincidentsofsingleparenthouseholds.Thesedifferencesaffectthevaluesystemsofthechildrenandwill;affectwhatmayhappenwhentheyentertheworkforce.;Frequently,theperceivedlackofequaltreatmentcanleadworkersofoneracetofeeltheyarebeingtreatedunfairly,whichleadsto;hypersensitivityintheworkplace.Thisalsocanhurtworkperformances,becauseemployeesandsupervisorsmayfeelpressuredto;censortheirwords.;Differentracialvaluescanleadtofrictionintheworkplace.Forexample,frictioniscreatedifasupervisorappearstoassign;particularlydifficultordirtyjobsprimarilytoworkersofadifferentrace.Itisalsoexperiencedwhenasupervisorgivesdifferentlevels;ofrespecttopeopleofdifferentraces.Whenworkersexplicitlychoosenottocooperatewithworkersofadifferentrace,frictionis;caused.Affirmativeactionisanothersourceoffrictionandiswhenacompanyproactivelychoosestopromoteorhirepeopleof;specificracesbecausetheywereapreviouslydiscriminatedrace.;Frictionisinherentinamultiracialworkforce.Acompanyisresponsiblefortryingtoovercomeworkplacefrictionsbydoingthe;following;makingeveryoneawareoftheexistenceofracialdifferences;sensitizingemployeesaboutwhythesedifferencesmayexist;stressingthatracialdifferences,likegenderdifferences,arenotrightorwrong,goodorbad,butsimplydifferent;pointingoutthatdiversitycanstrengthenanorganizationandmakeitbetterbybringingdifferentviewpoints,skillsets,and;attitudestotheworkplace;Presentation;DiversityTraining;Theonusisonthefrontlinesupervisortocreateracialharmonyintheworkforce.Thesupervisorsetsthetone,triestotreat;everyoneequally,andalsodisplaysempathyforpeoplefromdifferentbackgrounds.However,thesupervisorswhoneedtocreatea;positiveworkenvironmentmaybestandinginthewayofprogress.Thismaybebecauseofthebackgroundandupbringingofthe;supervisor,becausemostoftheactionstakenbyindividualsareguidedbypersonalvaluesystems.;Ifthesupervisorwasbroughtupinahouseholdorcommunitywhereracialdiscriminationwaspracticed,heorshewilltypicallycarry;thisvalueoverintotheworkplace.Ontheotherhand,thevaluesofasupervisorraisedinafamilywithamoretolerantattitude;towardracialdiversitywilllikelybedifferent.;Ageneraldistinctioncanbemadeaboutsupervisorsofdifferentagegroups.Moreseniorsupervisorsmayhavelearnedtheirvalue;systemswellbeforetheCivilRightsActof1964.Theymayhavebeeninschoolandenteredtheworkforcewhenbothwere100%;Caucasian.Theymaynaturallyseediscriminationasnormalandactthatway.;Ontheotherhand,youngersupervisorsmaynothavebeenbornbefore1964.Formanyofthem,racialdiscriminationissimplynot;anissue,andmanydonotunderstandwhyraceisstillbeingtalkedabout.Interracialmarriageisincreasingandisatestamentto;thismajordifferencebasedonageandenvironment.;HistoryofDiversityTraining;Diversitytraininghasevolvedfromtheneedtocomplywithlegislationtoimprovingtheworkingrelationshipsofemployeesina;diversifiedworkforce.Themorerecenttypeoftraininghasfocusedonacceptingandleveragingalldimensionsofdiversitybased;onthebeliefthatenhancedbusinessperformancewillresult(Anand&Winters,2008).Forexample,asaculturebecomesmore;heterogeneousandexportsofthatculture'sproductscontinuetoincrease,theneedforunderstandingotherculturesincreases.;Whatbetterwayistheretogainthisunderstandingthantohireemployeesofotherculturestosensitizetheworkforceregarding;theseissues?;DiversityTraining;Tocreateandmaintainharmonyinaraciallydiverseworkforce,acompanysmanagementmustrecognizethedifferenttrainingand;coachingneedsofthesetwovastlydifferentgroupsofsupervisors.;Elementsthatarecommontoallsupervisorytrainingshouldincludetopicslikethefollowing;currentandforecasteddemographictrendsintheworkforce;legalframeworksurroundingdiscrimination;companypoliciesaboutdiversityanddiscrimination;historicaccomplishmentsofpeopleofdifferentraces;advantagesofadiverseworkforce;challengesofsupervisingadiverseworkforce;Furthertrainingactivitiesmightthenfocusontheparticularchallengesfacingolder,moreseniorsupervisorsversusyounger;supervisorswhomayhavedifferentattitudestowarddiversityandracialdifferences.Thecompanyneedstobecarefulwhensetting;upthissecondphaseoftraining,becauseputtingoldersupervisorsinoneroomandjuniorsupervisorsinanotherfortwodifferent;kindsoftrainingmaybeillegal,therefore,individualmanagementcoachingofthesetwodifferentgroupsofsupervisorsmaybethe;preferredmethodofadditionaltraining.;Thecoachingoftheseniorsupervisorsmayincludethefollowing;beingempathetictothedilemmastheyfacebetweentheirownvalues,legalissues,andcompanypoliciestowarddiversity;explainingthereasonswhytheymayneedtoadoptadifferentvaluesystemintheworkplace;givingsupervisorsspecifictoolstoassistthemintheirdailyactivities;Thecoachingofthejuniorsupervisorsmayincludethefollowing;Makingthemawarethatfrictionsdoandwillexistintheworkforcebecausetheymaynotrecognizeoranticipatethem;Sensitizingthemtothefactthatsomeoftheirpeersmaystrugglewiththeseissuesandtheyshouldlendassistancewhen;necessary;Reference;Anand,R.,&Winters,M.(2008).Aretrospectiveviewofcorporatediversitytrainingfrom1964tothepresent. Academyof;ManagementLearning&Education,7,356373.;Article;PrejudiceandDiscrimination;PrejudiceinAction;Onesocialphenomenonofprejudicethatmanifestsitselfisthesociologicaltheoryoftheglassceilingandthesubsequent;compromisewithwhichmostwomenofcolormustcontend(i.e.,thehumiliatingexchangeofhumandignityfordollars).;Thecorporateenvironmentdefinestheglassceilingastheactualorperceivedbarrierorcapbeyondwhichfewwomen(orother;previouslyexcludedminorities)inpublicandprivateorganizationalstructuresareabletomove.;Forexample,manywomenmayhaveobtainedthepositionofcorporatevicepresidentbutforsomereasoncannotachievethetop;positionofchiefexecutiveofficer(CEO),despitetheirqualificationsandefforts.Inthisrespect,theglassceilingisroughly;comparabletoapaycap.;TheDynamicsofRaceandRacism;Thesociologicaltheorybehindraceisracism.Itisaformofinequalityinwhichoneracialgroupdominatesanotherandlegitimates;itsdominancebyproclaimingitselfphysically,intellectually,andsociallysuperiorandinstitutinglawsorpracticestoprotectits;dominance.Discrimination,ontheotherhand,referstoanyactions,policies,orpracticesthatdenyanindividualorgroupequal;accesstothesocietysresources,rewards,andopportunities.Morespecifically,institutionaldiscriminationmeansthatcentral;elementsofthesocialstructure(e.g.,government,theeconomy,law,andeducation)systematicallydisadvantageparticularracialor;ethnicgroups.;Presentation;Presentation:TypesofDiversity;Whatisdiversity?;Essentially,diversityiswhatmakespeopledifferentfromoneanother.Somepeopletendtothinkofdiversityasaraceissue,others;seeitasademographicissue.Bothperspectivesarepartiallycorrect.Diversityencompassesjustaboutanydifferenceconceivable;includingthefollowing:age,race,religion,gender,socioeconomicstatus, andsoforth.Diversityisnotonlythecategories;mentioned,itistheresultofbeingamemberofthatcategory.;Forexample,a55yearoldwhite,Christianmalefromamiddleclassbackgroundwillhaveanarrayofattitudes,beliefs,andvalues;thatarearesultofthosedemographiccategories.Thoseattitudes,beliefs,andvalueswouldmostlikelydifferinsomerespectsfrom;thoseofa24yearoldAsian,Buddhistfemaleofanupperclassbackground.;CulturalDiversity;Researcherswhostudyculturearequicktopointoutthatcultureisnotstatic,itisdynamic.Appropriatebehaviorsaredeterminedby;thevaluesystemsofeachculture,whicharealwaysinflux.Thus,tobetterunderstandthepeopleyouwillbeworkingwithandtheir;behaviors,itisimperativethatyoustudythevariousculturesfromwhichtheycome.;Forexample,theNativeAmericancultureverymuchfavorsandrespectsthechildrenwithinthetribe.Assuch,thevaluesystem;mightreinforcethechildrentosettheirownrulesaswellastakeonenormousresponsibilitiesfromayoungagetolearnself;discipline.Yet,anotherculturemaybelieve,however,thatallowingachildtohuntattheageof8or9isinappropriateandreinforces;violence.;Neverassumethatyouknoweverythingthereistoknowaboutaculturethatisdifferentfromyourown.Thebestwaytodetermineif;abehaviorisculturallyappropriateistoaskquestions.Everypersonsperceptionsaredifferentwithregardtowhatis"normal."Ask;questionsfromaknowledgeableprofessionalinthecultureorsolicitcommentsfromseveralindividualswhoarepartoftheculture.;Anotherexampleofdifferentappropriatebehaviorsistheabsenceofeyecontact.EyecontactinWesternculturesisessentialin;determiningifanindividualispayingattentionorbeingtruthful,however,inEasterncultures,lackofeyecontactshowsrespect.;Whatarestereotypes?;Astereotypeisanoversimplifiedopinionaboutapersonofaparticulardiversegroup.Stereotypestendtooriginatewhenaperson;observesmorethanoneinstanceofaspecificbehaviorbyindividualsofaparticulargroup.Thebrainperceivesthisasapatternof;behavior,andthentheassumptionisoftenmadethatallindividualsfromthatgrouparethesameorbehaveinasimilarfashion.;Thisisnottrue.;Stereotypesorgeneralitiesoftenevolveintojokesaboutaspecificclassorethnicgroupofindividualsandareregularly;reinforcedbycomedians,researchers,television,andadvertising.Forexample,intheU.S.,manyindividualsareunderthe;impressionthatallmenlovesports,thatallAfricanAmericansliveinurbanareas,thatindividualswithaSouthernaccentarenot;intelligent,andthatallAsiansareintelligent.Thesearegeneralitiesthatarenottrueforeveryindividualinthosegroups.;Prejudiceiswhenone'sactionsaremotivatedbypreconceivedjudgmentoropinionwithoutjustgroundsorbeforesufficient;knowledge(Prejudice,n.d.).Assumingstereotypesoftenleadstoactinginanunsubstantiated,prejudicedmanner.;Thebestsafeguardagainstassumingstereotypesandactingwithprejudiceistoaskquestionsoftheparticularindividual.;Onecannotassumethatanindividualfromaspecificracialorculturalbackgroundwillnecessarilyreflectthecustoms,traditions;andbeliefsoftenassociatedwiththatraceorculture(Salimbene,2005).;Althougheveryonebelongstonumerousdiversegroups,eachpersonisstillanindividualdifferentfromallothers.;References;prejudice.(n.d.).RetrievedNovember28,2007,fromMerriamWebsterWebsite:http://www.merriam;webster.com/dictionary/prejudice;Salimbene,S.(2005).Whatlanguagedoesyourpatienthurtin?Apracticalguidetoculturallycompetentpatientcare(2nded.).;Amherst,MA:DiversityResources.;Article;IssuesWithDiversityTrainingintheWorkplace;ProblemsWithDiversityTraining;DiversitytrainingintheworkplaceisfairlycommoninmodernAmerica.Manytrainingprogramsadvertisethattheirgoalisto;promotetheacceptanceofdifferencesthroughouttheworkplaceandamongemployees.However,sometimesanemployersgoalin;providingdiversitytrainingistomerelyavoidlawsuitsandensurethatemployeesadheretocomplianceregulations.Ifacompanyis;suedfordiscriminationissuesintheworkplace,thatcompanymusthavetheabilitytoshowthecourtandjurythatittakesthese;mattersseriously.Thecompanyneedstodemonstratethatittrainsitsemployeesandmanagementontheseissues.;Becausesomeofthetraininginworkplacesacrossthecountryaresetupmerelytocomplywithregulationsoravoidlawsuits,some;programsendupbeingnonproductivewhereemployeesandeventhefacilitatorsimplygothroughthemotionswithoutabsorbing;trainingmaterialsandobjectives.Withoutreinforcement,anygainsmadeduringthetrainingwillnotbepermanent.Manycompanies;conducttrainingonceayearoreverytwoorthreeyears.Theconceptsandissuesraisedduringthesetrainingprogramsneedtobe;revisitedmultipletimesbetweenthetrainingsessions.Often,enoughtimeandenergyisnotdedicatedtoanalyzingfeedbackfrom;theemployeesandusingthatfeedbacktoimprovetheprogram.Ifthemindsettowardtheseprogramsistojustgetitoverwith,there;isnoinvestmentfromtheemployeesormanagementthatwillcarryoverthroughouttheyear.;IntheUnitedStates,businessesspendanywherefrom$200millionto$300millionperyearondiversitytraining(Nancherla,2008).;Iffeedbackisnotgiven(anessentialpartofthetraining)thereisnowaytodetermineifthetrainingishavinganimpactonthe;employeesandmanagement.Withoutthisfeedback,itisdifficulttoimprovetheprogramsothatitdirectlyrelatestotheneedsofthe;company.Tobeeffective,thetrainingshoulddirectlyrelatetothegoalsofthecompany.Ifthecompanydoesbusinessoverseas;thenafocusononlyU.S.issueswillnotbecompletelyeffective.Diversitytrainingprogramsneedtoevolveandchangeasthe;companychangesitmission,employeebase,andgoals.;Whatmakeseffectivediversitytraining?;Asolidunderstandingofwhatdiversitymeansisimportantineffectivediversitytraining.Manycompaniesstruggletoevendefine;thiswordintheirprograms,andasaresult,theirmessagegetslost.Diversitytrainingprogramsshouldbedesignedandstructured;similartoothercorporatetrainings.Ifacompanyistrainingtheiremployeesonanewsoftwaresystem,eachemployeespendsa;specifiedamountoftimelearningthisprogramduringbusinesshours.Thesameshouldbetruefordiversitytraining.Companies;mustinvestinsuchprogramsandincorporatethemintotheagendamoreoftenandmoreinclusively.Itisimportantthatallmembers;inthetrainingfeelasthoughtheyareapartofthecommunicationinthetraining.Theymustalsofeelthatthegoalsofthetraining;directlyrelatetothemandtotheirjobwithinthecompany.Ifanemployeefeelsasthoughthediversitytrainingdoesnotapplyto;themortotheirposition,theyarelesslikelytoretainandapplytheinformationlearnedinthetraining.;Thereareafewthingsthatcompaniescandototrytomakesurethesetrainingprogramsaremoreeffective.Onethingcompanies;candoisensurethatthetrainingisinteractive.Peoplewillbemoreengagedinthedialogueiftheyarepartofthedialogue.The;facilitatorshouldbeskilledatmotivatingemployeestoengageintheactivitiesduringtheprogram.Theywilllikelyencounter;employeeswhoarenothappyabouthavingtoattendthismandatorytraining.However,thisobstaclecanbeovercomeifthe;facilitatorisskilledinengagingpeopleinthegroupdynamic.;Foradiversitytrainingprogramtobesuccessful,itisalsoimportanttohaveallemployeesattendtheprogramsoitisnotseenas;somethingonlylowerlevelemployeesneedtoattend.Thiswillreinforcethemessagethatthistrainingisimportantfortheentire;companyandthatmanagementfeelsthistrainingisimportantandworthyoftheirtime.Itmayalsobehelpfultomakeanallday;eventoutoftheprogramwheretheentiredayisdedicatedtointeractivediscussionofdiversityissuesandactivitiesareusedto;demonstratetheseveryimportantissues.Toooften,diversitytrainingslastjustafewhoursandthusitbecomesdifficulttoget;peopletrulyinvestedintheexercisesandactivitiesiftheyseethisasamandatorythingtodoratherthanasaninvestmentinthe;successoftheirjobandcareer.Scenariosareoftenusedwithindiversitytrainingprograms.Here,thegroupwatchesasituation;unfoldthatiseitheractedoutbyemployeesorseeninavideo.Employeesthenoffertheircommentsandsuggestionsaboutthe;actionsinthatscenario.;Inthepast,diversitytrainingfocusedononlyraceandgender.Today,fordiversitytrainingtoreflectthediversityinthemodern;workplace,thegoalshouldbegearedmoretowardeducatingemployeesoneffectivecommunicationacrosscultural,ethnic,age;religious,appearance,andgenderlines.Currently,mostdiversitytrainingprogramshavesomelimitationsorproblemspreventing;themfrombeingtrulysuccessful,butthesecaneasilybeovercomeifthecompanymakesaconcertedefforttoincorporatethe;agendaintothecultureofthecompany.;Reference;Nancherla,A.(2008,November1).WhydiversitytrainingdoesntworkRightnow.AllBusiness.RetrievedNovember19,2009;fromhttp://www.allbusiness.com/laboremployment/humanresourcespersonnelmanagement/116931901.html;ResourceLinks;WorkplaceDiversityforAfrican,Hispanic(Latino),andAsianAmericans;(http://www.ethnicmajority.com/workplace.htm);Providesarticlesandresourcesonworkplacediscrimination,corporatediversity,AffirmativeAction,theglassceiling,anddiversityin;thenews.;RacialDiscriminationLaw;(http://www.expertlaw.com/library/pubarticles/Employment/racial_discrimination.html);ArticlebyAaronLarsonprovidesanoverviewofthelaw[ExpertLaw].;NationalAssociationfortheAdvancementofColoredPeople(NAACP);(http://www.naacp.org/home/index.htm);ThemissionoftheNationalAssociationfortheAdvancementofColoredPeopleistoensurethepolitical,educational,social,and;economicequalityofrightsofallpersonsandtoeliminateracialhatredandracialdiscrimination.;FightingRaceandNationalOriginDiscrimination;(http://www.nolo.com/article.cfm/ObjectID/3A01AE4742E444E7A2723C765FE20F3A/104/150/175/ART/);Articleondisciminationbasedonraceandnationalorigin.;Tolerance;(http://www.tolerance.org/index.jsp);Teachesabouttoleranceforracismanddiscrimination;DiversityTrainingInstitute;(http://www.mrc.ku.edu/diversity/);ThepurposeofthediversitytraininginstituteistoprovideKU(UniversityofKansas)facultyandstaffwithanintensiveexperience;wheretheycanfocusontheirownlearninganddevelopmenttoincreasetheircompetenciesintheareaofmulticulturalism.In;addition,wewillassistindividualsandorganizationstoexaminetheirassumptionsaboutdiversityandmulticulturalissues.;WhatisRacism?;(http://www.stormfront.org/whitenat/racism.htm);Thestoryofracismanditsdoublestandard.;UnderstandingPrejudice;(http://www.understandingprejudice.org/demos/);Prejudiceisoneelementofsocialpsychologyandthedevelopmentofselfconceptandidentity.Thesiteexploresyourperceptions;andbeliefsandexpandstoprovidelearningopportunitiestoimproveyourawarenessoftheimpactofracismandprejudiceon;society.

 

Paper#32609 | Written in 18-Jul-2015

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