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Question;Follow these procedures: If requested by your instructor, please include an assignment cover sheet. This will become the first page of your assignment. In addition, your assignment header should include your last name, first initial, course code, dash, and assignment number. This should be left justified, with the page number right justified. For example:Save a copy of your assignments: You may need to re-submit an assignment at your instructor?s request. Make sure you save your files in accessible location.Academic integrity: All work submitted in each course must be your own original work. This includes allassignments, exams, term papers, and other projects required by your instructor. Knowingly submitting another person?s work as your own, without properly citing the source of the work, is considered plagiarism. This will result in an unsatisfactory grade for the work submitted or for the entire course. It may also result in academic dismissal from the University.Research DesignAssignment #1Running head: Develop a proposalEven though the economy is bad and employment is difficult to find, the turnover rate isstill high (Bureau Labor Statistics, 2014). The Bureau of Labor Statistics defines turnover rate asthe total number of separations in employment, including people who quit, are laid off, anddischarged or fired. During July 2014, there were 2.5 million people in the United States whoquit their jobs. The quits rate was 1.8 percent. The quit rate has been 1.8 percent for six monthsin a row. When the rate is not seasonally adjusted, the quits rate in private industry becomes 2.3percent, and the rate of.8 percent for governmental organizations. The highest rate is in theaccommodation and food services industry, at 4.3 percent, followed by health care at 4 percentand retail at 3.1 percent. Turnover is marginally higher in the South, at 2.3 percent, andsignificantly lower in the Northeast, at 1.5 percent (Bureau Labor Statistics, 2014, p. 16).Payroll represents a significant investment in any organization. Every employee thatleaves costs the company money, whether the cost is a tangible cost or an intangible one.Intangible costs include lost productivity, the cost of redoing work by new employees who arestill learning the job, the increased cost of supervision to monitor the new employees, and lostproductivity by existing staff members who must cover the individual?s absence and then helpthe new employee until they adjust to the job (Hillmer, Hillmer, & McRoberts, 2004). Tangiblecosts include the costs to advertise for a new employee, conduct background checks, trainingcosts, orientation costs, and other employees? salary for assisting with interviews, testing, andtraining (Hillmer et al., 2004).What motivates people to voluntarily leave a job? The question is particularly intriguingwhen the job market is not good. It would seem that employees would not voluntarily leave a jobwhen times are difficult economically, but the Bureau of Labor statistics tell a different story.This project investigates why employees leave a company and what can be done to slow the rateof turnover.Purpose of the StudyThis purpose of this qualitative research will be to gain insight into the reasons thatemployees voluntarily separate from the company, in order to gain insight into what companiescan do to prevent this loss.Research QuestionsThe inquiry that guides the research is, at its deepest level, why employees wouldvoluntarily leave a ?sure thing? job, particularly when the job market is slow and re-gainingemployment is not a certain thing. The inquiry led to the development of three researchquestions:Q1.Why do employees leave their jobs voluntarily?Q2.What can be done to decrease the rate of voluntarily leaving of a company?The two research questions, when considered together, will provide insight into whyemployees voluntarily leave a company, and what employees can do to change conditions so thatemployees are more likely to remain with the company.Definition of Key TermsEnvironmental AttributesThe environmental attributes are the external factors which impact the company. The sizeof the community, the resources available, and so on are environmental attributes (Abelson &Baysinger, 1984).Individual AttributesIndividual attributes are the demographics of the employees that may impactemployment, including level of education, being a single parent, etc. (Abelson & Baysinger,1984).Organizational AttributesOrganizational attributes include the variables within a company that can impact the waythe company operates and how the employees feel about the company (Abelson & Baysinger,1984).Quits RateThe number of people who quit their jobs (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2014).TurnoverThe turnover rate is defined as the total number of employees who leave a job (Bureau ofLabor Statistics, 2014). For the purposes of this paper, the voluntary turnover rate, or quits rate,will be utilized in the definition of turnover.Theoretical FrameworkThe company is an organization with interlocking and interacting parts. An action in onepart of the organization affects the other parts of the organization, particularly when theemployees are directly impacted. Departments do not stand alone, they are part of a system.Senge (2006, 1996) identified a number of factors that can motivate employees, including peerleadership. Thus, line managers or executives have an impact on the employees, but so do peerleaders. Today, many workers function in virtual teams. With virtual teams becoming a norm,understanding that e-leaders can also impact the job is important (Fan, Chen, Wang, & Chen,2014).Brief Review of the LiteratureA brief review of the literature would normally be included at this point. For brevity, it isomitted.Research MethodQualitative research is concerned with meaning and with determining reasons. Thatmeaning cannot just be extracted from the context of the interview or narrative and considered tobe stand-alone data (Qu & Dumay, 2011). It is not standalone data, it involves critical reflectionon the meaning of the investigation in the overall context of the subjects? perspectives. Nopreconception is made as to what may be discovered in the research. The key is to understandthat qualitative research deals with meaning and rich description of situations, while quantitativeresearch is concerned with quantifying the information. Qualitative research investigates ideas,but quantitative research tests hypotheses (Zikmund, Banin, Carr, & Griffin, 2008). Qualitativeresearch explores a small sample of a population (Zikmund et al., 2008). Creswell (2013)suggested that in some types of research especially in narrative inquiry, a maximum of two tothree subjects should be chosen for study. Based on these definitions and the research questions,qualitative methodology is appropriate for this study.The proposed research study will conduct narrative inquiry on a sample of twoindividuals from company X, in order to gain information for the body of knowledge relating tothe rate of quits in a company. According to Creswell (2013), narrative research collects storiesfrom individuals, documents, or conversations relating to lived experiences. In this case, thelived experience will be the experience of working with a company and watching employeescoming and going and, of course, hearing either in person or ?through the grapevine? why theemployee left. The population of interest in this study are the employees that remain behindwhen someone has quit the company.MeasurementAn oral history will be gathered from two employees. The oral history ?consists ofgathering personal reflections of events and their causes and effects from one individual orseveral individuals? (Creswell, 2013, p. 74). The specific focus will be the stories told about theorganization. The interpretive framework utilized will be the framework described earlier I thepaper, that of the organization as a system.ProcedureThe individuals will be selected from company X, an organization with significantturnover by quits. The individual selected will be selected by a purposive snowball sample, inwhich one likely participant known to the researcher will be invited to submit several names forother potential participants. Tracy (2010) suggests seeking out a subject who will be able toprovide information that will move the heart, as well as the head.The method of data collection and recording will be to utilize the open laptop to videoand audiotape the interviews. Microsoft Word Voice will be used to assist in transcribing theaudio. Information about the context of the participants? stories will be collected, including thehistorical contexts of time and place of hiring, working, and participating in company culture.The stories will be analyzed, utilizing the process of re-storying, or ?reorganizing the stories intosome general type of framework? (Creswell, 2013, p. 74) beginning with a chronologicalnarrative. In chronology, the stories have three parts: beginning, middle, and end, with apredicament or conflict, a main character, implied cause, and resolution (Creswell, 2013).ReportThe final report will provide a context for the study, as well as the information gatheredfrom the participants and viewed through the lens of individuals who quit the company.Recommendations will be made for lowering the number of individuals who voluntarily chooseto leave the company. In addition, suggestions will be made for future research.SummaryThis qualitative research project will strive to understand why individuals choose to leavea company, particularly when the job market is bad. The research will add to the body ofknowledge on turnovers and quits. It will provide valuable information for company X andgeneral information for companies in similar circumstances.Running head: MINI-PROPOSAL8ReferencesAbelson, M. & Baysinger, B. (1984) Optimal and dysfunctional turnover: Toward and organizationallevel model. Academy of management review, 9(2) 331-341.Bureau Labor Statistics (2014) Job openings and labor turnover ? July 2014. News Rleass. Retrievedonline at, J. (2013). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five traditions (2nd ed.).Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Fan, K., Chen, Y. H., Wang, C. W., & Chen, M. (2014). E-leadership effectiveness in virtual teams:motivating language perspective. Industrial Management & Data Systems, 114(3), 421-437.Hilmer, S., Hilmer, B., & McRoberts, G. (2004). The Real Costs of Turnover: Lessons from a CallCentre. Human Resource Planning, 27(3), 34-41.Qu, S., & Dumay, J. (2011). The qualitative research interview. Qualitative Research in Accounting &Management, 8(3), 238-264.Senge, P. (1996) Rethinking leadership in the learning organization. The Systems Thinker, 7(1),February 1996. Retrieved from, P. (2006). The fifth discipline: The art and practice of the learning. Doubleday.Tracy, S. (2010). Qualitative quality: Eight ?big-tent? criteria for excellent qualitativeresearch. Qualitative inquiry, 16(10), 837-851.Zikmund, W., Banin, B., Carr, J., & Griffin, M. (2008). Business methods research. (Eighth Ed.) Mason,OH: Southwest.For this assignment please write an analysis section that describes the analytical approach of one of the mock data collection described in one of the proposals completed in Sections 1 or 2.Support your paper with a minimum of 5 resources (preferably no more than 5 years old). In addition to these specified resources, other appropriate scholarly resources, including older articles, may be included.Length: 5-7 pages not including title and reference pagesReferences: Minimum of 5 scholarly resources.You may choose any proposal (proposals 1 or 2 from the first two weeks-attached) and discuss the data collection process and how to analyze the data.


Paper#53904 | Written in 18-Jul-2015

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