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Trident Bus499 full course (all cases and slp + discussions)

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Question;Bus499;Case 1;Module 1 - Case;THE BALANCED SCORECARD & THE FINANCIAL PERSPECTIVE;Assignment Overview;In this module?s Case Assignment you will be introduced to the Balanced;Scorecard concept and will begin to consider how organizations link strategy;with the Balanced Scorecard approach. We will look at the interrelationship of;strategy and the Balanced Scorecard approach in more depth later on in this;course. For now, however, it is good to understand the fundamentals of the BSC;and to consider examples of how organizations have integrated the BSC approach;into their daily operations in a fashion that reflects the strategy of the;respective organizations.;To prepare for this Case Assignment, read the resources on the;Background page. You?ll note that one of those articles is;Martello, M., Watson, J., & Fischer, M. (2008). Implementing a;balanced scorecard in a not-for-profit organization. Journal of Business;Economics Research. 6(9), 67?80. Retrieved fromhttp://journals.cluteonline.com/index.php/JBER/article/view/2471/2517;This is the case study you will be evaluating for this assignment. Note;that there is an option to download the PDF file rather than using the PDF;viewer on this page. This may save you some frustration.;Case Assignment;After reading this article, formulate an argumentative essay around the;following thesis statement;?;Cattaraugus County ReHabilitation Center did an effective job of;implementing a Balanced Scorecard approach in a fashion that reflects its;organizational mission and vision.;If you do not think this thesis is accurate, you can argue that the;center did not do an effective job.;Assignment Expectations;Your analysis should be structured in terms of the following four;perspectives (you will be using essentially this same comparative evaluation;framework for the first four modules of this course);Introduction:In this part of your essay, set up your argument by;introducing your topic and presenting your position or thesis statement;somewhere in the introductory paragraph.;Analysis:In this section, present several arguments in favor;of your thesis statement. Make sure you discuss how the center used the;scorecard quadrants to align with organizational strategy (or how it failed to;do so).;Conclusion:Wrap up your argument with a clear and cogent;synopsis of your findings. Do your best to convince your reader (aka your;professor) that your position is valid.;Additional Instructions: Your argumentative essay should;be 3?4 pages in length (not counting your title page or references). You must;include a title page and a list references. APA formatting is preferred. Do not;paste sections of text into your essay. All of your work must be written in;your own words. It?s OK to use a short quote now and again, but quotations must;be in quotation marks and properly cited. In-text citations should be used;anytime you are borrowing somebody else?s ideas or information. That is to say;if you are borrowing a thought from a publication from G. Jetson?s article;written in 2010, that section of text must be followed with (Jetson, 2010).;Quotations, data, and general ideas (put into your own words) should all be;cited.;Module 1 - SLP;THE BALANCED SCORECARD & THE FINANCIAL PERSPECTIVE;The purpose of the Session Long Project is to give you the opportunity;to explore the applicability of the module to your own life and work. This is;done in a number of different ways?sometimes with cumulative papers, sometimes;with practical hands-on experimentation, sometimes with reflections on a place;of work or life. The common thread is personal application, aimed at;demonstrating a cumulative knowledge and understanding of the course material.;For this course, the Session Long Project will take the form of putting;together background from each of the four perspectives for a balanced scorecard;approach to an organization or organizational unit with which you are familiar.;In the final module (Module 5), you will have a go at strategy mapping. You;won't be building a complete Balanced Scorecard?that would be far beyond our;current scope?but you?ll have a chance to see what goes into it and how it gets;put together into a coordinated whole. As in the Cases, you?ll be drawing on;your previous coursework to help.;The Module 1 assignment has two parts. First, identify an organization;in which you have access to at least some information concerning financial;data, staffing and human resource systems, marketing and customer relations;information systems, and operations. While most material on the Balanced;Scorecard is written from the private, for-profit point of view, it?s perfectly;possible to use this approach with public or non-profit organizations as well.;For the second part of this assignment, consider the organization's;mission and strategy from the perspective of its financial operations (from;your work on the Case, your previous coursework, and your background reading;you should be reasonably clear what such operations are). In this section of;the assignment you?ll begin to identify objectives and measures relevant to;that perspective. If you?re unclear on just what objectives and measures are;here is a presentation that describes what they are and how to write them: Objectives;Measures, Targets & Action Plans.;SLP Assignment Expectations;When you have thought about it and made your selection, specify (in 2?3;pages);?;The name of your organization;?;What this organization does?its mission, vision, and overall strategy;?;The access you have to information about this organization. Remember;you?ll need information about its financial performance, marketing, internal;operations, strategy, and management systems.;Once you?re reasonably clear on what?s involved, think about your;organization and its finances, and then;?;Identify at least three objectives for improving the;organization's financial position and show how they relate to the;mission, vision, and strategy of the organization.;?;For each objective, develop at least one meaningful performance measure;(metric).;?;For each objective, identify at least one expected level of performance;(target).;?;For each objective, identify at least one new action or program that;needs to be developed to ensure successful implementation of the organization's;strategy (initiative).;Here?s a table that you may wish to copy and fill in;Objective;Measure;Target;Action;Module 2 - Case;BSC FLEXIBILITY & THE CUSTOMER PERSPECTIVE;Assignment Overview;In the last module we looked at;the Balanced Scorecard and how it is implemented from a "purist?s;approach," just touching on the flexibility of the tool. In this module;we are going to look at the BSC from more of an adaptive approach. That is to;say, how adaptable is this tool given the wide variety of organizations out;there in the world?;In this assignment you are;asked to study the required readings and to read the following case study;Basu, R., Little, C.;Millard, C., (2009). Case Study: A fresh approach of the Balanced Scorecard in;the Heathrow Terminal 5 project. Measuring Business Excellence. 13(4). 22?33.;Retrieved fromhttp://www.perf-ex.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/T5-case-study-MBE-papaer.pdf;Case Assignment;After reading this article;write an essay in which you compare and contrast the Balanced Scorecard;utilized by the British Airport Authority (BAA) at Heathrow Airport?s Terminal;5 project with the standard quadrants typically applied in a traditional BSC;approach (Financial focus, Internal focus, Learning and Growth focus, and;Customer focus). That is to say, the Terminal 5 project was a large, public;construction project using private contractors. Yet, the BSC approach is also;applied to the manufacturing sector and health care sector, and is applied in;both private and public organizations. So, to help formulate your arguments;you'll want to consider how the T5 project adapted the BSC approach to fit the;prevailing circumstances.;Assignment Expectations;In formulating your essay;discuss to what degree the evidence suggests the Balanced Scorecard approach is;amenable to most organizations.;Introduction:In this part of your essay introduce your;topic and provide a brief overview of the key points you plan to make in your;paper.;Analysis:In this section present the actual;comparison and contrast between BAA?s approach to the Balanced Scorecard and;more traditional approaches.;Conclusion:Wrap up your argument with a clear and;cogent synopsis of your findings. Do your best to convince your reader (aka;your professor) that your position is valid.;Additional Instructions:Your essay should be 3?4 pages in length;(not counting your title page or references). You must include a title page and;a list references. APA formatting is preferred. Do not paste sections of text;into your essay. All of your work must be written in your own words. It?s OK to;use a short quote now and again, but quotations must be in quotation marks and;properly cited. In-text citations should be used anytime you are borrowing;somebody else?s ideas or information. That is to say, if you are borrowing a thought;from a publication from F. Leghorn?s article written in 2010, that section of;text must be followed with (Leghorn, 2010). Quotations, data, and general ideas;(put into your own words) should all be cited.;Module 2 - SLP;BSC FLEXIBILITY & THE CUSTOMER PERSPECTIVE;For Module 2, consider your organization's mission and strategy from the;perspective of its potential, prospective, and present customers. In this;section of the assignment you?ll begin to identify objectives and measures;relevant to that perspective. Refer back to the presentationObjectives;Measures, Targets & Action Plans if you need to.;SLP Assignment Expectations;Once you?re reasonably clear on what?s involved, think about your;organization and its customers/clients/users/service;recipients/whatever-you-wish-to-call-them, and then;?;Identify at least three objectives for the organization's;customer service perspective and show how they relate to the mission;vision, and strategy of the organization.;?;For each objective, develop at least one meaningful performance measure;(metric).;?;For each objective, identify at least one expected level of performance;(target).;?;For each objective, identify at least one new action or program that;needs to be developed to ensure successful implementation of the organization's;strategy (initiative).;?;Comment briefly on the relationships of the customer service objectives;that you've identified here to the financial objectives that you identified in;the Module 1 SLP assignment. How do they help to fulfill those objectives? If;they don't (and they don't have to), what makes them more important than;objectives that would relate to finances?;?;Finally, do you wish to make any changes to your Module 1 objective;write-up in light of your Module 2 experience?;Here?s a table that you may wish to copy and fill in. (The boxes are;expandable, take all the space you need to be complete in your descriptions. No;more than 2?3 pages should be necessary.);Objective;Measure;Target;Action;Relationships to other objectives;Module 3 - Case;BSC IMPLEMENTATION & THE INTERNAL BUSINESS;PROCESS PERSPECTIVE;Assignment Overview;Any large-scale change endeavor;requires a great deal of effort on the part of a given organization to;implement. Implementing a corporate-wide BSC-based performance management;system is no different. In implementing such a system, organizational leaders;face the challenge of overcoming organizational inertia rooted in resistance to;change. This is no easy challenge, and is one of the major reasons why the;majority of BSC initiatives (or large-scale change initiatives in general);fail.;In this module, therefore;instead of looking at the BSC's value as a means of integrating strategy with;operations or as a useful performance-management tool, we will put on our;organizational dynamics consultant hat" and consider what it takes;to implement a large-scale organizational change endeavor.;Case Assignment;After completing the readings;presented, write a 3- to 4-page essay on the following topic;In your own words, describe the;efforts put forth by BAE in implementing the BSC approach in its organization?from;an implementation perspective. What efforts did management make to assure;employees would be receptive to, and accept, the BSC initiative? Describe to;what extent you believe their efforts paid off.;The case study for BAE can be;found in Chapter 7 of;Murby, L., & Gould, S.;(2005). Effective Performance Management with the Balanced Scorecard: Technical;Report. Chartered Institute of Management Accountants. Retrieved fromhttp://www.cimaglobal.com/Documents/ImportedDocuments/Tech_rept_Effective_Performance_Mgt_with_Balanced_Scd_July_2005.pdf;Assignment Expectations;Your assignment should include;the following;Introduction:In this part of your essay introduce your;topic and provide a brief overview of the key points you plan to make in your;paper.;Analysis:In this section present the actual;comparison and contrast between BAA?s approach to the Balanced Scorecard and;more traditional approaches.;Conclusion:Wrap up your argument with a clear and;cogent synopsis of your findings. Do your best to convince your reader (aka;your professor) that your position is valid.;Additional Instructions:Your essay should be 3?4 pages in length;(not counting your title page or references). You must include a title page and;a list references. APA formatting is preferred. Do not paste in sections of;text into your essay. All of your work must be written in your own words. It?s;OK to use a short quote now and again, but quotations must be in quotation;marks and properly cited. In-text citations should be used anytime you are;borrowing somebody else?s ideas or information. That is to say, if you are;borrowing a thought from a publication from J. Bravo?s article written in 2010;that section of text must be followed with (Bravo, 2010). Quotations, data, and;general ideas (put into your own words) should all be cited.;Module 3 - SLP;BSC IMPLEMENTATION & THE INTERNAL BUSINESS PROCESS PERSPECTIVE;For Module 3, consider the organization's mission and strategy from the;perspective of its internal business processes (from your work on the case;your previous course work, and your background reading, you should be;reasonably clear what such business processes are). In this section of the;assignment you?ll begin to identify objectives and measures relevant to that;perspective. Refer back to Objectives;Measures, Targets & Action Plans if you need to.;SLP Assignment Expectations;Once you?re reasonably clear on what?s involved, think about your;organization and its business processes, and then;Identify at least three objectives for improving the;organization's internal business processes, and show how they relate to the;mission, vision, and strategy of the organization.;?;For each objective, develop at least one meaningful performance measure;(metric).;?;For each objective, identify at least one expected level of performance;(target).;?;For each objective, identify at least one new action or program that;needs to be developed to ensure successful implementation of the organization's;strategy (initiative).;?;Comment briefly on the relationships of the process objectives that;you've identified here to the finance objectives that you identified in the Module;1 SLP assignment and/or the customer service objectives that you identified in;the Module 2 SLP assignment. How do they help to fulfill those objectives? If;they don't (and they don't have to), what makes them more important than;objectives that would relate to finance or customer service?;?;Finally, do you wish to make any changes to your Module 1 or Module 2;objective write-ups in light of your Module 3 experience?;Here?s a table that you may wish to copy and fill in. (The boxes are;expandable, take all the space you need to be complete in your descriptions. No;more than 2?3 pages should be necessary.);Objective;Measure;Target;Action;Relationships to other objectives;Module 4 - Case;STRATEGY MAPPING & THE LEARNING AND GROWTH;PERSPECTIVE;Case Assignment;Explain the process of strategy;mapping and how it relates to performance management and establishing value;propositions. You may discuss this theoretically or use the Glacier Inn case;study presented in the Armitage and Scholey (2006) document in your readings to;serve as an example for integrating these ideas. Alternatively, you can use the;Hazard Action Zone case study presented in Murby & Gold document (see;background readings) if you?d prefer.;Armitage, H., Scholey, C.;(2006). Using strategy maps to drive performance. Society of Management;Accountants of Canada. Retrieved fromhttp://www.cimaglobal.com/Documents/ImportedDocuments/Tech_MAG_Strategy_Mapping_March07.pdf;Assignment Expectations;Your essay should be 4?5 pages;long and include the following;Introduction:In this part of your essay introduce your;topic and provide a brief overview of the key points you plan to make in your;paper.;Analysis:In this section present the actual;comparison and contrast between BAA?s approach to the Balanced Scorecard and;more traditional approaches.;Conclusion:Wrap up your argument with a clear and;cogent synopsis of your findings. Do your best to convince your reader (aka;your professor) that your position is valid.;Additional Instructions:Your essay should be 4?5 pages in length;(not counting your title page or references). You must include a title page and;a list references. APA formatting is preferred. Do not paste in sections of;text into your essay. All of your work must be written in your own words. It?s;OK to use a short quote now and again, but quotations must be in quotation;marks and properly cited. In-text citations should be used anytime you are;borrowing somebody else?s ideas or information. That is to say, if you are;borrowing a thought from a publication from J. Neutron?s article written in;2010, that section of text must be followed with (J. Neutron, 2010).;Quotations, data, and general ideas (put into your own words) should all be;cited.;Module 4 - SLP;STRATEGY MAPPING & THE LEARNING AND GROWTH PERSPECTIVE;For Module 4, consider your organization's mission and strategy from the;perspective of its learning and growth (from your work on the Case, your;previous course work, and your background reading, you should be reasonably;clear what such activities are). In this section of the assignment you?ll begin;to identify objectives and measures relevant to that perspective. Refer back to;this presentation on Objectives;Measures, Targets & Action Plans if you need to.;SLP Assignment Expectations;Once you?re reasonably clear on what?s involved, think about your;organization and its learning and growth processes, and then;?;Identify at least three objectives for improving the;organization's learning and growth, and show how they relate to the;mission, vision, and strategy of the organization.;?;For each objective, develop at least one meaningful performance measure;(metric).;?;For each objective, identify at least one expected level of performance;(target).;?;For each objective, identify at least one new action or program that;needs to be developed to ensure successful implementation of the organization's;strategy (initiative).;?;Comment briefly on the relationships of the learning and growth;objectives that you've identified here to the financial objectives that you;identified in the Module 1 SLP assignment, the customer service objectives you;identified in Module 2, and/or the internal business process objectives you;identified in Module 3. How do they help to fulfill those objectives? If they;don't (and they don't have to), what makes them more important than objectives;that would relate to customer service, business processes, or financial;operations?;?;Finally, do you wish to make any changes to your Module 1, 2, or 3;objective write-ups in light of your Module 4 experience?;Here?s a table that you may wish to copy and fill in. (The boxes are;expandable, take all the space you need to be complete in your descriptions. No;more than 2?3 pages should be necessary.);Objective;Measure;Target;Action;Relationships to other objectives;Module 5 - Case;INTEGRATION - CAUSAL CHAINS AND STRATEGY;Assignment Overview;You have spent a lot of time in;this course learning about the Balanced Scorecard approach. The benefit of the;approach is that it measures an organization's performance from multiple;perspectives. You have had an opportunity to consider organizational;performance from several different perspectives and tie performance to;strategy. You have also had an opportunity to consider organizational dynamics;in relation to the implementation of a large-scale project like adoption of the;Balanced Scorecard approach.;In this module you will have an;opportunity to take what you have learned and to apply it as an organizational;consultant.;For this Case Assignment you;will play the role of a consultant presenting a case to a medium-to-large;technology firm. A representative from the company Sonic Technologies has;contacted you and asked you to meet with a group of company executives to;discuss how the BCS approach works in technology organizations.;Of course, it is well known;that consultants are not all-knowing and that it is not uncommon for them to do;a considerable amount of research before presenting a case to a client.;Fortunately, you come across the following document while preparing for the;assignment;Rohm, H., Malinoski, M.;Strategy based balanced scorecards for technology. Balanced Scorecard;Institute. Retrieved from:http://www.balancedscorecard.org/Portals/0/PDF/Technology Company Balanced Scorecard Systems_06222010_Final.pdf;Case Assignment;Your task is to prepare an;overview document that you will provide to the individuals who participate in;your meeting. The document should not exceed 5 pages but should summarize the;key points of the Balanced Scorecard process based on what you have learned;this session and you need to apply what you have learned to technology;organizations.;Assignment Expectations;Your essay should be 4?5;pages long and include the following;Introduction:In this part of your essay introduce your;topic and provide a brief overview of the key points you plan to make in your;paper.;Analysis:In this section present the actual;comparison and contrast between BAA?s approach to the Balanced Scorecard and;more traditional approaches.;Conclusion:Wrap up your argument with a clear and;cogent synopsis of your findings. Do your best to convince your reader (aka;your professor) that your position is valid.;Additional Instructions:Your essay should be 4?5 pages in;length (not counting your title page or references). You must include a title;page and a list references. APA formatting is preferred. Do not paste in;sections of text into your essay. All of your work must be written in your own;words. It?s OK to use a short quote now and again, but quotations must be in;quotation marks and properly cited. In-text citations should be used anytime;you are borrowing somebody else?s ideas, or information. That is to say, if you;are borrowing a thought from a publication from J. Neutron?s article written in;2010, that section of text must be followed with (J. Neutron, 2010).;Quotations, data, and general ideas (put into your own words) should all be;cited.;Module 5 - SLP;INTEGRATION - CAUSAL CHAINS AND STRATEGY;Signature Assignment for BUS499 SLP;Module 5;As you recall, in MGT301 (Principles of Management), attention was given;in SLP 5 to building critical thinking and problem-solving skills, along with;information-literacy skills. In the SLP 5 assignment for MGT499 (Strategic;Management), you had the opportunity to develop your business critical-thinking;skills more fully by applying strategic management principles to your chosen;organization in the process of addressing key stakeholders about strategic;initiatives that may be of concern (older iterations of MGT499 focused solely;on the shareholder).;And finally, in BUS499 (BSBA Integrative Project) you will focus your;Module 5 SLP on honing your critical-thinking and information-literacy skills.;You've put a lot of work into your analyses of the four perspectives;considered in the Balanced Scorecard process. Now it?s time to put it all;together! In this module, you?ll be preparing an argumentative essay on the;SLPs from Modules 1?4.;SLP Assignment Expectations;Utilizing Trident?s library resources, identify at least one case study;of an organization that utilizes a Balanced Scorecard approach, and three;additional peer-reviewed papers on the topic of the Balanced Scorecard. Do some;additional reading as well. Based on the case study found in the literature;conduct a critical analysis arguing whether your "SLP organization;would do a better or worse job of implementing the BSC approach. If your;organization has already implemented BSC, then compare implementation success;of your "SLP organization" with the case study from the;literature.;In conducting your analysis formulate a thesis statement and provide a;well-thought-out argument in a 3- to 5-page document that compares;implementation as described in the case study with what you would expect out of;your "SLP organization." Here are a couple of example thesis;statements you might want to consider with appropriate revisions.;?;Based on my review of [XYZ Corporation's] implementation of the Balanced;Scorecard approach and review of recent BSC-related literature, I believe it;would (or would not) be worth implementing the Balanced Scorecard approach in;my SLP organization.;?;Based on my review of the current literature I believe my chosen;organization has (or has not) done a better job of implementing the Balanced;Scorecard approach than [XYZ Corporation].;Compare and contrast the BSC implementation success of the organization;outlined in the case study you found in your literature search with the success;you would expect (or have experienced) in your chosen organization. Utilize the;peer-reviewed papers to support your arguments. Above all, your arguments;should be convincing and well supported by the literature.;Be honest! If you don?t think your organization is up to the challenge;then say so and provide some academically based resources to support your;claim. For instance, if you do not think the leadership of your organization;would be able to pull it off, then find some leadership-based research to help;support your claims. Remember, convincing the reader is key.;Your assignment will be graded according to the BSBA Information;Literacy Grading Rubric. (To see the rubric, go to Assessments>Rubrics.;Click the arrow next to the rubric name and choosePreview.)DiscussionsModule 1The material in this module tells us that many;companies place disproportionate emphasis on the financial perspective;at the expense of the other three perspectives. Give an example of an;organization with which you are familiar from either previous;coursework, the news, or personal experience where this has been the;case. What were the results of this focus on the financial perspective;on customers and other stakeholders? Be as specific as you can and give;concrete examples.Note: This discussion board is designed for;you to respond to the above question/topic by Thursday of the first week;of the module. To receive a passing grade each post should be a minimum;of 200 words in length, demonstrating thought and integration of key;concepts. Your response should be supported with relevant background;sources, which must be properly cited and referenced. During the second;week you should respond to at least one other student with a post of;similar length and quality as your initial post.Module 2Can;you think of any organizations that do not have relevant "customers" to;take into consideration? If there are such, how are they different from;other organizations where all parts of the BSC operate equally?Note;This discussion board is designed for you to respond to the above;question/topic by Thursday of the first week of the module. To receive a;passing grade each post should be a minimum of 200 words in length;demonstrating thought and integration of key concepts. Your response;should be supported with relevant background sources, which must be;properly cited and referenced. During the second week you should respond;to at least one other student with a post of similar length and quality;as your initial post.Module 3Organizations;are complex systems with multiple stakeholders. Sometimes the interests;of various stakeholders can conflict. For your initial post to this;discussion, give an example of a business process where the interests of;two (or more) stakeholders are in opposition. For your second posting;choose an example of such a conflict posted by another student, and;suggest a way that the business process can be changed so that the;interests of the stakeholders can be brought into sync.Note: This;discussion board is designed for you to respond to the above;question/topic by Thursday of the first week of the module. To receive a;passing grade each post should be a minimum of 200 words in length;demonstrating thought and integration of key concepts. Your response;should be supported with relevant background sources, which must be;properly cited and referenced. During the second week you should respond;to at least one other student with a post of similar length and quality;as your initial post.Module 4The home page of this module identifies several measures of the learning and growth perspective, such as:Real-time availability of accurate customer and internal process information to front-line employeesAbility to launch new productsAbility to create more value for customersAbility to penetrate new marketsAlignment of employee incentives with overall organizational success factorsRates of improvement in critical customer-based and internal processesConsideration;of these measures reveals that it can be difficult to quantify these;factors. For your first posting in this Discussion, identify one;specific example of a learning and growth measure that you feel could be;critical to an organization but difficult to measure. For your second;posting, choose another student's measure and propose a metric that;could be used to quantify it.Note: This discussion board is;designed for you to respond to the above question/topic by Thursday of;the first week of the module. To receive a passing grade each post;should be a minimum of 200 words in length, demonstrating thought and;integration of key concepts. Your response should be supported with;relevant background sources, which must be properly cited and;referenced. During the second week you should respond to at least one;other student with a post of similar length and quality as your initial;post.Module 5In your;opinion, what are the most difficult aspects of simultaneously balancing;the four perspectives in the Balanced Scorecard? Be specific and give;examples from your Case analyses and/or SLP.Note: This;discussion board is designed for you to respond to the above;question/topic by Thursday of the first week of the module. To receive a;passing grade each post should be a minimum of 200 words in length;demonstrating thought and integration of key concepts. Your response;should be supported with relevant background sources, which must be;properly cited and referenced. During the second week you should respond;to at least one other student with a post of similar length and quality;as your initial post.Module 6Given;the readings and assignments in this course and the BSBA program;identify and discuss two important concepts that you believe are;essential to be successful in business administration. How has this;course been useful to you in helping you to understand how these;concepts apply to business operations?Note: This discussion board;is designed for you to respond to the above question/topic by Thursday;of the first week of the module. To receive a passing grade your post;should be a minimum of 200 words in length, demonstrating thought and;integration of key concepts. Your response should be supported with;relevant background sources, which must be properly cited and;referenced.

 

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