Question;Critique a student learning styles survey. The goal is to evaluate a;survey for quality information. Use the questions below as a guide to;determine survey usefulness and assistance in determining learning;styles, school culture, and attitude. Use the "Learning Style Surveys;to complete assignment. Students may also select an alternative survey;(not listed on the resource) to evaluate. Write a critique/essay of;1,000?1,250 words in which you address the questions below:1. Who are the respondents?2. Who are the investigators?3. Are the respondents capable of answering the survey?4. What is the purpose of the survey?5. Is the survey a valid method of gathering information?6. Are the questions meaningful and appropriate?7. How was the data analyzed?8. What did the survey reveal?9. Would you add or eliminate questions?10. What biases may have affected how the data is gathered, analyzed, and presented?This;is a summary of a learning style survey. You do not need to administer;the survey, just use the survey resources to answer the questions. Some;of the information will not be spelled out for you in the survey or the;information that accompanies it. But, you should be able to infer the;information from these sources.Prepare this assignment according to the APA guidelines. An abstract is not required;Learning Style Surveys;Elementary School Climate Surveyhttp://goal.learningpt.org/winss/scs/sampques.asp?survey=E;Learning Style Surveyhttp://www.longleaf.net/learningstyle.html;3.LEARNING STYLE INVENTORYhttp://www.personal.psu.edu/bxb11/LSI/LSI.htm;What's Your Learning Stylehttp://people.usd.edu/~bwjames/tut/learning-style/stylest.html;Safe and Civil Schools Student Surveyhttp://www.wsipp.wa.gov/rptfiles/StudentSurv.pdf;Here is the lecture;Contributors and Patterns to Learning Disabilities;Introduction;Learning disabilities manifest from many contributing factors such as;brain injuries, underdevelopment before and after birth, and;heritability influences. Patterns of the brain were analyzed to;determine deficits and it appears to be one of the most appropriate ways;to meet the needs of learning disabled students. Additionally, home and;school factors were used as indicators to determine services and avoid;the regression of learning disabled students. Matching the curriculum to;the students learning style while becoming culturally competent helped;reduced the impact of learning disabilities in some cases. The most;powerful contributing factors that affect academic achievement are;language, phonological-processing and attention, visual-perception, and;motor difficulties.;Physiological Differences;Over the years, researchers have found a great amount of information;about the connections between the brain, learning, and behavior. Smith;(2004) discovered that for average performing children, brain asymmetry;is balanced. Depending on what part of the brain dominates performance;learning can be predictable. When all parts of the brain work;harmoniously, learning is considered typical. When there is less;activity in the brain waves, learning takes place at a slower rate. Some;parts of the brain are underdeveloped or overused, causing patterns of;weaknesses and inability to learn at a typical pace. Injury to the brain;has also been attributed to poor learning patterns. These injuries may;result before, during, or after birth. Prenatal factors range from;maternal health concerns to disease that affects the fetus. Injuries;during birth result from difficulties mothers experience while in labor.;Finally, postnatal injuries can occur from illnesses, disease, and;insult to the brain. Many injuries may result in brain deficiencies, but;the impact it has on learning remains open for more specific answers;due to barriers that occur when linking indicators with disabilities.;Differences: Structural and Hereditary;Some children have abnormalities in their brains due to deficiencies;in development. The atypical development can be inherited and passed;down from one family member to the next. Twins are more susceptible for;similar learning abilities and a child's learning potential will most;likely be inherited according to Smith (as stated by Plomin, DeFries;McClearn, and McGuffin, (2004). The environment greatly influences a;child's learning capabilities and although the IQ is inherited, it can;be increased by stimulation from the environment. Biochemical;irregularities have also been linked to brain injuries, including;attention and hyperactivity disorders. Over the years, instances of;attention deficits in children have become more prevalent. Even though;Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is linked to brain;development, accurate measurement of biochemicals cannot be determined;according to Smith (as noted by Plomin et al.). Fortunately, there are;medications to help students by redirecting stimuli in the brain.;Contributing Factors;Because many factors are involved in child development, it is no;surprise that teachers have difficulty meeting the needs of students who;have learning disabilities. The field of education must make an effort;to close skill gaps in weak areas while continuing to build on areas of;strength. Regardless of the nature of the disability, educators must;modify the curriculum in order to meet the needs of students who;experience difficulty in certain academic areas.;In certain instances, slow development can be an indicator of weak;skills for some students. Smith (2004) acknowledged patterns of slow;maturation become noticeable at different stages and ages as the demands;for academic responsibilities increase. With the demand to meet;standards, students are held accountable for achieving academic;progress. This responsibility alone can be overwhelming and add to the;underdevelopment of abilities to complete tasks. Interventions should be;available to model and teach children how to advocate and recognize;their own weaknesses and strengths.;Family and school environmental challenges can impact existing;disabilities as well as contribute to the onset of another disability;according to Smith (2004). Nutrition is a key factor in a child's;ability to learn. When suffering from malnutrition, a child will;experience difficulty in concentrating and performing well in school.;Culture also influences a child's ability to learn the required;curriculum and is a key factor when the child's background does not;include the same experiences as the norm. Students who are from;impoverished backgrounds run a greater risk for falling behind;academically. Children who are victims of unfavorable conditions face a;greater chance of becoming vulnerable to learning disabilities due to;the stress of uncontrollable environmental events. Pollutants can also;contribute to leaning disabilities and cause students to suffer from;health difficulties. Finally, classroom instruction can compound the;learning disability if the educator is not proactive in meeting the;needs of the student. The overwhelming task of meeting the needs can;exacerbate the inability of students to make academic progress. The;family and environmental factors play key roles in determining if a;learning disability can be supported so that every child experiences;academic success.;Patterns of Processing;Processing information is a complex challenge for students with;learning disabilities. Weaknesses in processing affects cognitive;abilities, style of learning, present knowledge, social skills;abilities, and motivation (2004). These areas are compromised due to the;inability to know for sure what students will learn and retain. There;are four areas that affect a student's ability to learn and retain;information that includes visual-perceptual skills, language and;phonological processing skills, attention, and motor skills. Although no;two individual students will experience the same weaknesses, the;inability to process information impacts learning and requires;interventions.;Conclusion;The contributing factors and patterns manifested in learning;disabilities run the gamut from brain injuries, underdevelopment, and;inheritability influences. Teacher awareness, in general, and cultural;competence, in particular, regarding ethnic/language minorities is;crucial when attempting to match curriculum to diverse students with;various learning styles i.e., the student achievement gap is lessened;when teachers attend to language, phonological-processing, attention;visual-perception and motor skills.;References;Plomin, R., DeFries, J. C., McClearn, G. E., & McGuffin, P. (2001). Physiological Differences. In Smith (Ed.). Behavioral genetics.4th Edition (pp. 54-95). Syracuse University. Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.;Smith, C. R. (2004). Learning disabilities: The interaction of students and their environments. 5th Edition. Syracuse University. Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.
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