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Seaport ECOL100 Midterm Exam 2014

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Question;1. Ecology is the study ofplants.animals.global climate change.relationships between organisms and their environment.the chemistry of living things2. Which of the following is not a renewable resource?groundwatertreessoiloilwildlife3. Large ecological regions with characteristic types of natural vegetation and distinctive animals adapted to them are calledcommunitiesecosystemsbiomesecospherespopulations4. The first law of thermodynamics tells us thatDoing work always creates heat.Altering matter is the best source of energy.Energy cannot be recycled.Energy is neither created nor destroyed.Energy cannot be converted.5. Nature reveals three basic principles that could help transition to sustainable societies. Which of the following is NOT one of those principles?reliance on solar energybiodiversitynutrient cyclingsurvival of the fittestnone of these answers6. Which of the following is an example of a density dependent population controlparasitespredatorsinfectious diseasescompetitors with high niche overlapall of these answers7. One way that species evolve over time to reduce niche overlap is calledcompetitive exclusion principleresource partitioningpopulation distributionchemical warfaremimicry8. Which of the following would exhibit primary succession?a rock exposed by a retreating glacieran abandoned farma clear-cut forestnewly flooded landa recently burned forest9. Complex feeding patters for consumers in an ecosystem are calledfood websfood chainstrophic levelspyramids of energytrophic chains10. What is the primary difference between renewable resources and nonrenewable resources?how easily they are discoveredthe amount of the resourcethe length of time it takes for the resource to be replenished or renewedhow fast they are being used upthe quality of the resource11. Emigration isthe one-way movement of individuals into an established populationthe one-way movement of individuals out of an uninhabited areathe one-way movement of individuals out of a population to another areathe repeated movement into and out of an areathe lack of immigration into an area12. Parasitesharm but do not kill hosts immediatelyare usually larger then their hostsmust be internal to their hostsmay strengthen their hosts over a long period of timeare usually microscopic (cannot be seen with naked eye)13. A species in an ecosystem that plays a central role in the health of that ecosystem, and whose removal may cause the collapse of the ecosystem, is called a(n)foundation speciesindicator speciesnative specieskeystone speciesspecialist species14. Which of the following would NOT be organic molecules?lipidsnucleic acidshydrocarbonsproteinswater15. A negative feedback loop is illustrated by all of the following EXCEPTdecelerating loss of heat as a pan of hot water is removed from the stoveexponential population growth ratesweating to cool your body during and after vigorous exercisea thermostat maintaining a certain temperature in your houseNone of the above16. Exponential growth followed by a steady decrease in population growth until the population size levels off is typical oflogistic growthenvironmental resistanceexponential growthcarrying capacitybiotic potential17. Some individuals in a population have genetic traits that enhance their ability to survive and produce offspring, a process callednatural selectionadaptabilitygenetic driftmutationtheory of acquired traits18. Which of the following is the usual order of applying the scientific process to a problem?hypothesis-question-observation-experimentation-conclusion-analysishypothesis-conclusion-question-observation-experimentation-analysisobservation-hypothesis-conclusion-experimentation-analysis-questionobservation-question-hypothesis-experimentation-analysis-conclusionhypothesis-experimentation-observation-analysis-question-conclusion19. Large terrestrial regions with similar characteristics areecosystemscommunitiespopulationshabitatsbiomes20. Each trophic level in a food chain or food web contains a certain amount of organic matter, calledfoodenergybiomassorganismsdecomposition21. Which of the following is said to occur when an interaction benefits one species but has little, if any, effect on the otherinterspecific competitionpredationparasitismmutualismcommensalism22. The combination of all factors that limit population growth are known as?physical tolerancechemical tolerancephysical & chemical toleranceenvironmental resistancepopulation age structure23. Geographic isolation may result from which of the following?volcanic eruptionrivermountain rangeroadAll of the above24. Which of the following is NOT an example of an indicator species?trout in water with a specific temperature requirementbirds that need a large forested areabutterflies that use a specific plant as foodfrogs that take in water and air though their skinAll are example of indicatory species25. Density dependence population controls meanshigh rate of population increase.low rate of population increase.population growth declines as density increasespopulation growth increases as density increasesall of these answers26. Which is our best immediate energy option?Find and burn more forms of oil, natural gas, and coal.Cut out unnecessary energy waste by improving energy efficiency.Build more and better conventional nuclear power plants.Increase efforts to develop breeder nuclear fission and nuclear fusion.Discover a new form of energy.27. The ocean zone that covers the continental shelf is thebathyal zonecoastal zonelittoral zonebenthic zoneabyssal zone28. In lakes, the nutrient-rich water near the shore is part of thelimnetic zonebenthic zonelittoral zoneprofundal zoneabyssal zone29. A type of inland wetland that are depressions that have been carved out by ancient glaciers are known asfloodplainsswampsmarshesprairie potholesarctic tundra30. Which of the following would be characteristic of the profundal zone?rooted plantslow oxygen levelsnourished by dead mattermain photosynthetic layerturtles, frogs, crayfish, perch31. Oysters, clams, and lobsters would be part of which of the followingphytoplanktonzooplanktonnektonbenthosdecomposers32. The world's second fastest growing energy resource ishydropowerwind powernuclear powersolar powertidal energy33. The deepest part of the ocean is theabyssal zoneeuphotic zoneestuary zonebathyal zonebenthic zone34. Widely scattered clumps of trees, warm temperatures year-round, alternating dry and wet seasons, with herds of herbivores are the characteristics of which of the following?tall-grass prairietemperate grasslandstemperate forestcoastal forestsavanna35. The severity of an earthquake is a measure of its seismic waves, and is calledepicenterfocusmagnituderidgesvalleys36. Clear-cutting does all of the following EXCEPTgreatly increases water runoffincreases loss of soil nutrientsincreases death of vegetationincreases recreationincreases pollution of streams37. All of the following are part of the saltwater or marine aquatic life zones, EXCEPToceansestuariesinland wetlandscoastal wetlandsshorelines38. CITES is a(n)regulations controlling the introduction of exotic speciestreaty controlling the international trade in endangered speciespact that supports critical ecosystems that support wildlifeinternational organization dedicated to the preservation of endangered speciespolicing agency for the protection of threatened species39. Which of the following is the biggest problem for US national parks today?huge number of park visitorshabitat destructioninvasion of alien speciespollutionall of these answers40. Because birds live in every climate and biome, and because they are easy to track and count, they serve as excellentkeystone speciesfoundation speciesindicator speciesaesthetic indicatorshabitat indicators41. Some toxic chemicals, such as those in DDT, can be stored in the fat tissue of animals. As these animals become food for larger and larger animals, the amount of toxin gets larger and larger. This process is calledbiotoxificationecotoxificationbiosystemicsbiomagnificationbioremediation42. Renewable energy resources include all of the following, EXCEPTthe sunthe windbiomassnatural gaswater43. Which of the following would be characteristic of a eutrophic lake?nutrient overload from human activitiesnutrients levels between the extremes of too much and too littlesmall supply of plant nutrientswell-supplied with nutrients for producersexcessive nutrients44. The key factors determining the types and numbers of organisms found in the various layers of both freshwater and marine systems include all of the following, EXCEPTparasitismavailability of nutrientstemperaturedissolved oxygen levelsavailability of food45. Treeless, bitterly cold most of the year, winters are long and dark, low growing plants, permafrost are the characteristics of which of the following?tall-grass prairietundrashort-grass prairietemperate grasslandsavanna46. Organisms in this area must be able to avoid being swept away, crushed by waves, or being left high and dry at low tides, and must survive daily on seasonal salinity and temperature changes.estuariescoastal wetlandsbathyal zoneintertidal zonecoral reefs47. With the Arctic warming twice as fast as the rest of the world, which of the following organisms is rapidly moving toward threatened status?sea lionsWalruspolar bearsSealsarctic fox48. A jellyfish would be considered a type of which of the following?BenthosZooplanktonNektonphytoplanktonultraplankton49. On a fishing boat, someone catches a swordfish. As a biologist, you would consider this organism a type ofphytoplanktonzooplanktonnektonbenthosdecomposer50. The weakness of electric cars is theirnoise levelmaintenance costenergy-storage systemslow accelerationprice51. The real prices of goods and services do NOT includethe cost of raw materialsthe cost of manufacturingthe environmental costs of resource usethe cost of distributionthe cost of advertising52. The highest rate at which a renewable resource can be used indefinitely without reducing its available supply is calledconservationsustainable yieldpreservationrecyclingall of these answers53. Which of the following is said to occur when an interaction benefits one species but has little, if any, effect on the other?interspecific competitionpredationparasitismmutualismcommensalism54. Which of the following statements is NOT an example of a physical change?Confetti is cut from pieces of paper.Water evaporates from a lake.Ice cubes are formed in the freezer.A plant converts carbon dioxide into carbohydrate.A tree is cut down in the forest.55. The organisms responsible for nitrogen fixation areplantsanimalsfungibacteriaviruses56. A change in the genetic characteristics of a population from one generation to another is calledemigrationmutationnatural selectionevolutiongenetic drift57. All of the following are elements EXCEPTwateroxygennitrogenhydrogencarbon58. Life on earth depends on interaction of gravity, the cycling of matter, andcycling of energyone-way flow of energyone-way flow of matterthe consumption of energythe consumption of matter59. Which of the following is a limitation of science?use of statistical tools for estimationhuman errornothing can be absolutely proven or disprovennatural systems are very complexall of these60. Which of the following is an example of reuse?re-melting aluminum cansmaking compost out of kitchen scrapsusing plastic butter tubs to store leftoversusing waste heat to warm a roommaking paper goods from previously used paper61. The hydrologic cycle is the movement ofcarbonhydrogenhydrocarbonscarbohydrateswater62. A species? way of life in a community is itsrolehabitatecological nichegeographical locationrange63. The typical percentage of loss of energy in transfers from one trophic level to the next is about1%5%35%60%90%64. Isotopes are forms of an element that differ from one another by having differentatomic numbersnumbers of electronsnumbers of protonsmass numberselectrical charges65. An atom or group of atoms with one or more net positive or negative charges is a(n)baseisotopeionacidnone of these66. Which of the following dispersion patterns is most likely for a population in an environment were resources are scarce?clumprandomuniformwidediffuse67. The number of different species an ecosystem contains is itsspeciationspecies evennessspecies nichespecies richnesshabitat68. The distinct piece of DNA containing instructions for making proteins isthe chromosomethe nucleotidegenesthe cell membranethe hydrocarbon69. Pollution includesdetergents dumped into streamsvolcanoes spewing toxic gases into the atmosphereCO2 releases from coal burning power plantsfertilizer runoff from golf coursesall of these70. Which of the following is NOT a method predators use to capture prey?pursuitambushcamouflagechemical warfareprotective shells71. Scientists classify energy as eitherchemical or physicalkinetic or mechanicalpotential or mechanicalpotential or kineticchemical or kinetic72. Which of the following is a way that humans alter the water cycle?withdraw large quantities from streams, lakes, and aquifersincrease runoff by clearing vegetation from the landincrease flooding by draining and filling wetlandsall of these answersnone of these answers73. Biodiversity includes all of the following components EXCEPTfunctional diversitygenetic diversitygeomorphic diversityecosystem diversityspecies diversity74. These are the parts of the earth?s air, water, and soil where organisms are found.habitatnichecommunityecosystembiosphere75. For natural selection to occur, an adaptive traitmust be a physical traitmust be a physiological traitmust be a psychological traitmust be a heritable traitmust not be a heritable trait76. The two most important factors that determine an area's climate aretemperature and windtemperature and precipitationprecipitation and lightlight and temperaturewind and light76. The two most important factors that determine an area's climate aretemperature and windtemperature and precipitationprecipitation and lightlight and temperaturewind and light77. Deep lakes with steep banks that have a small supply of plant nutrients areoligotrophic lakeseutrophic lakesculturally eutrophic lakeshypereutrophic lakesmesotrophic lakes78. The most effective water heateris an electric water tankis a gas water heateris an oil water heateris a tankless instant water heater fired by natural gasis a propane water heater79. One-third of the human food supply comes from plant that are pollinated bybatsbirdsinsectswindmammals80. The direct threat of climate change to marine habitat isincrease in carbon storage in oceansspread of tropical diseasesdecreased salinity of waterrising sea levelsUV radiation from ozone depletion81. The greatest marine biodiversity is locatedin the bottom region of the oceanin the surface region of the oceanin the coastal region of the oceanin the open oceanin coral reefs82. It is necessary to use energy to get energy. The difference between what you get and what you use to get it is calledgainlossgross energyprofitnet energy83. An old-growth forest would be defined asa commercial forest older than 30 yearsa forest undisturbed for at least 50 yearsa second-growth forest undisturbed for at least 100 yearsa re-planted forest that has had little disturbance for 100 yearsan uncut or regenerated primary forest undisturbed for several hundred years84. Which of the following is NOT one of the external geologic processes driven by energy from the sun?formation of mountainswind erosionweatheringwater erosionglacial erosion85. The dimly lit zone in which zooplankton and smaller fishes predominate, is theabyssal zoneeuphotic zoneestuary zonebathyal zonebenthic zone86. Forests cover about _____ % of the U.S. land area.101525305087. The continuous, low level extinction of species that has occurred since the beginning of life on earth is calledcontinual extinctionmass extinctionbackground extinctionlocal extinctionbiological extinction88. Which of the following countries has a significant whaling industry and whale meat market?United StatesAustraliaGreat BritainJapanChina89. The most important factor in determining which biome is found in a particular area issoil typetopographygeologyclimatelandforms90. The root cause of food insecurity iswarpolitical upheavalpovertycorruptionclimate change91. The location on the earth?s surface above where an earthquake begins is called itsapexfocusmagnitudeepicenterfault92. The world?s single largest cause of illness ismalariatyphoidmosquitoespoor healthunsafe drinking water93. The middle, partially melted zone of the interior of the earth is called thecrusttectonic platecoremantlemagma94. Which part of the earth?s crust makes up 71% of the crust?oceanic crustasthenospherelithospherecontinental crustgeosphere95. Which of the following describes a local area?s short-term temperature, precipitation, and humidity?climateweatherrainshadowthermal inversionswind patterns96. Approximately _____ of the commercial energy used in the U.S. is wasted25%58%65%78%84%97. In 2008 approximately 36% of the commercial honeybee colonies in the U.S. were lost due to?habitat lossclimate changehybridization with African honey beescolony collapse disorderpesticide use98. It takes approximately ____ barrels of water to produce one barrel of shale oil125102599. Prevailing winds are the result of what?temperaturedirection the sun strikes the earthrotation of the earth on its axisocean currentssun storms100. Which of the following refers to the ability of a living system to be restored after a period of moderate disturbance?stabilityinertiaconstancystabilityresilience77. Deep lakes with steep banks that have a small supply of plant nutrients areoligotrophic lakeseutrophic lakesculturally eutrophic lakeshypereutrophic lakesmesotrophic lakes78. The most effective water heateris an electric water tankis a gas water heateris an oil water heateris a tankless instant water heater fired by natural gasis a propane water heater79. One-third of the human food supply comes from plant that are pollinated bybatsbirdsinsectswindmammals80. The direct threat of climate change to marine habitat isincrease in carbon storage in oceansspread of tropical diseasesdecreased salinity of waterrising sea levelsUV radiation from ozone depletion81. The greatest marine biodiversity is locatedin the bottom region of the oceanin the surface region of the oceanin the coastal region of the oceanin the open oceanin coral reefs82. It is necessary to use energy to get energy. The difference between what you get and what you use to get it is calledgainlossgross energyprofitnet energy83. An old-growth forest would be defined asa commercial forest older than 30 yearsa forest undisturbed for at least 50 yearsa second-growth forest undisturbed for at least 100 yearsa re-planted forest that has had little disturbance for 100 yearsan uncut or regenerated primary forest undisturbed for several hundred years84. Which of the following is NOT one of the external geologic processes driven by energy from the sun?formation of mountainswind erosionweatheringwater erosionglacial erosion85. The dimly lit zone in which zooplankton and smaller fishes predominate, is theabyssal zoneeuphotic zoneestuary zonebathyal zonebenthic zone86. Forests cover about _____ % of the U.S. land area.101525305087. The continuous, low level extinction of species that has occurred since the beginning of life on earth is calledcontinual extinctionmass extinctionbackground extinctionlocal extinctionbiological extinction88. Which of the following countries has a significant whaling industry and whale meat market?United StatesAustraliaGreat BritainJapanChina89. The most important factor in determining which biome is found in a particular area issoil typetopographygeologyclimatelandforms90. The root cause of food insecurity iswarpolitical upheavalpovertycorruptionclimate change91. The location on the earth?s surface above where an earthquake begins is called itsapexfocusmagnitudeepicenterfault92. The world?s single largest cause of illness ismalariatyphoidmosquitoespoor healthunsafe drinking water93. The middle, partially melted zone of the interior of the earth is called thecrusttectonic platecoremantlemagma94. Which part of the earth?s crust makes up 71% of the crust?oceanic crustasthenospherelithospherecontinental crustgeosphere95. Which of the following describes a local area?s short-term temperature, precipitation, and humidity?climateweatherrainshadowthermal inversionswind patterns96. Approximately _____ of the commercial energy used in the U.S. is wasted25%58%65%78%84%97. In 2008 approximately 36% of the commercial honeybee colonies in the U.S. were lost due to?habitat lossclimate changehybridization with African honey beescolony collapse disorderpesticide use98. It takes approximately ____ barrels of water to produce one barrel of shale oil125102599. Prevailing winds are the result of what?temperaturedirection the sun strikes the earthrotation of the earth on its axisocean currentssun storms100. Which of the following refers to the ability of a living system to be restored after a period of moderate disturbance?stabilityinertiaconstancystabilityresilience

 

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