Question;21. Radel and colleagues (2011) conducted a study of how feeling overly controlled makes you desire?even unconsciously?more freedom. In their study, 52 Canadian undergraduates played a video game in a laboratory and were randomly assigned to either:a. an automony deprivation condition, in which they were told to follow instructions precisely, constantly given instructions over a loudspeaker, and carefully observed on everything they did.b. a neutral condition, which was much more laid back.After this activity, they were asked to do a ?lexical decision task? (a standard approach for measuring unconscious responses) in which they were shown a series of words and nonwords in random order and had to press ?C? if it was a real word or ?N? if not. Half of the real words were related to autonomy (e.g., freedom, choice) and half were neutral (e.g., whisper, hammer). The key focus of the study was on how long it took people to press the button *(?response latency?) for each kind of real word, averaged over the many words of each type. The table below shows the mean and standard deviation across the participants of these four categories of results. Thus, for example, 782 milliseconds (thousandths of a second) is the average time it took participants in the autonomy-deprived condition to respond to the autonomy-related words, and 211 is the standard deviation across the 26 participants? average response time in that condition. Explain the numbers in this table to a person who has never had a course in statistics. (Be sure to explain some specific numbers, as well as the general principle of the mean and standard deviation.) For your interest, the pattern of results shown here supported the researchers? hypothesis: ?Relative to a neutral instructional climate, a controlling climate thwarting the need for autonomy?enhanced accessibility for autonomy-related words.? (p.924).Mean Latencies (in Milliseconds) in the Lexical Task Assessing Accessibility for Autonomy-Related Constructs (Experiment 1)ConditionAutonomy Deprivation NeutralConstruct M SD M SDAutonomy-related words 782 211 857 243Neutral words 835 258 841 301Chapter 318. Suppose that the scores of architects on a particular creativity test are normally distributed. Using a normal curve table, what percentage of architects have Z scores:Above.10?Below.10?Above.20?Below.20?Above 1.10?Below 1.10?Above -.10?Below -.10?21. Suppose that you are designing an instrument panel for a large industrial machine. The machine requires the person using it to reach 2 feet from a particular position. The reach from this position for adult women is known to have a mean of 2.8 feet with a standard deviation of.5. The reach for adult men is known to have a mean of 3.1 feet with a standard deviation of.6. Both women?s and men?s reach from this position is normally distributed. If this design is implemented:What percentage of women will not be able to work on this instrument panel?What percentage of men will not be able to work on this instrument panel?Explain your answers to a person who has never had a course in statistics.
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