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hi, can you please write me this assigment in 1...

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hi, can you please write me this assigment in 10 hours? Its 750 words. Please let me know asap,Its realy urgent. Thank you. I will pay immediately.,HI This is for question 2 (the question 9 in the excel)and 3(the question 10 in the excel) Please note : you need to use the percentage for the answers (see I already converted them in excel). Please let me know if you can finish in 10 hours.Thanks.,Hi first of all please provide your reference . You need reference for definition of standard deviation and many things . Provide in-text reference and reference list (Harvard style) Please seperate question q 1 answer into a,b,c as the question And question 2 please use my answer in excel to answer Ur answer is totally wrong Question 3 please mention how to faculae standard deviation (which i already calculate but you need to find definition n formula from academic resource n give me refernce .mention normal distribution Please get back to me ASAP .thanks,Question 1.just described the trend don't mention the reason are due to poor management Please change it And the s&p remains in Australia,Please modify them and send back to me within 3 hours.i have to submit.thanks,i cant send you attachment,please advise,i cant send you attachment,please advise,Please see the highlighted area and modify them asap thanks,Please see the highlighted area and modify them asap thanks,Historical average monthly return obtained is ? 2.01% and it indicates that the performance of the company is quite poor. It shows the continuous decline in the share prices over the period of five years. Average return of on the stock of a company represents the past performance of the company in the market, while calculating we can take data of any number of periods depending upon the requirement of the user. Average return is used by various investors to determine whether to invest in the company, suppliers uses the Average return of the company to determine whether to supply products and services on credit basis or not. .(in-text reference needed. Or did you use the reference below) Average return is often used by the analyst to predict the future performance of an organization, average return is used as basis in calculation of other statistical measures such as standard deviation, coefficient of variance etc., Standard deviation is used to analyse the risk involved in a particular security. Thus average return is used as the measure of risk also. .(in-text reference needed. Or did you use the reference below) Average return is also calculated on moving average basis, moving averages are used to take into account huge number of returns without using lengthy computations. Moving averages are usually considered as more useful in analysing a security as it will analysing data on long term basis without performing cumbersome calculations. .(in-text reference needed. Or did you use the reference below) (http://au.finance.yahoo.com/q/hp?s=QAN.AX) Question 3: Assess the risk that your return might not be what you expected. Solution:- There are various factors which can result in the difference between the actual return and expected return. The Qantas Airlines is also exposed to some of these risks. The market risk comprising of interest rate risk, foreign risk and fuel price risk can adversely affect the return of the company. .(in-text reference needed. Or did you use the reference below) The interest rate risk refers to the risk that the fair value or future cash flows of a financial instrument will differ because of changes in the interest rate. The company is exposed to interest rate risks resulting from portfolio of its interest rate sensitive assets and liabilities in a number of currencies namely, AUD, GBP, USD, JPY, NZD and EUR. .(in-text reference needed. Or did you use the reference below) The foreign exchange risk refers to the risk that the fair value or future cash flows of a financial instrument will differ because of changes in the foreign exchange rates. The company uses options and swap on jet kerosene, gasoil and crude oil to hedge the exposure to movements in fuel price risk. But the changes in fuel prices can adversely affect the return of the company. .(reference needed. Or did you use the reference below) In order to quantify the risk we first need to calculate the standard deviation of a security. Standard deviation is a statistical tool which is used to measure the deviation of the data of a security from its mean. Standard deviation is expressed in percentage form and shown the possible percentage fluctuation in the expected return of a security based on past performance. Standard deviation is the only tool which can be used to measure volatility in the return of a security.(reference needed. Or did you use the reference below) High standard deviation means high risk whereas low standard deviation means low risk. Formula for computing Standard deviation:- reference needed Or did you use the reference below) Where, ? = standard deviation. ? = mean (Average return) x = each value in the population N = number of values (population) Normal Distribution: It is an important statistical distribution. All normal distribution have a bell shaped distribution, under this type of distribution:- Mean = Mode = Median (In text reference should be like : ?(Author, Year) Where is the year?And could you explain more about how does it related to standard deviation ? (68% chance will have expected return +- 1 Standard deviation etc :68% of possible outcomes lie within plus or minus one standard deviation of the mean add a image of nomrla distribution bell-shaped image like this Find a reference for this Ross, Westerfield and Jaffee,Corporate Finance ((http://www.qantas.com.au/infodetail/about/investors/preliminaryFinalReport12.pdf) Reference list:- please check the attachment I just attached.The format is wrong. James C. Van Horne and Jon M. Wachowica, JR. Fundamentals of Financial Management Harlod Kent Bake, Gary E. Powell. Understanding Financial Management. Ross, Westerfield and Jaffee, Corporate Finance (http://www.qantas.com.au/infodetail/about/investors/preliminaryFinalReport12.pdf),please check this Referenc requirement About this resource This resource explains some of the more common applications of the author-date (Harvard) style of referencing. It is based on the Style manual for authors, editors and printers, 6th edn, 2002, pp. 188?208 and pp. 218?32. You should always check your unit guide and/or with academic staff (unit chair, lecturer or tutor) to make sure that this is the recommended style for your unit. Note that some units, courses and disciplines use variations of the style described here. You must reference all material you use from all sources and acknowledge your sources in the body of your paper each time you use a fact, a conclusion, an idea or a finding from someone's work. This establishes the authority of your work and acknowledges the researchers and writers you have drawn upon in your paper. It is necessary to cite your sources each time you: ? reproduce an author's exact words (quote), that is, copy word for word directly from a text. Page numbers must be included in the in-text citation when quoting directly. ? use your own wording (summarise or paraphrase) to explain or discuss what someone has said. Page numbers should be provided if the summarised or paraphrased material appears in specific pages or sections of a work. If you copy an entire table, chart, diagram or graph or if you take only some of the data contained in such sources, you must provide a reference. Sources such as journals, books, encyclopedias, computer programs and software, information from the internet, reports, newspapers, interviews, radio and television must be cited in the body of your paper and detailed in a reference list at the end. Information from Deakin study guides and readers must also be acknowledged. The author-date (Harvard) style The author-date (Harvard) style consists of two elements: ? in-text citations in the body of the paper ? a reference list at the end of the paper giving full bibliographic details for the in-text citations. Part 1 of this resource deals with in-text citations. It gives examples of a range of common types of sources that you are likely to use in your assignments. Part 2 shows how to present reference list entries for in-text citations. Part 1: In-text citations In your paper, every time you summarise, paraphrase or quote from a source you need to provide an in-text citation. The in-text citation consists of the family name of the author/s, the year of publication and sometimes a page number. Page numbers must be included in the in-text citation when quoting directly. Page numbers should be provided if the summarised or paraphrased material appears in specific pages or sections of a work. Burdess (2007, p. 17) describes students in a university tutorial as workers, empty vessels, trappists or drones. When citing more than one source within the same parentheses, list the sources alphabetically by author and separate each with a semicolon. Good communication is an essential skill in the workplace (Jones 2009; Tomkins 2007; Vickers 2011). One, two or three authors The family name of the author/s and date can be in parentheses, or the family name of the author/s and date can be included as part of the sentence. Reading widely is the best way to improve vocabulary (Hay, Bochner & Dungey 1997, p. 110). or Hay, Bochner and Dungey (1997, p. 110) explain that reading is the best way to improve vocabulary. The word and is used when the family names are part of the sentence, but an ampersand (&) is used when the names are in parentheses. If a work is written by two or three authors the in-text citation provides the family names of the authors in the order in which they appear on the title page of the work. More than three authors If a work has more than three authors use only the family name of the first-listed author followed by the expression 'et al.' (meaning 'and others'). Osland et al. (2004, p. 103) expand on the importance of paragraphs and ... or The importance of paragraphs should not be underestimated (Osland et al. 2004, p. 103). Note: In the reference list entry provide the names of all the authors in the order in which they appear on the title page of the work. Repeat citations of a study within one paragraph In any one paragraph, if you cite an author or authors more than once in the narrative (i.e. the author?s name does not appear in parentheses), include the family name/s and year the first time. In subsequent citations in the narrative in the same paragraph you need to cite only the family name/s, and omit the year, provided studies cannot be confused. According to Hopkins (2004, p. 16) little attention has been given to the way a manager might identify and ? Furthermore, Hopkins argues that in some business environments ? When the name of the author/s and year are in parentheses in any one paragraph, the year is included in subsequent citations. Little attention has been given to the way a manager might identify and ? (Hopkins 2004, p. 16). Furthermore, Hopkins (2004, p. 16) argues that in some business environments ? Secondary source When one author (secondary) cites another (primary), provide both primary and secondary authors' family names in the in-text citation. Donato (cited in Cotterall & Cohen 2003, p. 158) explains the concept of scaffolding, which supports learners as they extend their competence and skills. In the example above you have read Cotterall and Cohen, who refer to Donato, but you have not read Donato yourself. Note: In the reference list provide details of the source you have read, i.e. Cotterall and Cohen. Chapter or article in an edited book In a book that consists of chapters or articles written by different authors, acknowledge the author of the chapter or article used. In the next example, Watts has written a chapter in a book edited by Becker, Watts and Becker. Watts (2006, p. 152) claims that writing and reading ? Note: The entry in the reference list should appear under the name of the author of the chapter. Group or organisation as author Sometimes an author is an organisation, a government agency, an association, a corporate body or the like. Cite the full name of the group the first time and give the abbreviation in brackets. Use the abbreviation in subsequent references. According to the Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission [HREOC] (1997) children of Aboriginal parents ? Note: In the reference list, give the bibliographic details under the full name of the group or organisation, i.e. Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission. A cross-reference from the abbreviation to the full name of the organisation should also be given. No author name provided Works that do not indicate the name of an author are cited in text by title (and year of publication, plus page number, if appropriate). They are entered in the reference list under title. English for academic purposes (1987) provides authentic texts for students to practise study skills for higher education. For newspaper articles where no author is indicated, provide details of the newspaper in text. No entry in the reference list is needed. Musical director Jonathon Welch has received further recognition by a Melbourne university (The Age, 25 April 2008, p. 11). No year of publication provided If no year of publication is given for a source, use n. d. (which stands for no date) after the author's name. In a detailed analysis, Cassini (n. d., p. 10) argues ? Two or more publications by the same author in the same year If an author has published two or more works in the same year, the lower case letters a,b,c and so forth are used after the date to distinguish between them. Letters are assigned according to the alphabetical order of the title. However it has also been noted that ? (Perez 2007b, p. 53). Perez (2007a, p. 22) suggested ... According to Perez (2007c, p. 12) ... Dictionary or encyclopedia When citing a dictionary provide the information in text only; no entry in the reference list is needed. The Macquarie dictionary, 4th edn (2005, p. 1104) defines political correctness as ? If the author of an entry in an encyclopedia is not evident then provide the necessary information in text; no entry in the reference list is needed. Film, DVD, video, CD-ROM, television and radio programs, podcast, YouTube Films, DVDs, videos, CD-ROMs, television and radio programs, podcasts and YouTube are referred to by title in text (in italics) with the year of production given. Communication between characters in Star wars (1977) would indicate that ? When referencing a quote or comment from a film, DVD, video, CD-ROM, television or radio program, podcast or YouTube, refer to the person by name within your paper and give the title and year of broadcast either in parentheses or as part of your sentence. The Prime Minister at the time, Kevin Rudd, commented ? (The 7.30 report 2008). Personal communication Personal communications can include letters, emails, personal interviews, telephone conversations and the like. It is important to get the permission of the person referred to in your assignment and it could be appropriate to indicate the role of the person. Cite personal communications in text only; they are not included in a reference list. J Robinson (email, 11 May 2010) indicated ? ? (L Frazer, Manager, Heathville Community Centre, interview, 4 June 2009). Table or chart If tables or charts are reproduced exactly as they appear in a source then the name of the author, year and page number must be given. If you create a table or chart from information provided in a source, acknowledge the source of the information. For example: Based on Nguyen 2010, p. 43. Electronic sources The principles for in-text citation of material obtained from electronic sources are the same as those that apply to print sources. All electronic sources should therefore be cited according to the name of the author/s, which may be an organisation or sponsoring body. As for print sources, cite by title if there is no author. Deakin University unit specific materials If an article from a journal or a chapter from a book is reproduced in a unit reader with full original pagination and bibliographic details, you may cite it as you would the original material and cite the original page numbers. To cite an article from a journal or a chapter from a book reproduced in a unit reader where the full original pagination and bibliographic details are not provided, treat the unit reader as an edited book and cite the articles or chapters reproduced as you would cite chapters in an edited book, i.e. provide the relevant page numbers of the reader. Before citing material from a study guide you need to confirm from the unit chair that it is appropriate and acceptable to do so. If it is, then cite as you would cite a chapter from an edited book. Some units advise that it is not acceptable to cite from lecture notes or slides. If you are permitted to do so, cite the lecturer?s name and year in text. (In the reference list include the lecturer?s name and the year followed by the title of the lecture, the unit code, the day and month plus the campus on which the lecture was delivered.) Quotes A short quote is a sentence or part of a sentence (fewer than about 30 words) from a source, which is reproduced exactly. Single quotation marks are used at the start and end of the quote. Author, date and page number for the quote must be given. It can be argued that 'good writers are necessarily good readers' (Hay, Bochner & Dungey 1997, p. 110). Students experience writer's block because 'they have not given sufficient thought to reviewing course content and developing their ideas' (Clay 2003, p. 47). A block quote is a longer quote (more than about 30 words) set off from the body of the paper by indenting and in a smaller font. Quotation marks are not required. Author, date and page number for the quote must be given. For example: Morley-Warner (2001) discusses how university students can learn to acquire and convey the appropriate academic tone in their assignments. She suggests that students should focus on how journal articles in their subject are written and structured. She describes another benefit of this process: You will also gain a sense of the complexity of being an apprentice writer in an academic culture, or rather cultures, where expectations may vary from discipline to discipline, even subject to subject and where you can build a repertoire of critical thinking and writing skills that enable you to enter the academic debates, even to challenge. (Morley-Warner 2001, p. 6) Reading is central to study at university. It is through reading that ? Part 2: Collating a reference list An important purpose of the reference list is to enable readers to locate sources. Therefore details must be correct and complete. Each in-text citation and the related reference list entry should be identical in spelling and year. Points to note: ? The reference list should contain all the works cited in the paper and no works that are not cited. ? A work is listed only once in the reference list, regardless of how many times it is cited in text. ? Works should be listed in alphabetical order by family name of author or name of organisation. Numbers and subheadings are not used. ? A work with no author is ordered alphabetically according to the first major word of the title (disregarding a , an or the at the beginning of the title). ? Full bibliographic details, that is, the key elements of a work, should be provided. ? the state or country should be provided for a relatively unknown place of publication or production. Note: the examples given are placed under subheadings to show each form. In a reference list they would be all together in alphabetical order with no subheadings. Book Author, B year, Title of book, Publisher, City. Examples: Burdess, N 2007, Good study, Pearson Education, Sydney. Osland, D, Boyd, D, McKenna, W & Salusinszky, I 2004, Writing in Australia: a composition course for tertiary students, Thomson, Southbank, Vic. Wallace, A, Schirato, T & Bright, P 1999, Beginning university: thinking, researching and writing for success, Allen & Unwin, St Leonards, NSW. Work other than a first edition Author, B year, Title of book, edition number, Publisher, City Example: Marshall, L & Rowland, F 2006, A guide to learning independently, 4th edn, Pearson Education, Frenchs Forest, NSW. Chapter or article in an edited book Author, B year, 'Chapter title', in C Editor (ed.), Title of book, edition number unless first edition, Publisher, City, page numbers. Example: Watts, M 2006, 'Team term papers and presentations', in WE Becker, M Watts & SR Becker (eds), Teaching economics: more alternatives to chalk and talk, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, UK, pp. 151?70. Book with no author indicated Title of book, edition number unless first edition, year, Publisher, City. Example: Style manual for authors editors and printers, 6th edn, 2002, rev. Snooks & Co., John Wiley & Sons, Milton, Qld. Book, online Author, B year, Title of book, Publisher if provided, date retrieved, ?URL?. Examples: Taylor, M 2009, Mind maps: quicker notes, better memory, and improved learning, Kindle edition, retrieved 29 October 2011, ?http://www.amazon.com?. Weaver, RK 2000, Ending welfare as we know it, Brookings Institution Press, retrieved 23 May 2008, ?http://books.google.com/books?id=0S8Rezane-QC&printsec=frontcover&sig=zFBmcWxnvqyl9lsGPS1IUsKbrTA&source=gbs_hpintrst#PPP1,M1?. Journal article Author, B year, 'Title of article', Title of Journal, volume number, issue number, page numbers. Example: Clay, G 2003, 'Assignment writing skills', Nursing Standard, vol.17, no. 20, pp. 47?52. Journal article, online Author, B year, 'Title of article', Title of Journal, volume number, issue number, page numbers if given, date retrieved, name of database or ?URL?. Examples: Richardson, JS 2004, ?Content area literacy lessons go high tech?, Reading Online, vol. 8, no. 1, retrieved 1 August 2004, ?http://www.readingonline.org/articles/art_index.asp?HREF=/articles/Richardson?. Roberts, GE 2004, 'Municipal government benefits, practices and personnel outcomes: results from a national survey', Public Personnel Management, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 1?22, retrieved 18 July 2004, Business Source Premier database. Newspaper article Author, B year, 'Title of article', Title of Newspaper, day, month, page numbers. Examples: Deveny, C 2008, 'Dyslexics may take a different route, but we get there in the end', The Age, 9 April, p. 15. Crafti, S 2010, ?Winning design moored in Spain?, The Age, 25 August, Business Day, p. 16. Note: For newspaper articles where no author is indicated, provide details of the newspaper in text. No entry in the reference list is needed. For articles from a separately numbered section of a newspaper, add the section name, enclosed within commas, between the month and the page number. Newspaper article, online Author, B year, ?Title of article?, Title of Newspaper, day Month, page numbers if given, date retrieved, name of database or ?URL?. Examples: Moses, A 2010, ?Googling a hire power: should employers use net to vet?? The Age, 25 August, retrieved 25 August 2010, ?http://www.theage.com.au/technology/technology-news/ googling-a-hire-power-should-employers-use-the-net-to-vet-20100825-13rm6.html?. Priest, A 2007, ?Expression of the interesting?, The Australian, 10 October, p. 34, retrieved 29 April 2008, Newsbank database. Document, online Author, B year, Title, name of organisation or person responsible for site, date retrieved, ?URL?. Example: The Cancer Council Australia 2007, National cancer prevention policy 2007?09, The Cancer Council Australia, retrieved 26 August 2010, ?http://www.cancer.org.au/File/PolicyPublications/NCPP/NCPP_Full_document.pdf?. Group or organisation as author Name of group or organisation year, details of work as appropriate to its form. Examples: Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission 1997, Bringing them home: report of the National Inquiry into the Separation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children from their Families, HREOC, Sydney. Northern Territory Department of Justice 2007, Step forward: getting help about sexual violence. Retrieved 25 August 2010, ?http://www.nt.gov.au/justice/documents/stepforward.pdf?. Web page Author, B year, ?Title of page?, date retrieved, ?URL?. Example: Diabetes Australia 2010, ?Gestational diabetes?, retrieved 22 July 2010, ?http://www.diabetesaustralia.com.au/ Understanding-Diabetes/What-is-Diabetes/Gestational-Diabetes-?. Brochure or pamphlet Author, B year, Title, type of publication, Publisher, City if provided. Example: Australian Heart Foundation 1999, Be active every day: physical activity for a healthy heart, brochure, Australian Heart Foundation. Film, DVD, video, CD -ROM Title of program year, type of recording, Producer, Place. Examples: Essay writing made easy 1996, video recording, Deakin University Course Development Centre, Geelong, Vic. Sunday too far away 1995, motion picture, South Australian Film Corporation, Adelaide. Television and radio programs Title of program Year, type of recording, Broadcaster, City, day, month. Examples: Hindsight 2006, radio program, ABC National Radio, Melbourne, 31 August. More than enough rope 2008, television program, ABC 1, Sydney, 21 April. Podcast and YouTube Title year, type of recording, Producer, day month, date retrieved, ?URL?. Examples: Star stuff 2010, podcast, ABC Science, 8 July, retrieved 8 July 2010, ?http://www.abc.net.au/science/starstuff/?. Swine flu ? alarming jump 2009, YouTube, Channel 9 News Melbourne, 16 May, retrieved 4 September 2009, ?http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sLWfRzgo__4&NR=1?. A sample reference list in author-date (Harvard) style References Burdess, N 2007, Good study, Pearson Education, Sydney. The Cancer Council Australia 2007, National cancer prevention policy 2007?09, The Cancer Council Australia, retrieved 26 August 2010, ?http://www.cancer.org.au/File/PolicyPublications/NCPP_Full_document.pdf?. Cotterall, S & Cohen, R 2003, 'Scaffolding for second language writers: producing an academic essay', ELT Journal, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 158?66. Hindsight 2006, radio program, ABC National Radio, Victoria, 31 August. HREOC - see Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission 1997, Bringing them home: report of the National Inquiry into the Separation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children from their Families, HREOC, Sydney. Priest, A 2007, ?Expression of the interesting?, The Australian, 10 October, p. 34, retrieved 29 April 2008, Newsbank database. Richardson, JS 2004, ?Content area literacy lessons go high tech?, Reading Online, vol. 8, no. 1, retrieved 1 August 2004, ?http://www.readingonline.org/articles/art_index.asp?HREF=/articles/Richardson?. Roberts, GE 2004, ?Municipal government benefits, practices and personnel outcomes: results from a national survey?, Public Personnel Management, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 1?22, retrieved 18 July 2004, Business Source Premier database. Watts, M 2006, 'Team term papers and presentations', in WE Becker, M Watts & SR Becker (eds), Teaching economics: more alternatives to chalk and talk, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, UK, pp. 151?70. Referenc requirement About this resource This resource explains some of the more common applications of the author-date (Harvard) style of referencing. It is based on the Style manual for authors, editors and printers, 6th edn, 2002, pp. 188?208 and pp. 218?32. You should always check your unit guide and/or with academic staff (unit chair, lecturer or tutor) to make sure that this is the recommended style for your unit. Note that some units, courses and disciplines use variations of the style described here. You must reference all material you use from all sources and acknowledge your sources in the body of your paper each time you use a fact, a conclusion, an idea or a finding from someone's work. This establishes the authority of your work and acknowledges the researchers and writers you have drawn upon in your paper. It is necessary to cite your sources each time you: ? reproduce an author's exact words (quote), that is, copy word for word directly from a text. Page numbers must be included in the in-text citation when quoting directly. ? use your own wording (summarise or paraphrase) to explain or discuss what someone has said. Page numbers should be provided if the summarised or paraphrased material appears in specific pages or sections of a work. If you copy an entire table, chart, diagram or graph or if you take only some of the data contained in such sources, you must provide a reference. Sources such as journals, books, encyclopedias, computer programs and software, information from the internet, reports, newspapers, interviews, radio and television must be cited in the body of your paper and detailed in a reference list at the end. Information from Deakin study guides and readers must also be acknowledged. The author-date (Harvard) style The author-date (Harvard) style consists of two elements: ? in-text citations in the body of the paper ? a reference list at the end of the paper giving full bibliographic details for the in-text citations. Part 1 of this resource deals with in-text citations. It gives examples of a range of common types of sources that you are likely to use in your assignments. Part 2 shows how to present reference list entries for in-text citations. Part 1: In-text citations In your paper, every time you summarise, paraphrase or quote from a source you need to provide an in-text citation. The in-text citation consists of the family name of the author/s, the year of publication and sometimes a page number. Page numbers must be included in the in-text citation when quoting directly. Page numbers should be provided if the summarised or paraphrased material appears in specific pages or sections of a work. Burdess (2007, p. 17) describes students in a university tutorial as workers, empty vessels, trappists or drones. When citing more than one source within the same parentheses, list the sources alphabetically by author and separate each with a semicolon. Good communication is an essential skill in the workplace (Jones 2009; Tomkins 2007; Vickers 2011). One, two or three authors The family name of the author/s and date can be in parentheses, or the family name of the author/s and date can be included as part of the sentence. Reading widely is the best way to improve vocabulary (Hay, Bochner & Dungey 1997, p. 110). or Hay, Bochner and Dungey (1997, p. 110) explain that reading is the best way to improve vocabulary. The word and is used when the family names are part of the sentence, but an ampersand (&) is used when the names are in parentheses. If a work is written by two or three authors the in-text citation provides the family names of the authors in the order in which they appear on the title page of the work. More than three authors If a work has more than three authors use only the family name of the first-listed author followed by the expression 'et al.' (meaning 'and others'). Osland et al. (2004, p. 103) expand on the importance of paragraphs and ... or The importance of paragraphs should not be underestimated (Osland et al. 2004, p. 103). Note: In the reference list entry provide the names of all the authors in the order in which they appear on the title page of the work. Repeat citations of a study within one paragraph In any one paragraph, if you cite an author or authors more than once in the narrative (i.e. the author?s name does not appear in parentheses), include the family name/s and year the first time. In subsequent citations in the narrative in the same paragraph you need to cite only the family name/s, and omit the year, provided studies cannot be confused. According to Hopkins (2004, p. 16) little attention has been given to the way a manager might identify and ? Furthermore, Hopkins argues that in some business environments ? When the name of the author/s and year are in parentheses in any one paragraph, the year is included in subsequent citations. Little attention has been given to the way a manager might identify and ? (Hopkins 2004, p. 16). Furthermore, Hopkins (2004, p. 16) argues that in some business environments ? Secondary source When one author (secondary) cites another (primary), provide both primary and secondary authors' family names in the in-text citation. Donato (cited in Cotterall & Cohen 2003, p. 158) explains the

 

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