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Which of the following is NOT one of the three fundamental features of science?




Question;1 Which of the following is NOT one of the three fundamental features of science?a empirical questionsb public knowledgec mathematical equationsd systematic empiricism2 A set of beliefs can be said to be pseudoscientific if it lacks one or more of the three features of science and _____.a its adherents claim or imply that it is scientificb it has been discredited by scientific researchc it seems ?crazy?d it refers to phenomena that cannot be directly observed3 Research questions in psychology can come from which of the following?a previous researchb informal observationsc practical problems to be solvedd all of the above4 Which of the following is a categorical variable?a eye colorb IQc number of lifetime sexual partnersd shoe size5 A research methods student conducts a study on the relationship between people?s level of extroversion and the number of close friends they have. She computes Pearson?s r, which comes out to be ? 1.70. Which of the following is most clearly true?a The relationship between the two variables is weak.b More extroverted people have fewer friends.c She ought to use a bar graph to display her results.d She made an error in computing Pearson?s r.6 When you want to show that Variable X has a direct effect on Variable Y, what is the best kind of study to conduct?a a nonexperimental studyb an experimentc an observational studyd a survey7 The relationship between people?s heights and weights is positive. a Trueb False8 In a negative relationship, higher scores on one variable are associated with lower scores on another variable.a Trueb False9 Pearson?s r cannot be negative.a Trueb False10 What three groups must be taken into account in the consideration of the ethics of a research project?a societyb clinical practitionersc the scientific communityd research participants11 In Milgram?s famous study, who was the confederate?a the person being shockedb the experimenterc the person doing the shockingd none of the above12 Which of the following occurred in the infamous Tuskegee syphilis study?a Research participants were told they had syphilis even though they did not to see how they would react.b Research participants were denied treatment for their syphilis.c Research participants were injected with syphilis bacteria.d Research participants were give experimental treatments for syphilis.13 Research on the effectiveness of normal educational activities would generally be categorized as which of the following?a exemptb minimal riskc at riskd none of the above14 Measuring characteristics of potential participants to identify those who may be at risk of harm in the study is called _____.a debriefingb prescreeningc informed consentd risk reduction15 The difference between phenomena and theories is essentially the same as the difference between which of the following?a observations and modelsb correlational studies and experimentsc significant and nonsignificant resultsd models and hypotheses16 How does a framework differ from a theory?a A framework is usually more specific than a theory.b A framework is usually more general than a theory.c A framework cannot be tested but a theory can.d A framework can be tested but a theory cannot.17 For every _____ there are many plausible _____.a fact, phenomenab theory, researchersc phenomenon, theoriesd researcher, variables18 As a general rule, every phenomenon has which of the following? a no real explanationb one clear explanationc many plausible explanationsd one discoverer19 Theories in evolutionary psychology tend to take which approach?a functionalb mechanisticc typologicald stage20 A theory that explains a behavior primarily in terms of why it happens is which of the following?a a mechanistic theoryb a typologyc a functional theoryd a hypothesis21 The general approach that scientists use to create and test theories is called which of the following?a the functional-mechanistic methodb the theory-model-phenomenon approachc the quasi-logical hypothesisd the hypothetico-deductive method22 What is the first thing that you should do in constructing a new theory?a Create a set of mathematical equations that might account for the phenomena of interest.b Understand the phenomena of interest in detail, along with any existing theories of them.c Conduct at least four to six new empirical studies.d Decide which type of theory you want to construct.23 Measurement is best defined as which of the following?a. directly comparing one individual to a standard reference individual b. the assignment of scores to individuals so the scores represent some characteristic of the individualsc. the use of an established measuring instrument such as a ruler or scale to describe an individuald. an objective method of counting individuals24. Which of the following is the best example of a construct?a. depressionb. number of siblingsc. heightd. annual income25. What is it called when a researcher measures the same construct in different ways?a. multiple measurementb. exploratory researchc. inconsistent assessmentd. converging operations26. There is a single best conceptual definition of every psychological construct.a. Trueb. False27. There is a single best way to measure every psychological construct.a. Trueb. False28. Face validity is the extent to which a psychological measure appears to measure the construct of interest.a. Trueb. False29. A Cronbach?s alpha of.90 would indicate good internal consistency.a. Trueb. False30. A psychological measure is valid to the extent that the scores it produces are consistent over time.a. Trueb. False31. Psychological constructs can be observed directly by looking or listening.a. Trueb. False32. What are the two defining features of an experiment?a. control of extraneous variables, statistical analysis of the resultsb. statistical analysis of the results, a comparison of two groupsc. a comparison of two groups, manipulation of an independent variabled. manipulation of an independent variable, control of extraneous variables33. Why are confounding variables bad?a. They provide an alternative explanation for any observed difference between conditions.b. They reduce internal validity.c. They make it difficult to tell if the independent variable was responsible for the effect on the dependent variable.d. all of the above34. Why do researchers randomly assign participants to conditions?a. to control extraneous variablesb. to ensure that they find a strong statistical relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variablec. to discover whether there is a placebo effectd. to avoid fatigue effects35. Imagine that you are a participant in an experiment on the effects of morning exercise on mathematics performance. If this study uses a within-subjects design, which of the following would you do?a. One day you take a math test after having exercised in the morning, another day you take a math test after not having exercised in the morning.b. Either you exercise in the morning and then take a math test or you do not exercise in the morning and then take a math test.c. You eat a healthy breakfast consisting of milk, juice, toast, and eggs.d. You take a math test and then tell the researcher whether or not you exercised that morning.36. Imagine an experiment with one independent variable: noise level (quiet vs. noisy). If the researcher is using a between-subjects design and wants to have 20 participants per condition, how many participants will he need all together?a. 10b. 20c. 40d. 40037. What is the main advantage of conducting an experiment using a within-subjects design rather than a between-subjects design?a. A within-subjects design eliminates the need for pilot testing.b. A within-subjects design controls more extraneous variables.c. A within-subjects design does not require manipulation of an independent variable.d. A within-subjects design prevents carryover effects.38. A researcher is conducting a study in which the dependent variable is mental concentration. If it is a within-subjects design with lots of different conditions, then which of the following is most likely to be a problem for the researcher?a. practice effectb. fatigue effectc. context effectd. floor effect39. Experimenters manipulate independent variables and control extraneous variables.a. Trueb. False40. In a between-subjects experiment, each participant is tested in only one condition.a. Trueb. False41. In a within-subjects experiment, each participant is tested in more than one condition.a. Trueb. False42. Researcher Robert Rosenthal is known for his work on which of the following?a. the effect of smiling on helpingb. cultural differences in time perceptionc. social anxietyd. experimenter expectancy effects43. What is the defining feature of nonexperimental research?a. It is about personality and individual differences.b. It lacks the manipulation of an independent variable, random assignment, or both.c. It involves only one variable.d. It has high external validity.44. Which of the following is a reason to conduct nonexperimental research?a. The researcher is interested in thinking.b. The researcher wants to maximize the internal validity of the study.c. The researcher wants to avoid carryover effects.d. It would be unethical to manipulate the independent variable.45. Which of the following is a type of nonexperimental research?a. qualitative studiesb. correlational studiesc. quasi-experimentsd. all of the above46. Which of the following is the defining feature of correlational research?a. An independent variable is manipulated while extraneous variables are controlled.b. One variable is measured and described.c. Research participants are interviewed in depth about their experiences.d. Two variables are measured and the relationship between them is assessed.47. Coding of participant behaviors is generally an important part of which of the following?a. archival data collectionb. sport psychologyc. quasi-experimental researchd. naturalistic observation48. Archival data would be least likely to be used in which of the following?a. an experimentb. a correlational studyc. a qualitative studyd. a single-variable study49. Qualitative research is meant to do which of the following?a. generate novel research questionsb. explore people?s ?lived experience?c. address broad questionsd. all of the above50. Which of the following is a common data collection method in qualitative research?a. administering questionnaires with rating scale responsesb. taking multiple physiological measuresc. using computer simulationsd. giving unstructured interviews51. Data analysis in qualitative research is most likely to include which of the following?a. means and standard deviationsb. inferential statisticsc. unfalsifiable theoriesd. detailed examples of participant responses52. What are the two main characteristics of survey research?a. large random samples and self-report measuresb. self-report measures and face-to-face interviewsc. face-to-face interviews and statistical analysisd. statistical analysis and large random samples53. ?Is there anything else you would like to tell us about?? is an example of an open-ended item.a. Trueb. False54. Closed-ended items provide a set of response options for respondents to choose from.a. Trueb. False55. A researcher who stands in a shopping mall and approaches anyone who looks to him like they would complete a survey is using random sampling.a. Trueb. False56. Researchers are most likely to use open-ended items under which of the following conditions?a. They have a specific construct that they want to measure.b. They do not have preconceived ideas about how people will respond.c. They want their data to be quick and easy to analyze.d. They are conducting their survey over the Internet.57. The BRUSO model is a model of which of the following?a. how people respond to survey questionnaire itemsb. the process of administering a surveyc. good survey questionnaire itemsd. none of the above58. Survey research tends to use which of the following?a. nonrepresentative samplingb. convenience samplingc. nonprobability samplingd. probability sampling59. What is the best way to address the problem of nonresponse bias?a. ignore the nonresponders when analyzing the datab. force everyone to respondc. do everything possible to maximize response ratesd. write unbiased questionnaire items60. What are the two main functions of the introduction to a survey questionnaire?a. to encourage participation and establish informed consentb. to establish the legitimacy of the survey and put respondents at easec. to inform the respondents of their rights and protect the researcher from lawsuitsd. to hide the true purpose of the survey and to establish rapport with respondents61. High-level APA style consists of rules about grammar, spelling, punctuation, and formatting.a. Trueb. False62. An APA-style abstract is usually about two pages long.a. Trueb. False63. Which of the following presents the major sections of an APA style empirical research report in the correct order?a. Introduction, Method, Results, Discussionb. Method, Results, Discussion, Abstractc. Abstract, Discussion, Method, Resultsd. Method, Introduction, Discussion, Results64. The two broad themes of high-level APA style writing are that it is _____ and _____.a. technical, thought provokingb. creative, engagingc. formal, straightforwardd. interesting, controversial65. Which of the following is an example of a low-level rule of APA style?a. Avoid personally insulting other researchers.b. Use number words for numbers lower than 10.c. An empirical research report should start with a title page.d. Write in a simple and clear manner.66. The title of an APA style research report should generally be which of the following?a. typed in all capital lettersb. cute and attention grabbingc. highly technicald. no more than 12 words long67. The literature review of an APA style introduction section should do which of the following?a. cite and discuss the three most important studies on the current topicb. provide an exhaustive list of all research conducted on the current topicc. make an argument for why the current research question is worth addressingd. discuss only new research that has been published in the past five years


Paper#52031 | Written in 18-Jul-2015

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