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Strategic Management requires leadership.




Strategic Management requires leadership. One of the key requirements of a successful leader is considered to be a high level of Emotional Intelligence (EI). EI was first conceptualized by Peter Salovey and John Mayer in 1990 and, since then, theorists have generated several EI models. We are going to consider Goleman?s model in terms of theory of performance as it has a direct applicability to the work place and, particularly, in promoting excellence in leadership. In our reading about leadership and emotional intelligence, we will learn that self-awareness is one of the five key components of Goleman?s EI model.;Assignment;Reflecting on your experiences of leadership within this course and in the workplace, write a reflective and critical focus paper that includes a discussion of the areas of EI covered in the Goleman article;?A critical evaluation of my personal potential to lead the development and implementation of strategy in the workplace.?;Critical Elements;1. Evaluate your position on leadership using the five Emotional Intelligence elements presented by Goleman.;2. Describe your potential to lead development and implementation of strategy in the workplace.;Attached is the article for review. The paper should have at least 2 references and should be 3-4 pages long.;Attachment Preview;WhatMakesALeader.pdf;IQ and technical skills are important, but emotional;intelligence is the sine qua non of leadership.;What Makes a;i;Leader?;BY DANIEL GOLEMAN;E;(VERY BUSINESSPERSON;knows a story about a highly intelligent, highly;skilled executive who was promoted into a leadership position only to fail at the joh. And they also;know a story about someone with solid-but not;extraordinary-intellectual abilities and technical;skills who was promoted into a similar position;and then soared.;Such anecdotes support the widespread belief;that identifying individuals with the "right stuff;to be leaders is more art than science. After all, the;personal styles of superb leaders vary: some leaders are subdued and analytical, others shout their;manifestos from the mountaintops. And just as;important, different situations call for different;Daniel Goleman is the author of Emotional Intelligence (Bantam, i99s) and Working with Emotional Intelligence (Bantam.;1998}. He is cocbairman of the Consortium for Research on;Emotional Intelligence in Organizations, which is based at Rutgers University's Graduate School of Applied and Professional;Psychology in Piscataway. New Jersey. He can be reached at;;ARTWORK BY CRAIG FRAZIER;93;W HAT MAKES A LEADER?;abilities like analytical reasoning, and competencies demonstrating emotional intelligence such as;the ahility to work with others and effectiveness in;leading change.;To create some of the competency models, psychologists asked senior managers at the companies;to identify the capabilities that typified the organization's most outstanding leaders. To create other;models, the psychologists used objective criteria;such as a division's profitability to differentiate the;star performers at senior levels within their organizations from the average ones. Those individuals;were then extensively interviewed;and tested, and their capabilities;were compared. This process resulted in the creation of lists of;ingredients for highly effective;leaders. The lists ranged in length;from 7 to 15 items and included;such ingredients as initiative and;strategic vision.;When I analyzed all this data;I found dramatic results. To be;sure, intellect was a driver of outstanding performance. Cognitive;skills such as big-picture thinking and long-term vision were;particularly important. But when;I calculated the ratio of technical;skills, IQ, and emotional intelligence as ingredients of excellent;performance, emotional intelligence proved to he twice as important as tbe others;for jobs at all levels.;Moreover, my analysis showed that emotional;intelligence played an increasingly important role;at the highest levels of the company, where differences in teehnical skills are of negligible imporEvaluating Emotional Intelligence;tance. In other words, the higher the rank of a person considered to be a star performer, the more;Most large companies today have employed trained;emotional intelligenee capabilities showed up as;psychologists to develop what are known as "comthe reason for his or her effectiveness. When I competency models" to aid them in identifying, training, and promoting likely stars in the leadership pared star performers with average ones in senior;leadership positions, nearly 90% of the difference;firmament. The psychologists have also developed;such models for lower-level positions. And in re- in their profiles was attributahle to emotional intelligence factors rather than cognitive abilities.;cent years, I have analyzed competency models;from r88 companies, most of which were large and;Other researchers have confirmed that emotional;global and included the likes of Lucent Technolointelligenee not only distinguishes outstanding;gies, British Airways, and Credit Suisse.;leaders but can also be linked to strong perforIn carrying out this work, my objective was to mance. The findings of the late David McClelland;determine which personal capahilities drove out- the renowned researcher in human and organizational behavior, are a good example. In a 1996 study;standing performance within these organizations;of a global food and beverage company, McClelland;and to what degree they did so. I grouped capabilifound that when senior managers had a critical;ties into three categories: purely technical skills;mass of emotional intelligence capabilities, their;like accounting and business planning, cognitive;types of leadership. Most mergers need a sensitive;negotiator at the helm, whereas many turnarounds;require a more forceful authority.;I haye found, however, that the most effective;leaders are alike in one crucial way: they all have a;high degree of what has come to he known as emotional intelligence. It's not that IQ and technical;skills are irrelevant. They do matter, but mainly as;threshold capahilities", that is, they are the entrylevel requirements for executive positions. But my;research, along with other recent studies, clearly;shows that emotional intelligenee is the sine qua;non of leadership. Without it, a;person can have the hest training;in the world, an incisive, analytical mind, and an endless supply;of smart ideas, but he still won't;make a great leader.;In the course of the past year;my colleagues and I have focused;on how emotional intelligence;operates at work. We have examined the relationship between;emotional intelligence and effective performance, especially in;leaders. And we have observed;how emotional intelligence;shows itself on the job. How can;you tell if someone has high;emotional intelligence, for example, and how can you recognize it;in yourself? In the following;pages, we'll explore these questions, taking each of;the components of emotional intelligence-selfawareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy;and social skill - in turn.;Effective;leaders are alike;in one crucial;way: they all;have a high;degree of;emotional;intelligence.;94;HARVARD BUSINESS REVIEW;November-December 1998;WHAT MAKES A LEADER?;The Five Components of Emotional Intelligence at Work;Definition;Self-Awareness;Hallmarks;the ability to recognize and understand;your moods, emotions, and drives, as;well as their effect on others;self-confidence;realistic self-assessment;self-deprecating sense of humor;Self-Regulation;the ability to control or redirect;disruptive impulses and moods;trustworthiness and integrity;comfort with ambiguity;the propensity to suspend judgmentto think before acting;Motivation;a passion to v^fork for reasons that go;beyond money or status;openness to change;strong drive to achieve;optimism, even in the face of failure;a propensity to pursue goals with;energy and persistence;organizational commitment;the ability to understand the emotional;makeup of other people;expertise in building and retaining;talent;skill in treating people according to;their emotional reactions;cross-cultural sensitivity;service to clients and customers.Social Skill;proficiency in managing relationships;and building networks;effectiveness in leading change;persuasiveness;an ability to find common ground and;build rapport;divisions outperformed yearly earnings goals by;20%. Meanwhile, division leaders without that;critical mass underpcrformed by almost the same;amount. McClcUand's findings, interestingly, held;as true in the company's U.S. divisions as in its divisions in Asia and Europe.;In short, the numbers are beginning to tell us a;persuasive story about the link between a company's success and the emotional intelligence of its;leaders. And just as important, research is also;demonstrating that people can, if they take the;HARVARD BUSINESS REVIEW;November-December 1998;expertise in building and leading teams;right approach, develop their emotional intelligence. (See the insert "Can Emotional Intelligence;Be Learned?");Self-Awareness;Self-awareness is the first component of emotional;intelligence-which makes sense when one considers that the Delphic oracle gave the advice to;know thyself" thousands of years ago. Self-awareness means having a deep understanding of one's;95;W HAT MAKES A LEADER?;emotions, strengths, weaknesses, needs, and drives.;People with strong self-awareness are neither overly;critical nor unrealistically hopeful. Rather, they are;honest -with themselves and with others.;People who have a high degree of self-awareness;recognize how their feelings affect them, other people, and their job performance. Thus a self-aware;person who knows that tight deadlines bring out;the worst in him plans his time carefully and gets;his work done well in advance. Another person;with high self-awareness will be able to work with;a demanding client. She will understand t he;client's impact on her moods and the deeper reasons for her frustration. "Their trivial demands;take us away from the real work;that needs to be done," she might;explain. And she will go one step;further and turn her anger into;something constructive.;Self-awareness extends to a;person's understanding of his or;her values and goals. Someone;who is highly self-aware knows;where he is headed and why, so;for example, he will be able to be;firm in turning down a job offer;that is tempting financially but;does not fit with his principles or;long-term goals. A person who;lacks self-awareness is apt to;make decisions that bring on inner turmoil by treading on buried;values. "The money looked good;so I signed on," someone might;say two years into a job, "but the work means so little to me that I'm constantly bored." The decisions;of self-aware people mesh with their values, consequently, they often find work to be energizing.;How can one recognize self-awareness? First and;foremost, it shows itself as candor and an ability to;assess oneself realistically. People with high selfawareness are able to speak accurately and openly although not necessarily effusively or confessionally-about their emotions and the impact they;have on their work. For instanee, one manager I;know of was skeptical about a new personal-shopper;service that her company, a major department-store;chain, was about to introduce. Without prompting;from her team or her boss, she offered them an explanation: "It's hard for me to get behind the rollout;of this service," she admitted, "because I really;wanted to run the project, but I wasn't selected.;Bear with me while I deal with that." The manager;did indeed examine her feelings, a week later, she;was supporting the project fully.;Such self-knowledge often shows itself in the;hiring process. Ask a candidate to describe a time;he got carried away by his feelings and did something he later regretted. Self-aware candidates will;be frank in admitting to failure-and will often tell;their tales with a smile. One of the hallmarks of;self-awareness is a self-deprecating sense of humor.;Self-awareness can also be identified during performance reviews. Self-aware people know-and;are comfortable talking about-their limitations;and strengths, and they often demonstrate a thirst;for constructive criticism. By contrast, people with;low self-awareness interpret the message that they;need to improve as a threat or a sign of failure.;Self-aware people can also be;recognized hy their self-eonfidenee. They have a firm grasp of;their capabilities and are less;likely to set themselves up to fail;by, for example, overstretching;on assignments. They know, too;when to ask for help. And the;risks they take on the job are calculated. They won't ask for a;challenge that they know they;can't handle alone. They'll play;to their strengths.;Consider the actions of a midlevel employee who was invited;to sit in on a strategy meeting;with her company's top executives. Although she was the most;junior person in the room, she did;not sit there quietly, listening in;awestruck or fearful silence. She knew she had a;head for clear logic and the skill to present ideas;persuasively, and she offered cogent suggestions;about the company's strategy. At the same time;her self-awareness stopped her from wandering into;territory where she knew she was weak.;Despite the value of having self-aware people in;the workplace, my research indicates that senior;exeeutives don't often give self-awareness the credit;it deserves when they look for potential leaders.;Many exeeutives mistake candor about feelings for;wimpiness" and fail to give due respect to employees who openly acknowledge their shortcomings.;Such people are too readily dismissed as "not tough;enough" to lead others.;In fact, the opposite is true. In the first place, people generally admire and respect candor. Further;leaders are constantly required to make judgment;calls that require a candid assessment of capabilities-their own and those of others. Do we have;the management expertise to acquire a competitor?;Self-aware;job candidates;will be frank;in admitting to;failure-and will;often tell their;tales with a;smile.;96;HARVARD BUSINESS REVIEW;Niwember-Decembct 1998;WHAT MAKES A LEADER?;Can Emotional Intelligence Be Learned?;For ages, people have debated if leaders are born or;made. So too goes the debate about emotional intelligence. Are people born with certain levels of empathy, for example, or do they acquire empathy as a;result ot life's experiences? The answer is both. Scientific inquiry strongly suggests that there is a genetic;component to emotional intelligence. Psychological;and developmental research indicates that nurture;plays a role as well. How much of each perhaps will;never be known, but research and practice clearly;demonstrate that emotional intelligence can be;learned.;One thing is certain, emotional intelligence increases with age. There is an old-fashioned word for;the phenomenon: maturity. Yet even with maturity;some people still need training to enhance their emotional intelligence. Unfortunately, far too many training programs that intend to build leadership skillsincluding emotional intelligence - are a waste of time;and money. The problem is simple: they focus on the;wrong part of the brain.;Emotional intelligence is born largely in the neurotransmitters oi the brain's limbic system, whieh governs feelings, impulses, and drives. Research indicates that the limbic system learns best through;motivation, extended practice, and feedback. Compare this with the kind of learning that goes on in the;neocortex, which governs analytical and technical;ability. The neocortex grasps concepts and logic. It is;the part of the brain that figures out how to use a computer or make a sales call by reading a book. Not surprisingly-hut mistakenly-it is also the part of the;brain targeted hy most training programs aimed at enhaneing emotional intelligence. When sueh programs;take, in effect, a neocortical approach, my research;with the Consortium for Research on Emotional Intelligenee in Organizations has shown they can even;have a negative impact on people's job performance.;To enhanee emotional intelligence^ organizations;must refoeus their training to include the limbie system. They must help people break old behavioral;habits and establish new ones. That not only takes;much more time than conventional training programs, it also requires an individualized approach.;Imagine an executive who is thought to be low on;empathy hy her colleagues. Part of that deficit shows;itself as an inability to listen, she interrupts people;and doesn't pay close attention to what they're saying. To fix the problem, the executive needs to be motivated to change, and then she needs practice and;feedback from others in the company. A colleague or;HARVARD BUSINESS REVIEW;November-December 1998;eoaeh could be tapped to let the executive know when;she has heen observed failing to listen. She would;then have to replay the ineident and give a better response, that is, demonstrate her ability to absorb what;others are saying. And the executive could be directed;to observe certain executives who listen well and to;mimic their behavior.;With persistence and practice, such a process can;lead to lasting results. I know one Wall Street executive who sought to improve his empathy - specifically;his ability to read people's reactions and see their perspectives. Before beginning his quest, the executive's;subordinates were terrified of working with him. People even went so far as to hide bad news from him.;Naturally, he was shocked when finally confronted;with these facts. He went home and told his familyhut they only confirmed what he had heard at work;When their opinions on any given suhject did not;mesh with his, they, too, were frightened of him.;Enlisting the help of a coach, the executive went to;work to heighten his empathy through practice and;feedback. His first step was to take a vacation to a foreign country where he did not speak the language.;While there, he monitored his reactions to the unfamiliar and his openness to people who were different;from him. When he returned home, humhled by his;week abroad, the executive asked his coach to shadow;him for parts of the day, several times a week, in order;to critique how he treated people with new or different perspectives. At the same time, he consciously;used on-the-job interactions as opportunities to practice "hearing" ideas that differed from his. Finally, the;executive had himself videotaped in meetings and;asked those who worked for and with him to critique;his ahility to acknowledge and understand the feelings of others. It took several months, but the executive's emotional intelligence did ultimately rise, and;the improvement was reflected in his overall performance on the joh.;It's important to emphasize that building one's;emotional intelligence cannot-will not-happen;without sincere desire and concerted effort. A hrief;seminar won't help, nor can one huy a how-to manual.;It is much harder to learn to empathize-to internalize empathy as a natural response to people - than it is;to become adept at regression analysis. But it can be;done. "Nothing great was ever achieved without enthusiasm," wrote Ralph Waldo Emerstm. If your goal;is to become a real leader, these words can serve as a;guidepost in your efforts to develop high emotional;intelligence.;97;WHAT MAKES A LADR?;Can we launch a new product within six months?;People who assess themselves honestly-that is;self-aware people-are well suited to do the same;for the organizations they run.;Self-Regulation;Biological impulses drive our emotions. We cannot;do away with them-but we ean do much to manage them. Self-regulation, which is like an ongoing;inner conversation, is the component of emotional;intelligence that frees us from being prisoners of;our feelings. People engaged in such a conversation;feel bad moods and emotional impulses just as;everyone else does, but they find;ways to control them and even to;channel them in useful ways.;Imagine an executive who has;just watched a team of his employees present a botched analysis to t he company's board of;directors. In the gloom that follows, the executive might find;himself tempted to pound on the;table in anger or kick over a chair.;He eould leap up and scream at;the group. Or he might maintain;a grim silence, glaring at everyone before stalking off.;But if he had a gift for self-regulation, he would choose a different approach. He would pick his;words carefully, acknowledging;the team's poor performance;without rushing to any hasty judgment. He would;then step back to consider the reasons for the failure. Are they personal-a lack of effort? Are there;any mitigating factors? What was his role in the debacle? After considering these questions, he would;call the team together, lay out the incident's consequences, and offer his feelings about it. He would;then present his analysis of the problem and a wellconsidered solution.;Why does self-regulation matter so much for;leaders? First of all, people who are in control of;their feelings and impulses - that is, people who are;reasonable-are able to create an environment of;trust and fairness. In such an environment, politics;and infighting are sharply reduced and productivity;is high. Talented people flock to the organization;and aren't tempted to leave. And self-regulation has;a trickle-down effect. No one wants to be known as a;hothead when the boss is known for her calm approach. Fewer bad moods at the top mean fewer;throughout the organization.;Second, self-regulation is important for competitive reasons. Everyone knows that business today is;rife with ambiguity and change. Companies merge;and break apart regularly. Technology transforms;work at a dizzying pace. People who have mastered;their emotions are able to roll with the changes.;When a new change program is announced, they;don't panic, instead, they are able to suspend judgment, seek out information, and listen to executives explain the new program. As the initiative;moves forward, they are able to move with it.;Sometimes they even lead the way. Consider the;case of a manager at a large manufacturing company. Like her colleagues, she had used a certain;software program for five years.;The program drove how she collected and reported data and how;she thought about the company's;strategy. One day, senior executives announced that a new program was to be installed that;would radically change how information was gathered and assessed within the organization.;While many people in the company complained bitterly about;how disruptive the change would;be, the manager mulled over the;reasons for the new program and;was convinced of its potential to;improve performance. She eagerly;attended training sessions-some;of her colleagues refused to do;so - and was eventually promoted;to run several divisions, in part because she used;the new technology so effectively.;I want to push tbe importanee of self-regulation;to leadership even further and make the case that it;enhances integrity, which is not only a personal;virtue but also an organizational strength. Many of;the bad things that happen in companies are a function of impulsive behavior. People rarely plan to exaggerate profits, pad expense accounts, dip into the;till, or abuse power for selfish ends. Instead, an opportunity presents itself, and people with low impulse control just say yes.;By contrast, consider the behavior of the senior;executive at a large food company. The executive;was scrupulously honest in his negotiations with;local distributors. He would routinely lay out his;cost structure in detail, tbereby giving the distributors a realistic understanding of tbe company's pricing. This approach meant the executive couldn't always drive a hard bargain. Now, on occasion, he felt;the urge to increase profits by withholding informa-;People who;have mastered;their emotions;are able to;roll with the;changes. They;don't panic.;98;HARVARD BUSINESS REVIEW;November-December 1998;W HAT MAKES A LEADER?;tion ahout the company's costs. But he challenged;that impulse-he saw that it made more sense in;the long run to counteract it. His emotional selfregulation paid off in strong, lasting relationships;with distributors that benefited the company more;than any short-term financial gains would have.;The signs of emotional self-regulation, therefore, are not hard to miss: a;propensity for refiection and thoughtfulness, comfort with ambiguity and;change, and integrity-an ahility to say;no to impulsive urges.;Like self-awareness, self-regulation;often does not get its due. People who;can master their emotions are sometimes seen as cold fish-their considered responses are taken as a lack of;passion. People with fiery temperaments are frequently thought of as;classic" leaders-their outbursts are;considered hallmarks of charisma and;power. But when such people make it;to the top, their impulsiveness often;works against them. In my research;extreme displays of negative emotion;have never emerged as a driver of good;leadership.;A cosmetics company manager, for example;was frustrated that he had to wait two weeks to get;sales results from people in the field. He finally;tracked down an automated phone system that;would beep each of his salespeople at 5 P.M. every;day. An automated message then prompted them;Motivation;If there is one trait that virtually all effective leaders have, it is motivation.;They are driven to achieve beyond expectations-their own and everyone;else's. The key word here is achieve.;Plenty of people are motivated by external factors such as a hig salary or the;status that comes from having an impressive title or being part of a prestiPeople who are in control of their feelings can tame their emogious company. By contrast, those with;tional impulses and redirect them In useful ways;leadership potential are motivated by a;deeply embedded desire to achieve for the sake of;to punch in their numbers-how many calls and;achievement.;sales they had made that day. The system shortIf you are looking for leaders, how can you idenened the feedback time on sales results from weeks;tify people who are motivated by the drive to;to hours.;achieve rather than hy external rewards? The first;That story illustrates two other common traits of;sign is a passion for the work itself-such people;people who are driven to achieve. They are forever;seek out creative challenges, love to learn, and;raising the performance bar, and they like to keep;take great pride in a job well done. They also disscore. Take the performance bar first. During perplay an unflagging energy to do things better. Peoformance reviews, people with high levels of motivaple with such energy often seem restless with the;tion migbt ask to be "stretched" by their superiors.;status quo. They are persistent with their quesOf course, an employee who combines self-awaretions about why things are done one way rather;ness with internal motivation will recognize her;than another, they are eager to explore new aplimits-but she won't settle for objectives that;proaches to their work.;seem too easy to fulfill.;HARVARD BUSINESS REVIEW;November-December 1998;WHAT MAKES A LEADER?;And it follows naturally that people who are;driven to do better also want a way of tracking;progress - their own, their team's, and their eompany's. Whereas people with low achievement motivation are often fuzzy ahout results, those with;high achievement motivation often keep seore hy;tracking sueh hard measures as profitability or market share. I know of a money manager who starts;and ends his day on the Internet, gauging the performance of his stoek fund against four industry-set;henchmarks.;Interestingly, people with high motivation remain optimistic even when the score is against;them. In such eases, self-regulation combines;with achievement motivation to overcome the;frustration and depression that eome after a sethack or failure. Take the case of an another portfolio manager at a large investment company. After several;successful years, her fund tumbled for three consecutive quarters, leading three large institutional clients to shift their;business elsewhere.;Some executives would have;blamed t he nosedive on circumstances outside their control, others might have seen the;setback as evidence of personal;failure. This portfolio manager;however, saw an opportunity;to prove she could lead a turnaround. Two years later, when;she was promoted to a very senior level in the company, she described the experience as "the best;thing that ever happened to me, I learned so much;from it.;Executives trying to recognize high levels of;achievement motivation in their people can look;for one last piece of evidence: commitment to the;organization. When people love their joh for the;work itself, they often feel committed to the organizations that make that work possible. Committed employees are likely to stay with an organization even when they are pursued by headhunters;waving money.;It's not difficult to understand how and why a;motivation to achieve translates into strong leadership. If you set the performance bar high for yourself, you will do the same for the organization when;you are in a position to do so. Likewise, a drive to;surpass goals and an interest in keeping score can;be contagious. Leaders with these traits can often;build a team of managers around them with the;same traits. And of course, optimism and organiza-;tional commitment are fundamental to leadership-just try to imagine running a company without them.;Empathy;Of all the dimensions of emotional intelligence;empathy is the most easily recognized. We have all;felt the empathy of a sensitive teacher or friend, we;have all been struck by its absence in an unfeeling;coach or boss. But when it comes to business, we;rarely hear people praised, let alone rewarded, for;their empathy. The very word seems unbusinesslike, out of place amid the tough realities of the;marketplace.;But empathy doesn't mean a kind of "I'm okay;you're okay" mushiness. For a leader, that is, it;doesn't mean adopting other;people's emotions as one's own;and trying to please everybody.;That would be a nightmare-it;would make action impossible. Rather, empathy means;thoughtfully considering employees' feelings-along with;other factors - in the process of;making intelligent decisions.;For an example of empathy;in action, consider what happened when two giant brokerage companies merged, creating redundant jobs in all their;divisions. One division manager called his people together and gave a gloomy;speech that emphasized the number of people who;would soon he fired. The manager of another division gave his people a different kind of speech. He;was upfront ahout his own worry and confusion;and he promised to keep people informed and to;treat everyone fairly.;The difference between these two managers was;empathy. The first manager was too worried about;his own fate to eonsider the feelings of his anxietystricken colleagues. The seeond knew intuitively;what his people were feeling, and he acknowledged;their fears with his words. Is it any surprise that the;first manager saw his division sink as many demoralized people, especially the most talented, departed?;By eontrast, the second manager continued to be a;strong leader, his best people stayed, and his division remained as productive as ever.;Empathy is particularly important today as a;component of leadership for at least three reasons;the increasing use of teams, the rapid pace of globalization, and the growing need to retain talent.;The very word;empathy seems;unbusinesslike;out of place amid;the tough realities;of the;100;HARVARD BUSINESS REVIEW;November-December 1998;W HAT MAKES A LEADER?;Consider the challenge of leading a team. As any- miliar with Japanese culture, he read the client's;one who has ever heen a part of one can attest;face and posture and sensed not rejection but interteams are cauldrons of bubbling emotions. They are est-even deep consideration. He was right: when;often charged with reaching a c onsensus-hard;the client finally spoke, it was to give the consultenough with two people and much more difficult as;ing firm the job.;the numbers increase. Even in groups with as few;Finally, empathy plays a key role in the retention;as four or five members, alliances form and clashof talent, particularly in today's information econing agendas get set. A team's leader must be able to omy. Leaders have always needed empathy to desense and understand the viewpoints of everyone;velop and keep good people, but today the stakes;around the table.


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