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BAM530 Business Ethics Final (100 MCQs)

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Question;1. Who was the moral philosopher who wrote The Theory of Moral Sentiments as well as TheWealth of Nations?a. John Lockeb. John Wesleyc. David Humed. Adam Smith2. Special ethics applies to which of the following?a. It analyzes hidden presuppositions and brings them to light for critical scrutinyb. It consists of applying general ethics to particular problems.c. It analyzes societal practices and their application to particular problems.d. It consists of studying and describing the morality of a people, culture, or society.3.Who was the philosopher that condemned usury?a. Thomas Aquinasb. Reinhold Niebuhrc. Adam Smithd. Immanuel Kant4. Which of the following describes metaethics?a. It compares and contrasts different ethical systems, codes, practices, and beliefs.b. It attempts to form into a related whole the various norms, rules, and values of a society?s morality.c. It attempts to justify the basic principle of morality.d. It analyzes hidden presuppositions and brings them to light for critical scrutiny5. Which of the following is the art of solving difficult problems, cases, or deliberations throughthe careful application of moral principles?a. special effectsb. normative ethicsc. metaethicsd. casuistry6. A(n) ____________ is a problem, situation, or opportunity requiring an individual, group, ororganization to choose among several actions that must be evaluated as right or wrong.a. ethical issueb. crisisc. indictmentd. fraud7. What is the first level of moral development according to Lawrence Kohlberg?a. Conventionalb. Preconventionalc. Autonomousd. Postconventional8. What does it mean for an action to be subjectively right?a. An action is subjectively right if it is in conformity with the moral law.b. An action is subjectively right if a person believes that the action is moral.c. An action is subjectively right if it promotes the greater good.d. An action is subjectively right if it advances one?s own self-interest.9. What does it mean for an action to be objectively right?a. An action is objectively right if a person believes that the action is moral.b. An action is objectively right if it is in conformity with the moral law.c. An action is objectively right if it advances one?s own self-interest.d. An action is objectively right if it promotes the greater good.10. What is the name given to philosophers who attempt to use only one ethical approach toethical questions?a. ethical pluralists.b. utilitariansc. deontologistsd. ethical monists.11. What is the name given to philosophers who construct their ethical approaches with mixedapproaches?a. ethical pluralists.b. utilitariansc. ethical monists.d. deontologists12. Which level in Kohlberg?s is the least attained?a. first levelb. third levelc. second leveld. fourth level13. Consequentialism belongs to which sort of ethical approach?a. deontologicalb. specialc. theologicald. teleological14. The ethical approach that maintains that what has to be calculated is not pleasure orhappiness but all intrinsically valuable human goods, which include friendship, knowledge,and a host of other goods valuable in themselvesa. ideal utilitarianismb. hedonistic utilitarianismc. eudaimonistic utilitarianismd. all of these15. Which of the following is NOT a step to be taken in a utilitarian analysis?a. Identify all those who are directly and indirectly affected by the action.b. Consider, imaginatively, whether there are various alternatives other than simply doingor not doing the action, and carry out a similar analysis for each of the other alternative actions.c. Specify only the good consequences of the action for those directly affected.d. Carry out a similar analysis, if necessary, for those indirectly affected, as well asfor society as a whole.16. Which of the following was a hedonistic utilitarian that argued that we should considerintensity, duration, certainty, propinquity, and fecundity when performing an analysis?a. John Stuart Millb. Jeremy Benthamc. Immanuel Kantd. John Rawls17. When faced with the temptation to break a contract, we are always concerned with aparticular contract in a particular set of circumstances. To determine the morality of theaction, we should calculate the effects of breaking this particular contract. Which sort ofutilitarianism is represented here?a. Rule-utilitarianismb. Deontological-utilitarianismc. Theological-utilitarianismd. Act-utilitarianism18. Which of the following common business practices is roughly analogous to the utility calculus?a. Cost-benefit analysisb. Marketing researchc. Public relationsd. System analysis19. The Myth of Amoral Business is consistent with which of the following?a. Business and people in business are immoral.b. Businesses and people in business are not explicitly concerned with ethics.c. Businesses and people in business are inherently ethical.d. Businesses and people in business are unethical.20. For someone in the Kantian tradition, to be moral is the same as being which of thefollowing?a. Emotionalb. Freec. Rationald. Obedient21. Which of the following is a formalistic ethical approach?a. The moral law specifies precisely what the right actions must contain.b. The moral law contains both formal elements and content for moral actions.c. The moral law does not state what content an action must have to be a right action.d. The moral law contains only the content of the action that is right.22. Which of the following is NOT a condition for an action to be considered a moral action?a. It must take into consideration the particular circumstances.b. It must be amenable to being made consistently universal.c. It must respect rational beings as ends in themselves.d. It must stem from, and respect, the autonomy of rational beings23. According to Kant, all people should be treated in which of the following ways?a. As a means, if the end is desiredb. As an end in themselvesc. As a means to an endd. As an end as long as the means are considered24. According to Kant, the first form of the Categorical Imperative is which of the following?a. Act so that you treat humanity, whether in your own person or in that of another,always as an end and never as a means only.b. Act only in that way that you would want another to act toward you.c. Act only according to that maxim by which you can at the same time will that it shouldbecome a universal lawd. Act only so that the will through its maxims could regard itself at the same time asuniversally lawgiving.25. According to Kant, the second form of the Categorical Imperative is which of the following?a. Act only according to that maxim by which you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law.b. Act only in that way that you would want another to act toward you.c. Act so that you treat humanity, whether in your own person or in that of another, always as an end and never as a means only.d. Act only so that the will through its maxims could regard itself at the same time as universally lawgiving.26. Which of the following is NOT captured by the notion of autonomy?a. Freedomb. The universal acceptability of the moral lawc. The self-imposition of the lawd. The external imposition of the law27. According to Kant, the third form of the Categorical Imperative is which of the following?a. Act so that you treat humanity, whether in your own person or in that of another, always as an end and never as a means only.b. Act only in that way that you would want another to act toward you.c. Act only according to that maxim by which you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law.d. Act only so that the will through its maxims could regard itself at the same time asuniversally lawgiving.28. Which of the following are strictly legal rights?a. Civil rightsb. Positive rightsc. Negative rightsd. Special rights29. Which of the following rights involves the punishment due a law-breaker or evildoer?a. Distributive justiceb. Commulative justicec. Retributive justiced. Procedural justice30. Sound judgment involves all except which of the following?a. Moral luckb. Experiencec. A well-developed moral sensed. Careful deliberation31. Which of the following is the highest virtue for Aristotle?a. Justiceb. Couragec. Wisdomd. Generosity32. Which of the following would be the conclusion a virtue ethicist might make of one who reacts to strong temptation by frequently giving in to it?a. The person has an excellent character.b. The person has a weak character.c. The person has a strong character.d. The person has an immoral character.33. Which of the following would be the conclusion a virtue ethicist might make of one who reacts to strong temptation by habitually giving in to it?a. The person has an excellent character.b. The person has an immoral character.c. The person has a strong character.d. The person has a weak character.34. Which of the following would be the conclusion a virtue ethicist might make of one who reacts to strong temptation by habitually resisting?a. The person has an immoral character.b. The person has a weak character.c. The person has a morally good character.d. The person has great moral luck. 35. Which of the following is a good definition of the virtues?a. The virtues are characterized by the habit of going along with the majority.b. The virtues are skills of discerning the rules and obeying them.c. The virtues are skills of excellence in the art of living in society with others.d. The virtues are characterized by emphasizing the ends over the means.36. Which of the following describes a moral ideal?a. A pleasure or happinessb. A goal toward which we can strivec A dispositiond. A talent or ability37. Which of the following is necessary for sound moral action on a virtue view?a. Moral luckb. An attention paid to the meansc. Strong emotional commitmentsd. Sound moral judgment38. All actions by nations or companies involves, first and foremost, which of the following?a. Actions by corporate entitiesb. Actions by legislative bodiesc. Actions by individualsd. Actions by nation states39. For a virtue ethicist, which of the following would be why bribery would be considered wrong?a. It is contrary to developing good character.b. It is not universalizable.c. It treats peoples as means to an end.d. It does not bring about the greatest good.40. Which of the following is not meant by being ?morally responsible? for an action?a. I performed the action.b. I did not perform the action.c. I performed the action knowingly.d. I performed the action willingly. 41. Which of the following is an excusing condition that has to do with having only one possible action that I can perform?a. Lack of controlb. External coercionc. The absence of alternativesd. Internal coercion42. If I fainted and in the process of fainting, knocked over a lamp, which started a fire, which sort of excusing condition would limit my moral responsibility for the fire?a. Internal coercionb. External coercionc. The absence of alternativesd. Lack of control43. On the view of this sort of capitalism, the function of government is to preserve the peace and to adjudicate disputes among those engaged in business transactions.a. State capitalismb. Socialismc Totalitarianismd Laissez-faire capitalism44. Which of the following economic systems did not exist prior to the industrial revolution?a. Feudalismb. Totalitarianismc. Capitalismd. Democracy45. Socialism is commonly, and erroneously, often confused with which of the following?a. Communismb. Capitalismc. Feudalismd. None of the above.46. Antitrust legislation is an example of which of the following?a. Control of economic cyclesb. Correction of unfair tendencies and of market failuresc. Development of a welfare safety netd. Taxation47. The restriction of multinationals from lobbying against reforms or laws that protect workers or consumers is an expression of which norm?a. Respect the laws of a host country.b. Do no intentional direct harm.c. Respect the human rights of workers.d. Promote the development of just background institutions internally.48. Which of the following is the general obligation derived from the system of free enterprise that holds that parties must be able to count on the actions of other agents with whom they interact?a. The obligation to do no harmb. The obligation to live up to the contracts into which one enters freelyc. The obligation to be fair in the transactions in which it engagesd. The obligation not to undermine the freedom and values of the system49. Which of the following is not true about the moral responsibilities of management?a. Management is responsible to the workers.b. Management is responsible to the board.c. Management is responsible to maximize profits.d. Management is responsible to the shareholders.50. Which of the following was a result of the Enron failure?a. The Rescue Billb. The Employee Compensation Actc. The Sarbanes-Oxley Actd. The Corporate Democracy Act51. Which of the following was an employee complaint in the Enron case?a. At the same time top executives were selling their stock, the same executives wereencouraging employees to buy the stock.b. During the period of the stock?s collapse, Enron employees were encouraged to selltheir stocks.c. While top executives were buying stock in the company, they were encouragingemployees to sell their stocks.d. Top management was encouraging employees to hold their stocks because they felt thestock would rebound.52. Which of the following is a moral basis for disclosure of corporate information?a. Each person has the right to know those actions of others that could benefit him.b. Each person has the right to any information about a company he desires.c. Each person has the right to enter a transaction fairly and thus is required to informothers of his intent.d. Each person has the right to know those actions of others that will serious andadversely affect him.53. Martha Stewart was charged with which of the following?a. Making an insider tradeb. Lying in connection with making an alleged insider tradec. Failing to disclose the financial position of her companyd. Obstructing justice by not providing proper documentation of workplace safety54. In the Diamond Shamrock and Occidental Petroleum Corporation deal, which of the followingbest describes the actions of Ivan Boesky and Michael Milken?a. They shared inside information with intent to make a significant profit, but because ofactions that neither foresaw, they lost money.b. They shared inside information with the intent to make significant profit, but werefound out and thus doomed the deal.c. They traded inside information with intent to make significant profit, and, after the dealwent through, both made substantial profits.d. They traded insider information with intent to make significant profit, but decided thatit was improper and so did not take advantage of the information.55. At its height, the compensation of top executives at large companies was, on average, howmuch higher than the pay of the average worker?a. 7 times greaterb. 20 times greaterc. Over 700 times greaterd. Over 300 times greater56. What is the term that refers to compensation given the family of a CEO in the event that hedies in office?a. The golden coffinb. The golden parachutec. The golden eggd. The golden will57. Until Ben Cohen retired as CEO of Ben & Jerry?s, the cap on executive pay was which of thefollowing?a. Twenty times that of the average workerb. Seven times that of the lowest paid workerc. Fourteen times that of the average workerd. Fifty times that of the lowest paid worker58. What is the first step in the assessment of safety?a. Deciding how much safety is demanded with respect to a particular product or activityb. Determining how much safety is attainable and how to attain it in a given endeavorc. Ascertaining whether a particular instance of a product or activity comes up tostandards of safetyd. Lowering the level of risk until it is found, by the ordinary person, to be acceptable59. What is the second step in the assessment of safety?a. Deciding how much safety is demanded with respect to a particular product or activityb. Determining how much safety is attainable and how to attain it in a given endeavorc. Ascertaining whether a particular instance of a product or activity comes up tostandards of safetyd. Lowering the level of risk until it is found, by the ordinary person, to be acceptable60. What is the third step in the assessment of safety?a. Deciding how much safety is demanded with respect to a particular product or activityb. Determining how much safety is attainable and how to attain it in a given endeavorc. Ascertaining whether a particular instance of a product or activity comes up tostandards of safetyd. Lowering the level of risk until it is found, by the ordinary person, to be acceptable61. Which step in the assessment of safety is a technical question?a. Deciding how much safety is demanded with respect to a particular product or activityb. Determining how much safety is attainable and how to attain it in a given endeavorc. Ascertaining whether a particular instance of a product or activity comes up tostandards of safetyd. Deciding who will experience the risk62. Which step in the assessment of safety involves a question of acceptable risk?a. Deciding how much safety is demanded with respect to a particular product or activityb. Determining how much safety is attainable and how to attain it in a given endeavorc. Ascertaining whether a particular instance of a product or activity comes up tostandards of safetyd. Deciding who will experience the risk63. Which of the following is a problem with strict liability?a. Manufacturers are given greater incentive to make their products safer.b. The company is in the best position to fix a defect in its product.c. A company has a ?deep pocket,? and so is best able to accept the cost of harm.d. No company can foresee all of the misuses of its product.64. Which of the following is an example of preventing pollution at its source?a. Reimbursing those harmed for the harm doneb. Disposing of the pollution in an appropriate wayc. Not allowing the pollution to developd. Properly creating a ?paper trace? to track pollution65. All of the following may result from whistle-blowing cases EXCEPT:a. Most individuals are firedb. Individuals are blackballed in the industryc. Individuals may be shunted at promotion timed. The possibility of promotion66. Where does tradition with the corporate community tend to place the burden of justification ina whistle-blowing case?a. On the whistle-blower?s co-workers who should support the whistle-blowerb. On the company as a wholec. On the employee blowing the whistled. On the corporation?s senior management and corporate attorneys67. Which of the following conditions is necessary for whistle-blowing to be morally permissible, but not morally obligatory?a. The firm will do serious and considerable harm to employees or to the public.b. The whistle-blower has documented evidence that would convince a reasonable,impartial observer that one?s view of the situation is correct, and that the company?sproduct poses a serious danger to the public.c. The employee has good reason to believe that by going public, the necessary changeswill be brought about.d. The whistle-blower has reason to believe that he/she will be seen as failing to be loyalto the company.68. Whistle-blowing is often thought to indicate the falsity of which common myth?a. The Myth of Stakeholder Interestb. The Myth of Amoral Businessc. The Myth of Moral Businessd. The Myth of Shareholder Interest69. Which of the following conditions is necessary for whistle-blowing to be morally obligatory?a. The employee has exhausted the internal procedures and possibilities within the firm,maybe even to the board of directors.b. The employee has good reason to believe that by going public, the necessary changeswill be brought about.c. The firm will do serious and considerable harm to employees or to the public.d. The employee has reported the serious threat to his/her immediate supervisor.70. Which of the following describe ?personal whistle-blowing??a. Morally permitted, but not morally requiredb. Morally obligatoryc. Morally forbiddend. Morally irrelevant71. One might argue that attempts by the government to limit an individual?s of tobacco or alcohol is an example of which of the following?a. Manipulationb. Coercionc. Fairnessd. Paternalism72. Which are the only two developed nations that allow direct-to-consumer advertising ofpharmaceutical drugs?a. United States and Great Britainb. United States and New Zealandc. United States and Germanyd. United States and Canada73. Which of the following is not a way in which a company undercuts the competition afforded by another unethically?a. Pricing one?s product lower than one?s costs, thus making the competition operate at aloss.b. Buying up competitor companies to eliminate competition.c. Targeting products in one area to subsidize losses in another, thus driving out thecompetition.d. By producing a better product and coming to dominate the field.74. When, in the event of a civil emergency like a hurricane, merchants raise prices beyond whatis considered a fair or reasonable price, the practice is called which of the following?a. Price gougingb. Price fixingc. Price markupsd. Price jobbing75. Which of the following is a way in which secret bidding tends to produce fairer bids?a. If the process were open, a firm that could make a profit at a price considerably lessthan the competition might bid up the price to put pressure on that competitor.b. If the competition were open, a firm might start out at a high bid to scare others offfrom bidding.c. If the process were open, a firm that could make a profit at a price considerably lessthan the competition would make a bid only just enough less to win the contract.d. If the competition were open, firms might get into a bidding war for the contract.76. Which of the following is the argument offered against direct marketing in the form of junkmail?a. It is a waste and misuse of paper, adding to the depletion of forests and overtaxinglandfills.b. It is an invasion of privacy.c. It is time consuming and intrusive.d. It is a significant inconvenience because of the considerable volume.77. Which of the following is the argument offered against direct marketing in the form of spam?a. It is a waste and misuse of paper, adding to the depletion of forests and overtaxinglandfills.b. It is an invasion of privacy.c. It is time consuming and intrusive.d. It is a significant inconvenience because of the considerable volume.78. Which of the following is the argument offered against direct marketing in the form of directphone solicitation?a. It is a waste and misuse of paper, adding to the depletion of forests and overtaxinglandfills.b. It is time consuming and intrusive.c. It is an invasion of privacy.d. It is a significant inconvenience because of the considerable volume.79. Which of the following is true about the rights and obligations of employers in theemployment-at-will doctrine?a. Employers are free to hire whomever they choose but must give just cause for firingthem.b. Employers must hire the best qualified person for the job and must give just cause forfiring them.c. Employers are free to hire whomever they choose and to fire them whenever theychoose.d. Employers must fire the best qualified person for the job but can fire them wheneverthey choose.80. Which of the following is true about affirmative action?a. Qualified women and minority members cannot be given preference on the basisof sex or race.b. Affirmative action justifies hiring unqualified women or minority members inpreference to men.c. Preferential hiring is a mandatory way of making adequate progress toward achievingaffirmative-action goals.d. Qualified women and minority members can morally be given preference in order toachieve affirmative action goals.81. Which of the following is not a criticism of the employment-at-will doctrine?a. The relationship is not symmetrical because the employee can set the conditions ofemployment because it is his or her labor that is purchased.b. The relationship is not symmetrical because ordinary workers must work to get thewherewithal to live, and so he is both forced to work and lives in fear of losing his jobif he has no contract guaranteeing him a secure position.c. The relationship is not symmetrical because ordinary workers are not free to set theconditions of employment they way the employer is free to set the conditions for thepotential employee.d. The relationship is not symmetrical because the employee cannot work for whatevercompany he or she chooses, but is limited by the openings available and by the choiceor choices offered.82. Workers have all of the following rights EXCEPT:a. Vacationsb. Promotionc. Rest periodsd. Workdays of reasonable length83. Which of the following is a utilitarian argument against discrimination?a. People are treated as members of class with a certain characteristic, not as persons.They are not ends in themselves, but because of that characteristic, they are deniedequal treatment and respect.b. Since the least advantaged in a society would be better off in a nondiscriminatorysociety than in one that discriminates, the rational person would see thatnondiscrimination is morally preferable.c. The dominant class has a desire to maintain its superiority and its class prerogatives.d. Systematic discrimination produces a class of people who are arguably treated unjustly.Other groups in the society will also have cause to worry about whether they will be thenext group to be discriminated against. On the whole, more harm than good is done.84. Which of the following is a Kantian argument against discrimination?a. Since the least advantaged in a society would be better off in a nondiscriminatorysociety than in one that discriminates, the rational person would see thatnondiscrimination is morally preferable.b. People are treated as members of class with a certain characteristic, not as persons.They are not ends in themselves, but because of that characteristic, they are deniedequal treatment and respect.c. The dominant class has a desire to maintain its superiority and its class prerogatives.d. Systematic discrimination produces a class of people who are arguably treated unjustly.Other groups in the society will also have cause to worry about whether they will be thenext group to be discriminated against. On the whole, more harm than good is done.85. Which of the following is a Rawlsian argument against discrimination?a. Since the least advantaged in a society would be better off in a nondiscriminatorysociety than in one that discriminates, the rational person would see thatnondiscrimination is morally preferable.b. People are treated as members of class with a certain characteristic, not as persons.They are not ends in themselves, but because of that characteristic, they are deniedequal treatment and respect.c. The dominant class has a desire to maintain its superiority and its class prerogatives.d. Systematic discrimination produces a class of people who are arguably treated unjustly.Other groups in the society will also have cause to worry about whether they will be thenext group to be discriminated against. On the whole, more harm than good is done.86. Which of the following is an example of tangible property?a. Land, buildings, and additions on the landb. Money, stocks, bonds, financial securitiesc. Expressions of ideas, inventions, discoveriesd. Some physical item that we can touch, though not usually land and buildings87. Which of the following is an example of intangible property?a. Land, buildings, and additions on the landb. Money, stocks, bonds, financial securitiesc. Expressions of ideas, inventions, discoveriesd. Some physical item that we can touch, though not usually land and buildings88. Which of the following is an example of real property?a. Land, buildings, and additions on the landb. Money, stocks, bonds, financial securitiesc. Expressions of ideas, inventions, discoveriesd. Some physical item that we can touch, though not usually land and buildings89. Which of the following is an example of intellectual property?a. Land, buildings, and additions on the landb. Money, stocks, bonds, financial securitiesc. Expressions of ideas, inventions, discoveriesd. Some physical item that we can touch, though not usually land and buildings90. From an ethical perspective, which is the proper response with regards to the length of acopyright?a. Ethics cannot provide a specific period.b. The longer contemporary period is better than the shorter historical period.c. The shorter historical period is better than the longer contemporary period.d. Both the shorter historical period and the longer contemporary period are best for theirtime periods.91. What can ethical reflection tell us about the proper length of a copyright period?a. No particular length is justified.b. The period should vary with the quality of the work.c. Some length or other is justified and an indefinitely long period is too long.d. Whatever legal definition of the period?s length is appropriate.92. Which of the following is not covered by the doctrine of fair use?a. Scholarly criticism and scholarshipb. Researchc. News reportingd. Using copies instead of assigning a text93. Which of the following is not an instance of privileged communication?a. Patient-doctor confidentialityb. Teacher-student confidentialityc. Priest-penitent confidentialityd. Lawyer-client confidentiality94. Which of the following is an example of screening information that is provided for onepurpose to see if new useful information can be derived about customers?a. Data miningb. Hackingc. Crackingd. Monitoring95. To which of the following is email legally comparable?a. Regular mailb. Telephone usec. Certified maild. None of these.96. Accessing pornographic sites while at work can constitute sexual harassment for which of thefollowing reasons?a. It can be offensive to coworkers.b. It can take too much time away from work activities.c. It can produce a sexually hostile environment.d. It can suggest a quid pro quo to coworkers.97. Which of the following is true about the right to privacy with relation to the Internet?a. The right to privacy is ethically covered, but not legally.b. The right to privacy is legally covered, but not ethically.c. The right to privacy is neither ethically nor legally covered.d. The right to privacy is both legally and ethically covered.98. The introduction of the computer into business raises new problems. Of which of those newproblems is the use of viruses, worms, and spam?a. Computer crimeb. Computers and corporate responsibilityc. Computers and privacyd. The changing nature of work99. The issue of the availability of personal information is a problem of which of the following?a. Computer crimeb. Computers and corporate responsibilityc. Computers and privacyd. The changing nature of work100. Which of the following can be true or false and tends to obscure the issue and location oftruth?a. Factsb. Informationc. Datad. Mistakes

 

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