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Chapter 2: Management Learning Past to Present




Question;1.;According;to Theory Y;A.;people;are willing to work, like responsibility, and are self-directed and creative.;B.;people;are social and self-actualizing;C.;a;satisfied need does not motivate behavior.;D.;people;at work rationally consider opportunities made available to them;E.;a;need is activated only when the next-lower-level need is satisfied.;2.;Which;of the following is true of a self-fulfilling prophecy?;A.;It;does not occur to managers who hold Theory X assumptions.;B.;It;occurs when a person acts in ways that confirm another?s expectations.;C.;It;does not occur to managers who hold Theory Y assumptions.;D.;It;is the tendency of persons singled out for special attention to perform as;expected.;E.;It;tries to match management practices with situational demands.;3.;Ross;is a manager who assumes that his workers dislike work and act irresponsibly.;He tries to command and control his workers in every possible way. According to;the self-fulfilling prophecy, his workers are most likely to;A.;take;initiatives.;B.;become;creative.;C.;become;passive and dependent.;D.;be;self-directed.;E.;perform;responsibly.;4.;Michelle;is a manager who assumes that her workers are willing to work, like;responsibility, and are self-directed. She encourages them to be more involved;in their jobs and grants them reasonable freedom. Michelle?s subordinates are;most likely to;A.;act;passively.;B.;become;dependent.;C.;perform;reluctantly.;D.;perform;irresponsibly.;E.;take;initiatives.;5.;Theory;X is similar to Theory Y in that managers holding Theory X assumptions;A.;believe;that people are willing to work and like responsibility.;B.;believe;that people are self-directed and creative.;C.;typically;create responsible workers.;D.;create;self-fulfilling prophecies.;E.;create;opportunities to satisfy esteem and self-actualizing needs.;6.;According;to Argyris;A.;managers;who treat people positively and as responsible adults will achieve the highest;productivity.;B.;the;principle of specialization increases opportunities for self-actualization.;C.;bureaucracy;allows workers to control their work.;D.;the;concept of unity of direction leads to psychological success.;E.;people;dislike work, lack ambition, act irresponsibly, and prefer to be led.;7.;Argyris?s;theory of adult personality is similar to the Theory Y in that, Argyris?s;theory;A.;assumes;people dislike work and lack ambition.;B.;assumes;people prefer to be led.;C.;limits;opportunities for self-actualization.;D.;argues;that managers must treat people as responsible adults.;E.;creates;conditions for psychological failures.;8.;Argyris?s;theory of adult personality differs from the scientific management theory in;that, Argyris?s theory;A.;develops;rules of motion.;B.;develops;a clear and consistent approach to work.;C.;proposes;excessive supervision of employees.;D.;uses;the concept of ?time study? to improve efficiency.;E.;criticizes;the principle of specialization.


Paper#55096 | Written in 18-Jul-2015

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