For students with first names starting with the letters H to N.;This assignment is graded out of 110 points, and is worth 10% of your final mark. Please submit this assignment after you have completed Chapter 16 and before you write the final exam.;A. Definition/Comparison Questions;Instructions: In your own words, define the pairs of terms given below. Write in complete sentences, stating the differences and relationships between the two terms, and give specific examples where appropriate. A complete answer usually requires four to eight sentences.;Each question is worth four marks, for a total of 40 marks.;1. centriole / kinetochor;2. cleavage furrow / cell plate;3. allele / locus;4. RNA primer / DNA polymerase;5. guanine / cytosine;6. translation / anticodon;7. operator / promoter;8. conjugation / transformation;9. RFLPs / Southern blot analysis;10.pleiotropy / polygenic inheritance;B. Short Answer/Short Essay Questions;Instructions: Answer each of the questions given below in your own words. Write in complete sentences where appropriate. A complete answer usually requires one to two sentences per mark, so a three-mark question would be answered in three to six sentences. This section is worth a total of 40 marks.;(4 marks) 1. Explain how CDKs regulate cell division.;(4 marks) 2. Explain the role of transposable elements in eukaryotes.;(8 marks) 3. Using the following DNA template strand sequence, answer the;questions that follow;3??TGCAGGAAGCTACATTAG?5?;a. What is the mRNA sequence?;b. What is the final sequence of amino acids in the peptide produced?;c. If the sequence is mutated so that adenine at position 11 is replaced with uracil, how will the peptide be affected? What kind of a mutation is this?;(5 marks) 4. a. What is an operon?;b. How do inducible operons (e.g., the lactose operon) and repressible operons (e.g., the tryptophan operon) benefit a bacterial cell?;(5 marks) 5. Explain the possible role of telomerase in cellular aging and in cancer;formation.;(6 marks) 6. a. Draw a diagram to show what could happen during meiosis that;would result in an egg with two X chromosomes.;b. If this egg is fertilized and develops, what are the possible karyotypes of the offspring?;(6 marks) 7. A female yellow Labrador retriever homozygous for coat colour;(bbee) is mated with a male black lab. They have two chocolate;puppies, three black puppies and one yellow puppy. What is the;genotype of the father? Use Punnett squares to show your reasoning.;(2 marks) 8. What is a proteome, and why is it studied in addition to (or instead;of) the genome?;C. Multiple Choice Questions;Instructions: Select the single best answer to each of the questions given below. Each question is worth one mark, for a total of 30 marks.;1. A zygote contains the ________ complement of chromosomes.;a. haploid;b. diploid;c. polyploid;d. spermatogenesis;e. none of these;2. How is the nucleoid of a bacterial cell replicated?;a. The linear DNA molecule is replicated from multiple origins of replication bidirectionally.;b. The linear DNA molecule is replicated from one origin of replication bidirectionally.;c. The circular DNA molecule is replicated from multiple origins of replication bidirectionally.;d. The circular DNA molecule is replicated from one origin of replication bidirectionally.;e. The circular DNA molecule is replicated from one origin of replication unidirectionally.;3. Some cats have calico coats. These result from;a. polygenic inheritance.;b. epistasis.;c. pleiotropy.;d. inactivation of the X chromosome.;e. independent assortment.;4. A male human with normal vision is mated with a colour blind woman. If they have children together, what is the probability that they will have a colour blind daughter?;a. 1;b. 0.75;c. 0.5;d. 0.25;e. 0;5. Which of the following is NOT correct about bacterial conjugation?;a. F? cells do not contain the F factor.;b. Bacterial conjugation results in an exchange of genes between two bacterial cells.;c. Genes on the F factor code for sex pili.;d. Genes can be transferred from the donor to the recipient.;e. Hfr cells can produce sex pili.;6. In generalized transduction, a bacterium obtains DNA from a virus as a result of a lytic cycle. The bacterium will;a. survive.;b. harbour a prophage.;c. die immediately.;d. reproduce for a few generations, until the prophage becomes virulent.;e. contain virus nucleic acid.;7. A repressible operon is usually controlled by;a. an inactive repressor that allows the operon to be in the ?on? state.;b. the supply of the precursor product for the enzymes.;c. an inactive repressor that keeps the operon in the ?off? state.;d. tryptophan.;e. being turned ?on,? usually by the end product of the pathway.;8. A karyotype reveals that an individual is XYY. Based on your knowledge of human genetics, you conclude that this individual is phenotypically;a. female and has unusual physical features.;b. female and is sterile.;c. female and is fertile.;d. male and is sterile.;e. male and is fertile.;9. Translocation occurs when;a. part of a chromosome breaks off and attaches to a nonhomologous chromosome.;b. part of a chromosome breaks off and attaches to a homologous chromosome.;c. crossing-over events occur.;d. genes move from one area on a chromosome to another area on the same chromosome.;e. a Y chromosome replaces an X chromosome in a female cell.;10.In a plant cell, cytokinesis begins with the formation of;a. an aster.;b. a mitotic spindle.;c. a Golgi complex.;d. a cell wall.;e. a cell plate.;11.In a human cell at prophase I, there are ________ tetrads.;a. 92;b. 46;c. 23;d. 2;e. 4;12.In which phase are chromosomes least condensed?;a. metaphase;b. prophase;c. anaphase;d. interphase;e. telophase;13.Translation is the process whereby the ________ moves in order;to place the tRNA bound to the growing polypeptide chain in;the ________ site, thereby freeing the ________ site for a new;aminoacyl-tRNA.;a. mRNA, A, P;b. ribosome, P, A;c. tRNA, P, A;d. ribosome, A, P;e. tRNA, A, P;14.Which of the following statements about DNA is FALSE?;a. DNA is capable of forming many different sequences.;b. DNA contains thymine instead of uracil.;c. DNA is double-stranded in eukaryotic cells.;d. DNA is single-stranded in prokaryotic cells.;e. DNA contains the sugar deoxyribose.;15.Binary fission occurs when;a. mitosis takes place without cytokinesis.;b. homologous chromosomes have already paired.;c. the cyclin-Cdk complex is no longer phosphorylating enzymes.;d. the cell cycle is out of control.;e. a prokaryotic cell reproduces.;16.?Sticky ends? are;a. the single-stranded ends of a DNA segment created by some restriction enzymes.;b. a problem in recombinant DNA technology because they form loops of single-stranded DNA.;c. double-stranded ends of a DNA segment created by some restriction enzymes.;d. sites of the origin of replication in prokaryotes.;e. sugar molecules that are bound to the ends of a DNA fragment.;17.Enzymes called ________ form breaks in DNA molecules to prevent overtwisting in the DNA helix during replication.;a. topoisomerases;b. single-strand binding proteins;c. DNA polymerases;d. RNA polymerases;e. DNA ligases;18.What is the probability that two lizards that are heterozygous for striped tails (Ss) will produce an offspring that is homozygous for;no stripes (ss) on its tail?;a. 1;b. 1/2;c. 1/4;d. 1/8;e. 0;19.Crossing over occurs in which phase of mitosis?;a. metaphase;b. anaphase;c. prophase;d. telophase;e. none of the above;20.Genes that encode proteins that are always needed are called;a. repressible genes.;b. promoter genes.;c. constitutive genes.;d. inducible genes.;e. operons.;21.A polyribosome is;a. a complex of many ribosomes and an mRNA.;b. a complex of many ribosomes in eukaryotes.;c. an initiation complex in eukaryotes.;d. an elongation complex in eukaryotes.;e. a complex of a ribosome with its two subunits and several mRNAs.;22.Which of the following statements concerning the cell cycle is FALSE?;a. CDKs are involved in the regulation of the cell cycle.;b. External factors are involved in the regulation of the cell cycle.;c. CDKs are active only when they bind to cyclins.;d. The amount of CDKs changes during the cell cycle.;e. Several types of cyclin regulate different phases of the cell cycle.;23.How does the first nucleotide at the 5? end of a new mRNA chain differ from the other nucleotides in the chain?;a. The first nucleotide is always a uracil.;b. The first nucleotide is always a cytosine.;c. The first nucleotide retains its triphosphate group, while the others do not.;d. The first nucleotide does not retain its triphosphate group, while the others in the chain do.;e. The first nucleotide is always a modified cytosine.;24.A chromosome has the genes U, V, W, and X. They have been shown to have the following crossover frequencies: U and V: 2%, U and;W: 9%, U and X: 7%, V and W: 7%, V and X: 5%, and W and X: 2%. What is the sequence of the genes on the chromosome?;a. W-X-V-U;b. U-X-V-W;c. X-W-U-V;d. V-U-W-X;e. none of the above;25.Why does DNA synthesis only proceed in the 5? to 3? direction?;a. Because DNA polymerases can only add nucleotides to the 3? end of a polynucleotide strand.;b. Because the 3? end of the polynucleotide molecule is more electronegative than the 5? end.;c. Because that is the direction in which the two strands of DNA unzip.;d. Because that is the only direction that the polymerase can be oriented.;e. Because the chromosomes are always aligned in the 5? to 3? direction in the nucleus.;26.Which of the following represents the sequence of events during mitosis?;a. prophase? metaphase? anaphase? telophase;b. interphase? metaphase? anaphase? telophase;c. anaphase? telophase? metaphase? interphase;d. interphase? prophase? anaphase? metaphase;e. metaphase? telophase? anaphase? prophase;27.Random segregation refers to;a. crossing over.;b. regulation of mitosis.;c. events during transduction.;d. Barr bodies.;e. paternal and maternal chromosomes.;28.Where is the amino-acid binding site located on the tRNA molecule?;a. in the middle of the loop;b. at the 3? end of the molecule;c. in the first loop;d. along the longest stretch of base pairing in the molecule;e. at the 5? end of the molecule;29.During mismatch repair of DNA, the repair enzyme;a. will remove several nucleotides on both DNA strands.;b. will remove several nucleotides on one DNA strand.;c. will remove only the mismatched nucleotide.;d. will remove the mismatched nucleotide, and the same enzyme will replace it with the correct nucleotide.;e. is unable to detect mutations.;30.Which of the following is TRUE regarding alternative splicing?;a. It is very uncommon in humans.;b. One strand of DNA can produce different mRNAs.;c. Introns are often absent.;d. As a result, the same proteins are produced in different cell types.;e. All exons are used to produce m-RNA.
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