Question;Question 1Dustin was driving his car on an icy road when the back end started to skid out of control. His car crossed the centerline, and he could see the headlights of rapidly approaching oncoming traffic. His entire body became energized. His heart rate and respiration increased, and he began to perspire profusely. According to Selye?s general adaptation syndrome, Dustin was experiencinga resistance reaction.physiological exhaustion.autonomic rebound.an alarm reaction.1 points Question 2The Social Readjustment Rating Scale was designed specifically to measurechange.conflict.control.aggression.1 points Question 3The idea that emotional tension can be released through behavior and that this response may be adaptive is known ascatharsis.displacement.an unconditioned response.the safety-valve effect.1 points Question 4Prior to 1996?97, the average length of survival for people after the onset of AIDS was18 to 24 months.less than 6 months.just over 60 months.36 to 48 months.1 points Question 5Megan is looking at the ballot form for a citywide referendum and trying to decide whether or not to support the proposed change. If the referendum passes, there will be better services available for all city residents, but it will also mean that residents pay more property taxes. As Megan tries to decide whether to support the proposed referendum, she is facingan approach-approach conflict.an approach-avoidance conflict.an avoidance-avoidance conflict.a frustration-pressure conflict.1 points Question 6Laboratory experiments with cardiology patients have shown that brief periods of mental stresscan trigger acute symptoms of heart disease.have little, or no, impact on overall cardiac function.can intensify chromic symptoms of heart disease, such as arteriosclerosis.can trigger emotional responses, such as depression and feelings of despair.1 points Question 7According to the original frustration-aggression hypothesis,frustration is always a consequence of aggression.aggression is always caused by frustration.frustration causes males to be more aggressive than females.frustration is only a factor in aggressive behavior for non-human species.1 points Question 8The correct order for the three stages of Selye?s general adaptation syndrome isprimary, secondary, tertiary.recognition, reaction, evaluation.alarm, adaptation, recovery.alarm, resistance, exhaustion.1 points Question 9Which of the following is LEAST accurate in regard to defense mechanisms?they are aimed at protecting one from unwelcome emotionsthey use self-deceptionthey are normal in that everyone uses themthey invariably reduce coping effectiveness1 points Question 10Holmes and Rahe reasoned that major sources of stress for people come fromfailures.life events involving loss.changes in one?s life that require readjustment.only those life changes the person sees as negative.1 points Question 11The name Hans Selye gave to the body?s response to stress isthe fight-or-flight response.the general adaptation syndrome.catharsis.defensive coping.1 points Question 12Virginia has wanted to be a physician for as long as she can remember, but she has been unable to gain entry to medical school. Virginia is probably experiencingburnout.learned helplessness.regression.frustration.1 points Question 13Coping techniques that involve self-deception to distort reality in order to make a situation appear less threatening are referred to asmaladaptive coping.adaptive coping.defensive coping.constructive coping.1 points Question 14After a long week balancing her work at the office, visiting her husband who was in the hospital with a broken leg, and making sure she took her turn driving the carpool for her children, Beverly decided she needed some time for herself. She stopped by the mall and purchased the leather jacket she had been admiring. Beverly?s coping response to stress can be BEST described asindulging oneself.blaming oneself.giving up.constructive coping.1 points Question 15You have just come face to face with a bear on your walk through the woods. Your body automatically mobilizes itself for action in the ____ stage of the general adaptation syndrome.resistancealarmexhaustioncoping1 points Question 16Which of the following is an example of a stressful situation that involves pressure?you just transferred to a different collegeyou are stuck in a traffic jam on your way to workyou are meeting your significant other?s parents tomorrow and your partner wants you to make a good impressionyou can?t decide whether to study for your psychology exam or work on your history paper1 points Question 17Clarice was in a meeting with several other employees when her boss started to criticize a proposal Clarice had put together for the marketing department. As he started into his critique, Clarice?s heart rate and respiration increased, and she could feel her face and hands become flushed and red. According to Selye?s general adaptation syndrome, Clarice was experiencinga resistance reactionphysiological exhaustionautonomic reboundan alarm reaction1 points Question 18Which of the following is NOT associated with moderating or reducing the effects of stress?suppressing pent-up emotionshigh levels of social supportregular exerciserelaxation1 points Question 19The formation of new neurons is known asexogenesis.cytogenesis.pathogenesis.neurogenisis.1 points Question 20Melissa has an old car that is desperately in need of expensive repairs. She is trying to decide whether to spend the $1,500 she has in her savings account to repair her old clunker or use her savings to buy the used car that her neighbor has for sale. As Melissa considers which of these two options she will select, she is facingan approach-approach conflict.an approach-avoidance conflict.an avoidance-avoidance conflict.a frustration-pressure conflict.1 points Question 21An individual thinks he is Jesus Christ. He also believes that, because he is Christ, people are trying to kill him. Assume that this individual is not correct?he is not Christ, and people are not trying to kill him. Which of the following would be the MOST likely diagnosis?multiple personalityparanoid schizophreniaobsessive-compulsive disordercatatonic schizophrenia1 points Question 22Frequently, people call a psychologist for assistance after ?deciding for themselves? that they need help. People would be MOST likely to use which two of the commonly used criteria for psychological disorders when deciding to seek treatment?personal distress and deviancemaladaptive behavior and personal distresscognitive confusion and maladaptive behaviordeviance and cognitive confusion1 points Question 23Jazmine has just returned home after receiving treatment for schizophrenia. The clinician who is supervising her case is aware that Jazmine?s family is high in expressed emotion. Under these conditions, Jazminehas a low risk of relapse.is likely to develop symptoms of bipolar disorder.will need little or no medication because she will have high levels of social support.has a high risk of relapse.1 points Question 24Researchers have found that depression occursnearly twice as frequently in women as in men.nearly four times as frequently in women as in men.with equal frequency in women and in men.nearly twice as frequently in men as in women.1 points Question 25Which of the following disorders is seen almost exclusively in affluent Western cultures?schizophreniadepressionbipolar illnessanorexia nervosa1 points Question 26Kevin hears voices singing even though none are present. Kevin suffers fromhallucinations.delusions.obsessions.loosening of associations.1 points Question 27A person who maintains bizarre, false beliefs that have no basis in reality is said to havehallucinations.delusions.obsessions.illusions.1 points Question 28Thomas Szasz would be MOST critical of the commonly used criterion to diagnose psychological disorders that relates todeviance.maladaptive behavior.personal distress.cognitive confusion.1 points Question 29Using the DSM-IV listings and lifetime prevalence, it is estimated that ____ of the population will experience a psychological disorder at some time in their lives.less than 10%approximately 27%approximately 44%close to 60%1 points Question 30The stress-vulnerability models that have been developed for mood disorders and schizophrenic disorders illustrate which of your text?s unifying themes?Our experience of the world is highly subjective.Our behavior is shaped by our cultural heritage.Psychology is empirical.Heredity and environment jointly influence behavior.1 points Question 31Some researchers are investigating whether dysfunctions in neural circuits using ________ play a role in schizophrenia.acetylcholineendorphinsopiatesglutamate1 points Question 32Being careful not to make the conjunction fallacy, indicate which of the following is MOST probable:Ralph is an alcoholic, Ralph wins a major world tennis tournament.Ralph is an alcoholic, Ralph enters a treatment program, Ralph wins a major world tennis tournament.Ralph is an alcoholic, Ralph enters a treatment program, Ralph has been sober for a year, Ralph wins a major world tennis tournament.Ralph is an alcoholic, Ralph enters a treatment program, Ralph has been sober for a year, Ralph practices tennis 50 hours a week, Ralph wins a major world tennis tournament.1 points Question 33A prognosisis a forecast about the probable course of an illness.involves distinguishing one illness from another.refers to the apparent causation and developmental history of an illness.is a plan for treating an illness.1 points Question 34Treit?s best friend was seriously injured in a car accident last month. Since that time, Treit has been attending all his classes, but he feels like he is unable to pay attention because he is constantly thinking about his friend. Treit finds he can?t seem to think about anything else, and he is frequently overwhelmed by feelings of helplessness. In this example, Treit?s feelings would MOST likely be consideredpersonally distressing.culturally deviant.maladaptive.compulsive.1 points Question 35Research concerning the etiology of mood disorders suggests that the influence of genetic factorsis stronger for bipolar disorder than for major depressive disorder.is stronger for major depressive disorder than for bipolar disorder.is equally strong for major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder.is not associated with bipolar disorder.1 points Question 36Lenny is diagnosed with schizophrenia. He will often remain completely motionless for long periods of time. He almost looks as if he is imitating a store mannequin or a statue. Lenny?s behavior is MOST consistent withdisorganized schizophrenia.paranoid schizophrenia.undifferentiated schizophrenia.catatonic schizophrenia.1 points Question 37A type of dissociative disorder characterized by sudden loss of memory for important personal information that sometimes occurs after a person has endured a traumatic event isdissociative amnesia.dissociative fugue.dissociative identity disorder.dissociative depressive disorder.1 points Question 38Which of the following statements is LEAST accurate?Correlations have been found between poor social skills and depression.Depressed people tend to be evaluated negatively by others.There is no relationship between depression and environmental stress.Depressed people tend to have fewer sources of social support.1 points Question 39Jim came home from the office trembling, experiencing shortness of breath, irritable, unable to concentrate, and worrying about whether his business would still be open next week, despite the fact that his business was evidencing its highest profit ever. Jim?s condition would most likely be diagnosed asmajor depression.a phobic disorder.generalized anxiety disorder.a minor psychotic break.1 points Question 40Alvin suffers from both major depression and generalized anxiety disorder. Alvin?s diagnoses illustrate that mental disorders can becategorical.comorbid.confounded.epidemiological.1 points Question 41Which of the following has NOT been an outcome of deinstitutionalization?a decrease in the average inpatient population in state and county mental hospitalsan increase in the average length of stay in state and county mental hospitalsan increase in the number of mentally ill patients in local general hospitalsmore outpatient care of psychological disorders2 points Question 42Valium and Xanax areantidepressant drugs.tranquilizers.antipsychotic drugs.MAO inhibitors.2 points Question 43Most experts believe that for certain types of psychological problems, some treatment approaches are more effective than others. Martin Seligman asserts that obsessive-compulsive disorder responds BEST tocognitive therapy.group therapy.systematic desensitization.behavior therapy or medication.2 points Question 44Which of the following statements concerning ECT is FALSE?Memory loss is a common short-term side effect.Objective evidence has shown that ECT causes structural damage to the brain.Use of ECT peaked in the 1940s and 1950s.ECT is used to treat major depression.2 points Question 45You are watching a television documentary that shows a patient who is undergoing electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). If this documentary is depicting psychotherapy in the 1930s, you should conclude thatthe patient is being treated for severe depression that has not responded to medication.the patient is being treated for epilepsy.the doctor is using a form of aversion therapy to reduce compulsive behaviors in a patient with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).the patient is being treated for schizophrenia.2 points Question 46Which of the following is NOT a major reason American minority groups tend to underutilize mental health services?frustrating interactions with bureaucracieslack of therapists who speak their languagebelief that psychological disorders are caused by supernatural forcesdistrust of large intimidating institutions such as hospitals and community mental health centers2 points Question 47The MOST commonly cited side effect associated with antianxiety drugs isdrowsiness.tachycardia.blurred vision.insomnia.2 points Question 48Contemporary psychodynamic approaches to therapy tend to do all of the following EXCEPTneglect emotional experience.identify recurring life patterns.focus on the therapeutic relationship.address early childhood experiences.2 points Question 49Of the following, which is NOT a closely related pair of terms?psychoanalysis and free associationclient-centered therapy and clarificationbehavior therapy and systematic desensitizationbiomedical therapy and aversion therapy2 points Question 50About ____ of psychotic patients respond favorably to antipsychotic medication.15%5%40%70%2 points Question 51Which of the following statements concerning psychiatrists is FALSE?Psychiatrists specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders.Psychiatrists typically devote less of their time to relatively serious disorders than clinical psychologists.Psychiatrists frequently emphasize biomedical therapy.Psychiatrists are physicians and have a medical degree.2 points Question 52No matter what Sam tells his therapist concerning his failures or successes, weaknesses or strengths, spiteful behaviors or good deeds, or vengeful feelings or positive emotions, his therapist is very accepting of him as a person. Sam?s therapist is showing himunconditional positive regard.genuineness.empathy.transference.2 points Question 53Aversion therapy is a therapy designed tocreate a negative response to a stimulus that has elicited problematic behavior.correct habitual thinking errors and maladaptive beliefs.reduce phobic responses.improve interpersonal skills.2 points Question 54A therapist cures a man of his sexual attraction to children by pairing pictures of children with painful electric shocks. The procedure being used here issystematic desensitization.aversion therapy.extinction.social skills training.2 points Question 55Transference in psychoanalytic therapy may reveal itself when the patienttransfers from one stage of analysis to another.changes the way the patient feels about people close to the patient.responds to the therapist as though he or she were the patient?s parent.shifts social roles during the course of therapy.2 points Question 56The transferring of treatment of mental illness from inpatient institutions to community-based facilities is referred to asmainstreaming.exit-transfer therapy.decentralization.deinstitutionalization.2 points Question 57The goal of cognitive therapy is touse observational learning to overcome maladaptive behavior.change the clients negative thought and maladaptive beliefs.use positive reinforcement to change maladaptive behaviors.use verbal interactions to expand the client?s self-knowledge.2 points Question 58Jimmy has been in psychotherapy for several months, but during the last few sessions, he has been distracted and inattentive. When his therapist asks him to describe any dreams he has had recently, Jimmy insists that he doesn?t remember any of his dreams. According to Freud, Jimmy?s behavior may be a sign ofdefensive neurosis.resistance.transference.insight.2 points Question 59John suffers from chronic anxiety. He tends to worry constantly and is uncomfortable in a wide variety of situations. He decides to seek therapy. John put considerable thought into what he wants to gain from therapy, believing that if he can learn to calm himself down when he finds himself in anxiety-producing situations (like taking a psychology exam), he will be better able to cope. Based on John?s beliefs, he is MOST likely to seek a therapist who emphasizes the ____ approach.behavior therapybiomedical therapyinsight therapyemotion therapy2 points Question 60When Brett was only six years old, his older sister hid in his closet, then unexpectedly jumped out and scared him when he came into his dark bedroom. As an adult, Brett is still terrified of the dark. Based on principles of classical conditioning, Brett?s current fear of the dark isan unconditioned response.a result of observational learning.a conditioned response.a result of counterconditioning.
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