Compare and contrast the ways in which the women in this article succeed in gaining real power at work.;Assignment Expectations;Please make sure to apply theories of power and influence in analyzing strategies these women use to gain power, such as the French and Raven model, or types of influence.;* Be sure to talk about the ways in which the theories discussed in the background readings relate to the question.;* Please be as specific as you can.;* And again, use 12 point font, double-spacing, and one inch margins.;Format;In order to develop good business communication skills, it is recommended you write papers using the following structure, using headlines and titles;Introduction (road map,explain issue and list main points);Main Body: Develop each point in the Introduction, applying theory to facts, in subsections (one subsection per main point).;Conclusions: Summarize main paper points;List of references.;Citing your Sources;Attachment Preview;BUS MOD 2 CASE.doc;Women and Men, Work and Power;By: Anna MuoioJanuary 31, 1998;Unit of One;More than ever - and in more companies than ever - men and women are working;together, swapping ideas, sharing power. It is no longer newsworthy when an;accomplished woman is promoted to lead a business unit or to run a company full of;hard-charging men. In fact, more people in the United States now work for womenowned businesses than for the 500 biggest public companies. So why is there still so;much tension between men and women at work? Do men and women really lead in;different ways? Do they view and use power differently? Must high-achieving women;make different sacrifices than men? Fast Company asked 13 prominent women - leaders;from a variety of companies, industries, and backgrounds - for their insights on these and;other provocative questions.;Sharon Patrick;President And COO;Martha Stewart Living;New York, New York;Sharon@MarthaStewart.Com;It's dangerous to generalize, but there are differences between men and women in;management style - not in skills but in style. We can't ignore a million years of history at the office or in the living room. The hilarious Broadway show Defending the Caveman;summed up the difference pretty well: Men hunt, women gather. That's why today, if a;woman wants to watch her favorite television shows, it's often easier for her to buy a new;TV than to battle a man for the remote control.;I believe that "gathering" is at the crux of how women view and use power differently;from men. I've had lots of experience with business negotiations - an activity not unlike;hunting, since it's fraught with conflict and casualties. Men have tended to demonstrate a;go for the kill" mentality. They try to get as much as possible through pressure;intimidation, and the sheer desire to defeat at any cost whoever is sitting across the table;from them. Women have tended to prefer searching for common interests, solving;problems, and collaborating to find win-win outcomes.;It's not easy to find the freedom to operate with a "gathering" style - even though there is;plenty of research documenting that collaborative approaches offer the best chance of;producing high-quality results. But in the real (read: male) world, collaboration is often;viewed as a sign of weakness. So unless you're the boss, collaboration is risky. That's;why, over the last few years, I've focused on helping to build entrepreneurial businesses;in which I can be a leading participant. I want the freedom to work in ways that work.;Sharon Patrick led the team that acquired Martha Stewart Living Enterprises from Time;Inc. She has an MBA from Harvard and was a partner in McKinsey & Co.'s New York;office.;Linda Chavez-Thompson;Executive Vice-President;AFL-CIO;Washington, DC;In my 30 years in the labor movement, "pushy broad" is one of the nicer names that I've;been called. And I wear it like a badge of honor. If I really believe in something and;others don't, I don't just let it go - I'm tenacious. Sometimes I'm ornery. But I always find;ways to get things done.;The substance of what I stand for hasn't changed. But sometimes my style has. Back in;Texas, where I was based until a few years ago, I'd be in meetings where I'd cuss like a;sailor. I didn't have a choice: How much you could take and dish out was the measure of;others' respect for you. Remember, I was dealing with six-foot-tall, 250-pound Texans;who smoked big cigars. I couldn't let them push me around. While a few of my union;brothers didn't like me, they sure did respect me.;I have faced plenty of obstacles in my career - not just as a woman but also as a woman;of color. But I have always played by my own rules. Back in the early 1970s, I became;the assistant business manager for AFSCME Local 2399 in San Antonio. I thought I was;so important: I had a title, I went to meetings. But my colleagues thought of me as a;secretary. I'd be the only woman in a room of 20 men, and they'd say, "Linda, why don't;you take the minutes." I absolutely refused. Instead I'd say, "I'd rather be president or;secretary-treasurer." They were floored, but I stuck to my guns. And eventually I did;become secretary-treasurer.;Those early experiences taught me another important lesson: Women who want to be;leaders have to be up-front and honest about it - not only with themselves but also with;the men they work with and the men they share their lives with.;I am the first woman of color - in fact, the first woman of any kind - in an executive;position at the AFL-CIO, but I don't want to be the last. I want to be one of many. We;might have a few more hurdles in our path, but we'll get there.;Linda Chavez-Thompson is the highest-ranking woman in the U.S. labor movement. She;has been a union activist and leader for more than three decades.;It's an age-old formula and a Wall Street credo: If you've got money, you've got power.;Now that more women have money, the Street needs women. Firms are scrambling to;create marketing programs targeted at women and investment funds run by women.;Wall Street is a tough place to work - for men and women. But women have always faced;special disadvantages. My approach has been to turn those disadvantages into;advantages. When I was younger, for example, I'd give presentations to institutional;investors, and I'd be the only woman in the room. But that negative often became a;positive. The men tended to listen to me more closely because I was a woman - a;curiosity. And they tended to remember me the next time I made a presentation.;That was early in the game. What we need now is lots more women in senior jobs helping;other women along. I am very big on mentoring. You can't talk to a man in this business;who says he succeeded on his own. Which doesn't mean that men can't be great mentors;for women. I've had two mentors in my career, and both were men.;But Wall Street needs more women in top jobs. People everywhere tend to hire and;promote people who are like them. And there's still a certain mystery surrounding women;on Wall Street. Do we work less hard than men? Are we more temperamental? The more;women a company has, the less mysterious we become. John A. Levin & Co. is an $8;billion investment adviser. Previously Jessica Bibliowicz was head of Smith Barney;Mutual Funds, the ninth-largest fund complex in the United States.;Janice Gjertsen;Business Development;Digital City New York;New York, New York;firstname.lastname@example.org;So many of us are so confused about gender. For years, I've seen women trying to act like;men. More recently, I've seen men trying to act like women. It won't work. The only way;to be powerfully successful, whether you're a man or a woman, is to be who you are.;A lot of my work involves contract negotiations and deals with media companies. I see;the same patterns over and over again: Men are oriented toward power, toward making;fast decisions in a black-or-white mode. Woman are more skilled at relationships. They;see shades of gray and explore issues from different angles. It's instinctual. Men come to;the negotiating table in full battle armor. I don't do that. I believe it goes against a;woman's nature to be aggressive, rude, or abrupt. I never know how to react to these;kinds of women, and neither do men.;What's interesting is that the kinds of companies we admire today are also those that;depend increasingly on female attributes. We are in the relationship era: It's all about;getting close to customers, striking up joint ventures, partnering with suppliers. Warriors;don't make good CEOs in companies based on relationships. The new CEO is a Seeder;Feeder, and Weeder - and those are women's roles. The power that a woman has when;she has the courage to be a woman is mighty - even in a man's world.;Janice Gjertsen cofounded Total New York, which was purchased by Digital City in;1997. Digital City, the largest locally focused online network, delivers news, community;resources, and entertainment in 14 different cities.;Katherine D'Urso;Director of Marketing, Field Operations;Coopers & Lybrand;New York, New York;email@example.com;Supplicants don't get respect. At best, they get pity. Usually they get ignored. After all;power is much more attractive than weakness. Whether you work in a 16,000-person firm;like Coopers & Lybrand or a 50-person startup, the only way you'll change things is by;working to change them. I have three pieces of advice to offer.;Don't mourn, organize! When progress for women at C&L wasn't happening as quickly;as many of us would have liked, the women partners banded together and created their;own annual meeting. Then they invited the firm's top executives to listen to their;concerns, to discuss issues, and to work on solutions. Nick Moore, our chairman and a;long-time champion of women at the firm, made real commitments to breaking the glass;ceiling - commitments that he backed up with action. The women did not ask for "help.;They commanded attention - and got it.;One of the results of those meetings was the C&L 100, a formal mentoring program that I;was asked to join. It has helped me enormously. My male mentor was vital in helping me;navigate difficult career waters - and I can thank this program for my recent promotion.;Measurements matter. Business is run (mostly) by numbers. So if you can make your;case with statistics, it will get a better hearing. One of the most powerful numbers at C&L;was the female-departure rate. We were losing talented women with strong records who;were working between the levels of manager and partner. And we weren't losing them to;babies - the all-too-convenient male explanation. We were losing them to other;companies.;Share the spotlight. Once the company starts making progress, don't be shy about;spreading the word. Work to get positive PR. Apply for awards. And let the guys get;some of the glory. It's not easy to change corporate cultures that have developed over;decades. But if making change is nothing but hard work and pain, who's going to want to;help?;Katherine D'Urso has been with Coopers & Lybrand since 1994.;Michelle Bernard;Partner, Patton Boggs LLP;Washington, DC;firstname.lastname@example.org;In law firms, power goes to the partners who generate the most business - which usually;means a small group of white men. Women do become partners, but we often don't make;as much money as our male counterparts, we don't have the same face-to-face client;relationships, and men don't always refer business to us. In a very real sense, we are on;our own.;I've recently initiated a "Patton Boggs Center for Women and Enterprise." I want to;market our women lawyers to women in positions of power - both high-ranking women;in the nation's 1,000 largest companies and the leaders of women-owned businesses. The;opportunities are undeniable. Women are starting companies at twice the rate of men, and;they account for 40% of the people in the United States with more than $600,000 in;assets.;I started the project with two goals in mind: to generate more business for the firm, and to;generate more business for women partners and associates. It's my version of the old;boys' network. But here's what's so interesting: I brought my idea straight to the top of the;firm. I didn't spend lots of time building consensus among the other women - I didn't;think I had to. But I was wrong. The men loved it. So did the younger female associates.;But the more senior women lawyers resisted.;I don't know if they felt threatened or if they felt I was rocking a boat that they had;worked hard to climb into. I listened to their concerns, but I kept moving forward.;Women need to be in business for - and to do business with - one another. We're just;getting started.;Before joining Patton Boggs, Michelle Bernard was chairperson of the District of;Columbia Redevelopment Land Agency, which negotiated the public-private financing of;the District's recently opened MCI Arena.;Harriet Rubin;Founder and Editor at Large Doubleday/Currency;New York, New York;email@example.com;Women need to become more like men than men are. We need to become;hyperaggressive and hyperdetermined - because business is about intense daring and a;reckless abandon to succeed. Of course, men have those qualities. It has to do with their;once being boys. While girls learn to be good, boys play at being great. And men build;their companies the way they used to build their forts - as clubs of exclusion.;Sure, women are making progress. But it's not nearly deep or fast enough. My business;publishing, is dominated by women. But it's led by men. That's a big difference. Women;are jockeying for positions in the middle ranks of organizations, but the top is still a;barren plane for them. Women hold fewer than 643 of the 6,081 board seats at the;country's 500 largest companies - that's a meager 11%. But until we're on those boards;we're nowhere - because that's where real power dwells. Remember, plantations were run;by slaves, but the slave owners called all the shots.;None of the polite "female" techniques for getting ahead - networking, mentoring - really;work. Men run companies, and men basically want to be with their own kind. If you look;at deep-seated social change, which is what we're talking about, you realize that the slow;peaceful march has never made a real difference. Hillary Clinton says it takes a village to;raise a child. Well, it takes a mob to change a company. Women need to engage in more;dramatic tactics, both as individuals and in groups. If you think you're too sophisticated;for guerrilla theater, think again.;A year ago, I wrote a letter to the CEO of Bertelsmann, our parent company. I knew that;he was going to retire and that a search was on for his successor. In my letter, I proposed;that I be made acting CEO for the year while the search took place. I wanted him to;consider and understand how much the company would gain by reaching down into the;organization and pulling up someone with a lot of moxie, drive, and determination.;It was a daring letter - which I never sent. I'm sorry I didn't.;Under Harriet Rubin's leadership, Doubleday/Currency published more than 60 business;books, 40 of which sold over 100,000 copies and 5 of which sold more than 500,000;copies. She is the author of The Princessa: Machiavelli for Women (Doubleday, 1997).;Kathryn Gould;General Partner;Foundation Capital;Menlo Park, California;firstname.lastname@example.org;It's not becoming for a woman to think about power. And it's not part of my personal;repertoire. To enjoy "power" is to enjoy control - especially over other people. I suppose;I could wield that kind of power, but I choose not to. I'd rather persuade people with my;powers of reasoning than dictate to them from a higher position.;Let's be honest: The culture of any management team, even if there are women on it, is;still a male culture. Certainly that's true in a male-dominated field like high technology. It;all comes down to football. Most women haven't played team sports. They don't;understand how men feel when they're part of a team - the sense of camaraderie, the joy;of victory. The companies I back all embody that team spirit - a commitment to winning;being the absolute best, dominating markets.;I know women who are great at the mechanics of running a business. I know women who;are great nurturers. But I haven't met many women who are conditioned to touch people's;hearts as leaders - which is quite different from touching their hearts as nurturers. Most;people in most companies still want - and need - someone who says, "There's the hill. It's;big and steep, but we're going right up to the top!" That's not nurturing, that's demanding.;I have coached lots of women on this point. Most women get where they are by working;incredibly hard, by being outstanding performers at their jobs. But at some point, their;very success propels them into a whole new sphere - this male-dominated realm of power;and leadership. And they are unprepared for it. My simple advice: Work for someone;who is an extraordinary leader and watch how he does it. Then decide if you're cut out to;lead in that way too.;Kathryn Gould has served on the boards of 11 startups. She has positioned five of them to;be acquired and has taken two of them public, in deals totaling $2.5 billion.;Sara Levinson;President;NFL Properties Inc.;New York, New York;Is my leadership style different from a man's? That's a tough question for me to answer so I asked my management team for their thoughts. That simple act, they told me, pretty;much answered the question. They agree that my emphasis on group communication, on;soliciting their ideas and opinions, is a major characteristic of my management style.;They also say it's why they think I'm a good leader.;Is this a distinctly "female" trait? The members of my team - all of them male - seem to;think so. Does it work? I suppose it does. Indeed, I will be brash enough to suggest that;the culture of NFL Properties has changed under my leadership - and changed for the;better. Now the emphasis is on sharing ideas, communicating them throughout the;company, and reaching common goals. At NFL Properties, when we win, we win as a;team.;Before joining NFL Properties, Sara Levinson was president-business director of MTV.;NFL Properties is the licensing, marketing, and sponsorship division of the National;Football League.;Kathy Kane-Zweber;Director, Work/Life and Wellness Initiatives, Motorola Inc.;Schaumburg, Illinois;email@example.com;For almost 20 years, I've been on the front lines of the struggle for power in the;workplace - both by women and between women and men. And it's evolved quite a bit.;At first, women defined and pursued power according to the precedents set by men. Most;of us can probably identify at least one woman who can attribute her success to an ability;to be "just like the men." But gradually women redefined power to be about more than;achieving a certain job or reaching a certain income level.;Women became more comfortable with using their own style as a way to move forward;they didn't have to act "just like the men" anymore. As they began to define power as the;ability to influence their environment to suit their needs, they began to rely upon their;innate abilities to achieve this power.;Women, much more naturally than men, enjoy collaborating - defying the boundaries of;age, status, rank, and race. Such collaboration has persuaded companies across the;country and around the world to institute workplace improvements such as on-site child;care, family leave, and flexible work schedules.;Through these grassroots collaborative efforts, women have both envisioned a different;future and also helped to make it a reality. Now, isn't that what real power is all about?;Kathy Kane-Zweber is the author of Flexible Work Options: A Guidebook for;Employees, Managers, and Human Resources Professionals (Motorola University Press;1997).;Darlene Mann;Venture Partner;Onset Ventures;Menlo Park, California;firstname.lastname@example.org;Only in the last 10 years has the male-dominated world of venture capital opened its;doors to women - and only because it's had to. Highly competitive markets can't afford;the luxury of discrimination. That said, whenever you mix women and men - and then;add money - interesting things are bound to happen.;When a man is sitting across the table from a woman who is sitting on a pile of money;the situation can get uncomfortable - especially since it's every venture capitalist's job to;say "no" a hundred times more often than she says "yes." That's why I'm always careful;to put people at ease, to connect with whoever is on the other side of the table. Any;venture capitalist needs to know what it's like to wear an entrepreneur's shoes. But that's;especially important for women.;Early in my career, I had a meeting with an entrepreneur whom I tried to help - with my;opinions, not my money. Later I discovered that he had called me a "bitch" who liked to;tell people what was wrong with their ideas. My first reaction was to think that he;wouldn't have said that if I were a man - and I got mad. My second reaction was to say;How stupid of me!" I was giving him feedback that he had no interest in. I've learned;that you should wait for people to signal that they want honest feedback before you offer;it.;Darlene Mann served as vice president of marketing at Avantos Performance Systems;and as cofounder and vice president of marketing at BroadVision Inc., before joining;Onset in 1996.;Wendy Luhabe;Managing Partner;Bridging the Gap;Auckland Park, South Africa;There are a few points about power that apply to both sexes - but are especially relevant;to women. First, you need a good relationship with those in power in order to be able to;learn from them. Second, people who have power don't always have something to teach;you. Third, the best way to learn is to ask questions - even if doing so makes you feel;uncomfortable. Fourth, real power comes from within, not from your official position.;And finally, the power to contribute - to make a difference in a fast-changing world should never be confused with power over others.;I've learned these lessons during my experiences in South Africa. Several years ago, at;age 36, I was invited to join the board of a food company listed on the Johannesburg;Stock Exchange. I said yes - and crossed a line of power to join men, all white and all in;their fifties and sixties, who had been in this business their whole lives. I knew nothing;about food except how to buy it, cook it, and eat it. I went out on a limb - something that;men do all the time but that women are less willing to do. They are reluctant to make;themselves vulnerable, to put themselves in a place of "not knowing." For me, that has;been the best place in which to learn and to grow.;In 1991, Wendy Luhabe founded Bridging the Gap to prepare black South Africans to;enter the workplace - and to prepare companies to accept them. In 1995, she founded the;country's first Women Investment Portfolio to improve the economic conditions of black;South African women. She sits on the board of seven major corporations.;Sallie Ewing;Product Manager;Hewlett-Packard;Boise, Idaho;email@example.com;Years ago, our CEO Lew Platt stressed the importance of making women a part of;management at every level. He asked us all to become part of the solution. Well, I took;his message to heart and helped start the HP Boise Women's Network. Here are two;things I've learned about driving change from the grass roots of an organization.;Focus on what really matters - not on what you think matters. We created informal chat;groups to learn more about what we cared about. Some of what we discovered was "hard;business" stuff, such as the transfer, hiring, and promotion rates for women. But some of;it was quite personal - for example, the difference between women's and men's styles at;HP. There's an amiable style here that didn't always work for some women. They felt;hampered by all this "nice guy" stuff. We're saying that men's and women's styles are;very different. And we need to value these differences, not to pretend that they don't;exist.;Open systems work best. We invited speakers on-site to share their perspectives. And we;worked hard to make sure that everyone attended these talks. We targeted the site's;managers and hand-delivered invitations to them. The turnout was incredible.;A lot has changed in Boise. We've increased awareness about the importance of diversity;and we've seen more women promoted into the higher ranks. If you have good intentions;senior people will respond.;Sallie Ewing is a product manager in marketing for HP's Workgroup LaserJet Division.
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