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Chapter 2: Scientific investigation

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Question;1. ?Rigor? related to scientific;investigation refers, amongst others, to;a.;The probability that our;estimations are correct.;b. The idea that a simple model that;explains a certain phenomenon has preference over a complex model.;c.;The fact that findings are;generalizable.;d. The;fact that a study has a good theoretical base.;2. ?Confidence?, as a characteristic of;scientific investigation, refers to;a. The;probability that our estimations are correct.;b. The idea that a simple model that;explains a certain phenomenon has preference over a complex model.;c.;The fact that findings are;generalizable.;d.;The fact that an investigation;has a clear theoretical foundation.;3. Scientific investigation is;characterized by a good theoretical base and a sound methodological design. These characteristics are both related to;the of the investigation.;a. Rigor.;b. Precision and confidence.;c. Objectivity.;d. Parsimony.;4. An inductive investigation starts;with an observation of empirical data.;a. T;b. F;5. A deductive investigation is based;on theoretically logical reasoning.;a. T;b. F;6. Parsimony refers to;a. The probability that our estimations;are correct.;b. The;idea that a simple model explaining a certain phenomenon is preferred to a;complex model.;c. The fact that findings are;generalizable.;d. The fact that an investigation has a;clear theoretical base.;7. As in the hypothetico-deductive;studies, hypotheses can be developed in case studies as well.;a. T;b. F;8. Case studies are usually qualitative;in nature.;a. T;b. F;9. In the hypothetico-deductive method;the formulation, foundation and testing of hypotheses play an important role.;a. T;b. F;10. Deduction is the process of drawing;conclusions based on (an interpretation of) the results of data-analysis.;a. T;b. F;11. Confidencerefers to the closeness of the findings to ?reality?;based on a sample.;a. T;b. F;12.;It is not always possible to meet all the hallmarks of;science in full. Comparability, consistency;and wide generalizability are often difficult to obtain in research.;a. T;b. F

 

Paper#55085 | Written in 18-Jul-2015

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