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Principles of Marketing questions




Question;101)Today's marketers must successfully build relationships;to connect effectively with customers, others in the company, and external;partners.;102)When marketing manager Suzie Kwan discusses factors and;forces outside marketing, such as political factors that affect marketing;management's ability to build and maintain successful relationships with target;customers, she is talking about the external marketing concept;103)The microenvironment consists of larger societal forces;that affect a company, such as demographic, economic, political, and cultural;forces.;104)The macroenvironment consists of the factors close to;the company that affect its ability to serve its customers, such as suppliers;customer markets, competitors, and publics.;105)Marketing research firms, advertising agencies, media;firms, and marketing consulting firms are all referred to as marketing services;agencies.;106)Today's successful marketers recognize the importance of;working with their intermediaries as channels through which they sell their products;rather than as full-fledged partners.;107)Consumer organizations such as environmental and;minority groups that may question a company's marketing decisions are referred;to as local publics.;108)The demographic environment is of major interest to marketers;because it involves people, and people make up markets.;109)The single most important demographic trend in the;United States that marketers should understand is the changing family;structure.;110)As baby boomers reach their peak earning and spending;years, they become lucrative markets for financial services, travel, and;entertainment.;111)Once thought of as slackers, Gen Xers are now displacing;the lifestyles, culture, and materialistic values of the baby boomers.;112)Millennials comprise the most commercially influential;group in America today.;113) Millennials represent a larger demographic segment than;the baby boomers or Gen Xers. 114)Marketers must increasingly consider the;needs of traditional households because this segment of the population is;growing more rapidly than nontraditional households.;115)The American workforce today is better educated but;less white-collar than it was a generation ago.;116)Companies in several industries have recognized the;buying power of the gay and lesbian segment of the U.S. population and have;begun explicitly targeting these consumers with gay- specific marketing;efforts.;117)Significant trends in the natural environment include;shortages of raw materials, increased pollution, and decreased government;intervention.;118)Cause-related marketing is a slowing trend as;companies have abused the practice, using it more to increase sales than to;support worthwhile causes.;119)In the cultural environment, core values and beliefs and;secondary values and beliefs differ in that core values and beliefs are more;open to change.;120)When a company hires lobbyists to influence legislation;affecting its industry, it is taking a reactive approach to the marketing;environment.;121)Trudie Jones works for a distribution channel firm that;helps several electronics companies find customers or make sales to them.;Trudie works for a reseller.;122)A company markets wild and crazy games for teens to play;at parties. This company's customer market is a business market.;123)More government legislation and the green movement are;the likeliest causes of a general decline in environmental concerns in the past;decade.;124)The introduction of new technologies is beneficial to;all industries, as new markets and opportunities are created.;125)Today's technological environment changes more rapidly;than core cultural beliefs do.;126)Who are the major players in a company's;microenvironment? Explain the role each major actor plays.;127)In a short essay, differentiate between the basic;marketing intermediaries.;Answer: These groups help the company to promote, sell, and;distribute its goods and services to final buyers. Resellers are distribution;channel firms that help the company find customers or make sales to them.;Physical distribution firms help the company to stock and move goods from their;points of origin to their destinations. Marketing service agencies are the;marketing research firms, advertising agencies, media firms, and marketing;consulting firms that help the company target and promote its products to the;right markets. Financial intermediaries include banks, credit companies;insurance companies, and other businesses that help finance transactions or;insure against the risks associated with the buying and selling of goods.;128)In marketing, what is a public? Briefly describe the;seven main types of publics faced by marketers and explain how marketing might;communicate with these publics.;129)How can marketers use information about the demographic;environment?;130) Explain the impact of the baby boomers, Generation;Xers, and Millennials on today's marketing strategies.;122;131)What are the major trends in today's natural;environment? How do these trends affect companies?;132)Why is the technological environment such a dramatic force;in today's market?;133) Describe the three main reasons the business;legislation is enacted, giving an example of each type of legislation..;134)What is cause-related marketing? Give two;examples of the practice and explain why companies participate in cause-related marketing.;135)What is the cultural trend in how people view nature?;How does this affect marketers?;136)How have large retailers such as Walmart changed the;dynamics behind partnering with resellers?;137)What are two potential drawbacks of creating separate;products and marketing programs for each generation?;138)How do baby boomers today differ from previous;generations as they neared and reached their;esixties?.;140)Give two characteristics of the American family that;depict its "nontraditional" nature. 141)How might geographic shifts;in population impact marketers?;142)In terms of ethnic and racial makeup, why is the United;States today more accurately characterized as a "salad bowl" than a;melting pot"?;143)Briefly explain why Americans amassed record amounts of;debt in the 1990s and why thefree-spending trend has ended.;increases in home values, those expectations were dashed by;the recent Great Recession.;144)Why might it be beneficial for marketers to help develop;solutions to problems facing the natural environment, such as increased;pollution and shortages of raw material?;Answer: Marketers who help to develop solutions to these;problems can gain the advantage of becoming market leaders, as increasingly;strict environmental regulations can be expected in the United States and;elsewhere. Environmentally responsible actions will help a company's public;image, they will also help to create a more sustainable market.;145)One purpose of government regulation is to protect;consumers from unfair business practices. List two areas in which this may;occur.;146)How might a marketer act in a socially responsible way;toward the general public?;147)Explain the controversy;surrounding cause-related marketing.;148)What is the difference between a core belief and a;secondary belief? Give an example of;each..;149)Why is it important for marketers to understand people's;views of themselves?;150) What steps might a marketer take to shift from a;reactive stance to the marketing environment to a more proactive stance?;Principles of Marketing, 14e (Kotler);Chapter 4 Managing Marketing Information to Gain Customer;Insights;1)Despite the data glut that marketing managers receive;they are most likely to complain that they lack which of the following?;A) enough information of the right kind B) secondary;information;C) timely information;D) searchable information E) primary information;2)Which of the following statements is NOT true regarding;information collected for marketers? A) Many managers lack information of;the right kind.;B) Most managers do not need more information. C) Most;managers need better information.;D) Many managers are burdened by data overload. E) Managers;have enough of the right information.;3)A marketing information system (MIS) consists of people;and procedures to assess information needs, ________, and help decision makers;analyze and use the information.;A) experiment to develop information B) test market the;information;C) develop the needed information D) critique the needed;information E) question the needed information;4)The real value of a company's marketing research and;information system lies in the;A) amount of data it generates;B) variety of contact methods it uses;C) efficiency with which it completes studies D) quality of;customer insights it provides E) marketing information system it follows;5)A good MIS balances the information users would;against what they really;and what is ________. A) need, like, feasible;B) like, can analyze, needed;C) like to have, need, feasible to offer;D) need, can afford, used by the competition E) use, have to;use, available;6)In general, marketers must weigh carefully the costs of;additional information against the;resulting from it. A) organization;B) benefits C) creativity;D) ethical issues E) cost;7)Diana Dion is currently researching data sources from;within her company to make marketing decisions. Diana is making use of;databases.;A) online B) internal C) external D) public;E) search service;8)Four common sources of internal data include the;accounting department, operations, the sales force, and the ________.;A) online focus groups B) stockholders;C) marketing department D) competition;E) Web;9)Marketing information from which type of database usually;can be accessed more quickly and cheaply than other information sources?;A) external B) LexisNexis C) Radian's D) internal;E) MONITOR;10)________ is the systematic collection and analysis of;publicly available information about consumers, competitors, and developments;in the marketing environment.;A) Marketing data;B) Competitive marketing intelligence C) Sales management;D) Customer intelligence E) Value chain management;11)Your marketing department is attempting to improve strategic;decision making, track competitors' actions, and provide early warning of;opportunities and threats. To achieve this goal, which of the following would;be the best for your department to use?;A) internal databases;B) external databases only C) company reports only;D) competitive marketing intelligence E) the Internet only;12)Which of the following statements regarding competitive;marketing intelligence is true? A) The advantage of using competitive marketing;intelligence is negligible.;B) All competitive marketing intelligence is available for;free.;C) Competitive marketing intelligence relies upon privately;held information.;D) Competitive marketing intelligence relies upon publicly;available information.;E) Competitive marketing intelligence gathering is more;focused on gaining insights into consumers' activities than competitors;activities.;13)Which of the following is NOT considered a source of;competitive marketing intelligence? A) suppliers;B) resellers;C) key customers D) causal research;E) activities of competitor;14)Which of the following is NOT a potential source for;competitive marketing intelligence? A) looking through competitors' garbage;B) purchasing competitors' products C) monitoring;competitors' sales D) collecting primary data;E) talking with purchasing agents Answer: D;15)Which of the following is an example of a free online;database that a company could access in order to develop marketing;intelligence?;A) LexisNexis B) the MONITOR C) Nielsen;D) the U.S. Security and Exchange Commission's database E);Hoover's;16)________ is the systematic design, collection, analysis;and reporting of data relevant to a specific marketing situation facing an;organization.;A) The marketing information system B) Competitive marketing;intelligence C) Marketing research;D) Competitive marketing research E) Causal research;17)Which of the following is LEAST likely to be a benefit of;conducting marketing research? A) assessing market potential and market share;B) understanding customer satisfaction and purchase behavior;C) measuring the effectiveness of pricing and accounting;D) measuring the effectiveness of distribution and promotion;activities E) understanding customer motivation;18)What is the first step in the marketing research process?;A) developing a marketing information system;B) defining the problem and research objectives;C) developing the research plan for collecting information;D) implementing the research plan;E) hiring an outside research specialist;19)Your colleague is confused about using the marketing;research process, as he knows that something is wrong but is not sure of the;specific causes to investigate. He seems to be having problems with;which is often the hardest step to take.;A) developing the research plan B) determining a research;approach;C) defining the problem and research objectives D) selecting;a research agency to help;E) C and D;20)Which step in the four-step marketing research;process has been left out of the following list: defining the problems and;research objectives, implementing the research plan, and interpreting and;reporting the findings?;A) developing the research budget B) choosing the research;agency C) choosing the research method D) developing the research plan;E) comparing and contrasting primary and secondary data;21)Causal research is used to ________.;A)test hypotheses;about cause-and-effect relationships;B)gather preliminary information that will help define;problems;C)uncover information in an unstructured way;D)describe marketing problems or situations;E)quantify observations that produce insights unobtainable;through other forms of research;22)In marketing research, managers often start with;research and later follow with;research.;A) exploratory, descriptive or causal;B) descriptive, secondary or commercial C) descriptive;exploratory or secondary D) causal, descriptive or exploratory;E) causal, exploratory or secondary;23)The objective of ________ research is to gather;preliminary information that will help define the problem and suggest;hypotheses.;A) exploratory B) descriptive C) causal;D) primary E) secondary;24)In the second step of the marketing research process;research objectives should be translated into specific ________.;A) marketing goals B) information needs C) dollar amounts D);research methods;E) information sources Answer: B;25)Secondary data consists of information ________.;A)that already exists somewhere but is outdated;B)that does not currently exist in an organized form;C)that already exists but was collected for a different;purpose;D)used by competitors;E)that researchers can only obtain through surveys and;observation;26)Which of the following is information gathered directly;from respondents in order to specifically address a question at hand?;A) competitive marketing intelligence B) experimental;hypotheses;C) primary data D) secondary data E) internal data;27)Information collected from online databases is an example;of ________ data.;A)primary;B)secondary;C)observational;D)experimental;E)ethnographic;28)Nielsen and the MONITOR are two sources that provide;A) primary data;B) secondary data;C) reality mining data;D) causal research designs E) mechanical devices;29)Which form of data below can usually be obtained more;quickly and at a lower cost than the others?;A) primary;B) survey research;C) experimental research D) secondary;E) observational research;30)It is most accurate to say that secondary data are;A) collected mostly via surveys;B) more expensive to obtain than primary data C) never;purchased from outside suppliers;D) always necessary to support primary data E) not always;very usable;31)Your assistant wants to use secondary data exclusively;for the current research project. You advise him that the use of secondary data;has some potential problems. Which of the following is NOT one of them?;A) It may not exist.;B) It may not be relevant.;C) It is generally more expensive to obtain than primary;data. D) It may not be current.;E) It may not be impartial.;32)For primary data to be useful to marketers, it must be;relevant, current, unbiased, and;A) descriptive B) accurate;C) inexpensive;D) collected before secondary data E) experimental.;33)Which method would a marketing researcher most likely use;to obtain information that people are unwilling or unable to provide?;A) observational B) survey;C) questionnaire D) focus group;E) personal interview Answer: A;34)Ethnographic research ________.;A)comes from traditional focus groups;B)is gathered where people live and work;C)provides secondary data;D)is most popular in the service sector;E)provides data to marketers when observation is impossible;35)Which of the following is true of ethnographic research?;A) It is a type of experimental research.;B) It is often conducted by trained anthropologists or;psychologists. C) It is a traditional quantitative research approach.;D) It can be conducted in person but not online.;E) It is typically used to;answer well-defined product or strategy questions.;36)Survey research, though used to obtain many kinds of;information in a variety of situations, is bestsuited for gathering;information.;A) interpersonal B) causal;C) exploratory D) descriptive E) creative.;37)Fredia Pellerano has just discovered the major advantage of;survey research. She reports to her supervisor that the advantage is its;A) flexibility;B) interactive design C) ease of completion D);understandability E) simplicity Answer: A;38)Survey research is LEAST likely to be conducted through;which of the following?;A)the Web;B)the mail;C)the telephone;D)personal interview;E)observation 39)Experimental research is best suited for;gathering ________ information. A) exploratory;B) causal;C) independent D) secondary E) descriptive Answer: B;40)Observational research is best suited for gathering;information. A) exploratory;B) causal;C) dependent D) secondary E) competitive;41)ABC Company has decided to use mail questionnaires to;collect data. This method has all the following advantages EXCEPT which one?;A) low cost per respondent;B) may encourage more honest answers C) has an average;response rate;D) no interviewer to bias respondents' answers E) can;collect large amounts of information Answer: C;42)Which of the following contact methods has the poorest;response rate?;A)mail;B)telephone;C)personal interviewing;D)online;E)group interviewing;43)Which of the following has the highest rating for speed;of data collection and compilation? A)open-ended questionnaires;B) personal interviews C) mail surveys;D) Internet surveys;E) ethnographic research;44)Which of the following is NOT a disadvantage of telephone;interviews?;A)They are more expensive to conduct than mail;questionnaires.;B)Interviewer bias is introduced.;C)Under time pressures, some interviewers might cheat.;D)Interviewers can explain some questions and probe more;deeply on others.;E)Potential respondents may refuse to participate.;45)Which of the following contact methods is generally the;LEAST flexible? A) mail;B) telephone;C) Internet surveys D) online panels E) personal;46)Which form of marketing research is flexible, allows for;explanation of difficult questions, and lends itself to showing products and;advertisements?;A) individual interviewing B) Internet surveys;C) telephone surveys;D) ethnographic research E) observational research;47)A consumer is most likely to be paid a small fee for;participating in which of the following? A) a telephone interview;B) a mail-in survey C) an Internet survey;D) a focus group interview E) an observational interview;48)Focus group interviewing is a ________ research tool for;gaining insights into consumer thoughts and feelings.;A) causal B) secondary;C) qualitatitve D) quantitative E) competitive;49)Focus group interviewing has become one of the major;marketing research tools for getting insight into consumer thoughts and;feelings. However, if the sample size is too small, it is likely to be;difficult to ________.;A) find enough secondary data to support the findings B);orchestrate cooperation among participants;C) encourage honest responses to questions D) generalize;from the results;E) develop a nonprobability sample;50)Which of the following is a disadvantage of online focus;groups?;A)Participants must be in a central location.;B)The Internet format can lack;the real-world group dynamics of in-person focus groups.;C)Results take longer to tabulate and analyze.;D)The cost of online focus groups is greater than that of;most other qualitative research methods.;E)The format of focus groups can be varied.;51)Which of the following is NOT an advantage;of Web-based research? A) speed;B) low costs;C) almost instantaneous results;D) control over who respondents are E) ease of;administration;52)Researchers generally need to ask three questions when developing;a sampling plan. Which of the questions below is one of these three?;A) Who should be left out of the sample (sampling;exclusion)? B) How should we contact the sample (sampling approach)?;C) Why should respondents be selected (sampling justification)?;D) How should participants be chosen (sampling procedure)? E) none of the above;53)What is a major drawback of probability sampling?;A)It can be time consuming.;B)The sampling error cannot be measured.;C)The most difficult population from which to obtain;information is chosen.;D)Everyone has an equal chance of selection.;E)Marketers must rely on the judgment of the researcher in;respondent selection.;54) What are the two main types of research instruments used;to collect primary data?;A)surveys and samples;B)questionnaires and mechanical devices;C)focus groups and online databases;D)online panels and experiments;E)personal interviews and online marketing research;55)The most common research instrument used is the ________.;A) mechanical device;B) live interviewer C) questionnaire D) focus group;E) people meter 56)Which of the following is the best advice;about creating research questionnaires? A) Use simple and direct language.;B) Questions should not be arranged in any particular order.;C) Ask difficult questions in the beginning to "weed;out" uninterested respondents. D) Ask personal questions in the middle of;the instrument.;E) Avoid any personal questions that may make some;respondents uncomfortable.;57)After a research instrument is selected, the next step in;the marketing research process is;A) selecting a sampling method B) interpreting the findings;C) implementing the research plan D) collecting secondary;data;E) selecting a research approach;58)AMF Research Group must guard against problems during the;implementation phase of marketing research for its clients. Which of the;following is NOT a problem that should be anticipated during this phase?;A) contacting respondents;B) respondents who give biased answers C) interviewers who;take shortcuts;D) interpreting and reporting the findings E) interviewers;who make mistakes;59)Typically, customer information is buried deep in;separate databases, plans, and records of many different company functions and;departments. To overcome such problems, which of the following should you try?;A) customer satisfaction management B) more sophisticated;hardware;C) customer relationship management D) decreased marketing;intelligence E) a marketing information system;60)Which of the following is true about customer;relationship management (CRM)?;A)It relies on information produced through primary;research.;B)Its aim is to maximize profit margins.;C)Its aim is to increase the efficiency of each customer;touch point.;D)Its aim is to maximize customer loyalty.;E)Most companies who first implemented CRM have greatly;benefited from the results.;61) What is the purpose of a data warehouse?;A)to organize internal and external data by relevance;B)to gather and integrate information a company already has;C)to interpret data;D)to analyze data;E)to identify and discard outdated data;62)In CRM, ________ techniques are used to sift through data;and dig out interesting findings about customers.;A) data warehousing B) data mining;C) customer strategy;D) customer loyalty management E) value network;63)A successful CRM program can be expected to help a;company achieve all of the following EXCEPT ________.;A) providing higher levels of customer service B) developing;deeper customer relationships;C) creating offers tailored to specific customer;requirements D) understanding the competition better;E) understanding how to better build the marketing mix;64)Marketing information is only valuable when it is used to;A)expand management's job;B)identify a target market;C)please shareholders;D)increase efficiencies in the supply chain;E)make better marketing decisions;65)Which of the following provides those within the company;ready access to company research information, stored reports, shared work;documents, contact information for employees and other stakeholders, and more?;A) an intranet B) an extranet C) the Internet;D) marketing research E) marketing intelligence;66)When managers use small convenience samples such as;asking customers what they think or inviting a small group out to lunch to get;reactions, they are using ________.;A) experiments;B) informal surveys C) observation;D) marketing intelligence E) direct marketing;67)Small organizations can obtain, with relatively little;effort, most of which type of data available to large businesses?;A) ethnographic B) experimental C) touch point D) primary;E) secondary;68)You have been asked to locate secondary data for your;small organization's research needs. Which of the following is NOT a common;source for this type of research?;A) the U.S. Small Business Administration B) the U.S. Census;Bureau;C) competitors' Web sites D) online surveys;E) the Bureau of Economic Analysis;69)Because of the scarcity of good secondary data;international researchers often must collect their own primary data. An initial;problem with this collection is developing good ________. A) samples;B) research firms;C) customer relationships with nationals D) relations with;channel members;E) analytical model;70)Cultural differences, especially those involving;language, can add to research costs in foreign markets and can increase the;A) risk of error B) foreign trade C) response rate;D) likelihood of using a smaller sample E) reliance on;primary data;71)Anna Gregory just read a marketing research report about;the top 25 countries that purchase American products. What would the report;most likely say about international research involving these countries?;A) It is on the decrease due to high costs. B) The costs are;higher than the benefits.;C) There is a lack of qualified research personnel.;D) Despite the costs of international research, the costs of;not doing it are higher. E) Interpretations of data are consistent among;different countries.;72)Choose the statement that is NOT a typical consumer;concern about intrusion on consumer privacy.;A) Sophisticated researchers probe our deepest feelings.;B) Marketers use personal information to manipulate our;buying. C) Marketers build huge databases full of personal information.;D) Marketers make too many products and services available;creating unnecessary consumer wants.;E) Protecting personal information is increasingly;important.;73)The best approach for researchers to take to guard;consumer privacy includes all of the following EXCEPT which one?;A) Ask only for the information needed.;B) Use information responsibly to provide value.;C) Avoid sharing information without the customer's;permission. D) Sell the information only when it is financially worthwhile.;E) Fully explain to the respondents how the information will;be used.;74)Many major companies have created the position of;to address concerns about the privacy of customers.;A) chief customer loyalty manager B) chief behavioral;analyst;C) chief privacy officer D) ethics manager;E) data warehouse manager;75)To address concerns about the misuse of research study;findings, several highly regarded marketing associations have developed;A) customer relationship management guidelines B) behavioral;targeting "Do Not Track" lists;C) chief privacy officer job descriptions D) codes of;research ethics;E) bans against using data collected through online surveys;76)Frito-Lay's ________ gathers daily sales data and;sorts it by product line and by region. The marketing managers use the data to;evaluate the market share of different Frito-Lay products compared to;one another and to competing snack foods in each region where the company does;business.;A) case study;B) acquired database C) commercial research;D) marketing information system;E) competitive marketing intelligence system;77)You want to observe how often consumers listen to music;throughout their day and what different audio devices they use. You are also;interested in how consumers store and access their own music collections. You;should conduct ________ research.;A) causal;B) experimental C) secondary D) survey;E) exploratory;78)You are about to test the hypothesis that sales of your;product will increase at a very similar rate at either a $5 drop in unit price or;a $7 drop in unit price. You are involved in what type of research?;A) exploratory B) descriptive C) causal;D) focus group E) ethnographic;79)Which type of research would be best suited for;identifying which demographic groups prefer diet soft drinks and why they have;this preference?;A) exploratory B) descriptive C) causal;D) experimental E) secondary;80)Nathan Zabalas owns a regional chain of drug stores.;Before expanding nationwide, Nathan is conducting marketing research to;determine the best options for opening new stores. He plans to start by;collecting secondary data. Which of the following is NOT a source of secondary;data that Nathan might use?;A) Yankelovich's Monitor;B) commercial online databases C) online questionnaires;D) Web search engines;E) local chambers of commerce;81)Walmart sends a trained observer to watch and interact;with customers as they shop in a Walmart store. This is an example of ________.;A) secondary research B) survey research;C) ethnographic research D) experimental research E);descriptive research;82)When ZIBA designers looking for ideas on how to craft;a shower-cleaning tool spent 10 days in people's homes, watching;consumers wash shower stalls, they were conducting;research. A) survey;B) experimental C) secondary D) ethnographic E) personal;83)Carls Jr. came out with a new hamburger and released it;in two different cities with two different price points. Marketers at Carls Jr.;then analyzed the different levels of purchase made at the two different price;points, planning on using the information to help them set a nationwide price;for the new offering. This is an example of ________.;A) observational research B) behavioral research C);qualitative research D) experimental research E) survey research;84)Juanita Petino operates a dress shop in a suburban mall.;Her research budget is very small, so she;utilizes low-cost or no-cost methods to gather research;data. One method that works very well for her is to change the themes in her;local newspaper and radio advertising and watch the result. Juanita is using;to gather data for marketing decisions.;A) informal surveys;B) experimental research C) guess work;D) ethnographic research E) secondary sources;85)Maryann Rose is conducting research to determine consumers;personal grooming habits. Because of the personal nature of the survey;questions about this topic, Maryann wants to select the contact method that is;most likely to encourage respondents to answer honestly and that will allow her;to easily collect large amounts of data. Which contact method should Maryann;select? A) mail questionnaires;B) telephone interviews C) individual interviews D) focus;group interviews;E) immersion group interviews;86)Tasoula Jeannopoulos has a limited budget for the market;research she needs to conduct, however, the sample size for her research is;quite large. Which of the following methods of contact would provide Tasoula;with the most cost-effective way to reach a large sample of potential;customers?;A) telephone surveys B) personal interviews C) Internet;surveys D) mail surveys;E) focus group interviews;87)Del Monte has created a(n) ________ called "I Love;My Dog", this online community allowscompany-selected dog enthusiasts;to complete product-related polls, chat with product developers, and;provide feedback about speci


Paper#47314 | Written in 18-Jul-2015

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