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Econ Final Paper -Week 5

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Question;dentify the phenomena you wish to concentrate on within the broad realm of health and human services. Your references (should be a minimum of eight), will come from the databases and reference sources you covered throughout course assignments. You will need to create a description of the phenomena ? the core issue or objective upon which you will focus.Examples of topics (core issues) would include:Community care of mental patients. Discover different examples of community care and their impact on mental patients.Continual support for returning veterans. Determine program success in helping veterans enter the job market.Human services personnel and their values regarding working with senior citizens. A values clarification assessment.Retardation and success out-of-school. A review of successful programs working with younger retarded clients achieving employment.Increased incidents of homeless individuals at odds with community rejection. More and more communities are passing laws restricting the homeless asking for money. What are the trends and examples of the laws?Identify the components, attributes, or different segments you will write about in your discussion.The research report can pose problems or hypotheses, but does not actually document what was done to address the problem / hypothesis from a research prospective, but can be answered by examining research ?studies? that were done on the concept. In some ways, the research report can be considered a meta-analysis.The following steps should be followed:Identify the concept or HHS program to be studied. The concept can be in the form of a question(s) or statement.Identify particular segments / dimensions / aspects of the study to be included.Identify research reports and/or theories adding to the exploration of the problem or background information.Prepare a paper of 8 ? 10 pages of text. Include a cover page, abstract, and references page.Use a minimum of eight references, including a minimum of 3 from proQuestFollow APA formatting, proper grammar, and composition.The research report asks a question or poses a problem, and then incorporates various research studies / reports related to the research question or problem. The objective is to not only select and bring together appropriate information, but to bring together information from research previously accomplished when addressing the research question or problem.Writing the Final PaperMust be eight- to ten- double-spaced pages in length and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the approved APA style guide.Must include a cover page that includes:Title of paperStudent?s nameCourse name and numberInstructor?s nameDate submittedMust include an introductory paragraph with a succinct thesis statement.Must address the topic of the paper with critical thought.Must conclude with a restatement of the thesis and a conclusion paragraph.Must use at least eight sources, including a minimum of three from proQuest.Must use APA style as outlined in the approved APA style guide to document all sources.Must include, on the final page, a Reference Page that is completed according to APA style as outlined in the approved APA style guideInformation -;Mental Illness1. What is Mental Illness2. Warning Signs of Mental IllnessDifferent Mental Illness1. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)2. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)3. Mood DisorderFirst articleWASHINGTON, Jan. 19 -- The U.S. Department of Health & Human Services' Substance Abuse & Mental Health Services Administration issued the following press release:A new national report reveals that 45.9 million American adults aged 18 or older, or 20 percent of this age group, experienced mental illness in the past year. The rate of mental illness was more than twice as high among those aged 18 to 25 (29.9 percent) than among those aged 50 and older (14.3 percent). Adult women were also more likely than men to have experienced mental illness in the past year (23 percent versus 16.8 percent).Mental illness among adults aged 18 or older is defined as having had a diagnosable mental, behavioral, or emotional disorder (excluding developmental and substance use disorders) in the past year, based on criteria specified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV, American Psychiatric Association [APA], 1994).The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) National Survey on Drug Use and Health also shows that 11.4 million adults (5 percent of the adult population) suffered from serious mental illness in the past year. Serious mental illness is defined as one that resulted in serious functional impairment, which substantially interfered with or limited one or more major life activities.SAMHSA through its strategic initiative on substance abuse and mental illness prevention and recovery is working to assist states, territories, tribal governments, and communities to adopt evidence-based practices, deliver health education related to prevention, and establish effective policies, programs, and infrastructure to help address these problems. Throughout the nation new programs are underway to strengthen the capacity of communities to better service the needs of those suffering from mental illness."Mental illnesses can be managed successfully, and people do recover," said SAMHSA Administrator Pamela S. Hyde. "Mental illness is not an isolated public health problem. Cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity often co-exist with mental illness and treatment of the mental illness can reduce the effects of these disorders. The Obama Administration is working to promote the use of mental health services through health reform. People, families and communities will benefit from increased access to mental health services."The economic impact of mental illness in the United States is considerable-about $300 billion in 2002. According to the World Health Organization, mental illness accounts for more disability in developed countries than any other group of illnesses, including cancer and heart disease.In terms of treatment statistics, the report indicates that about 4 in 10 people experiencing any mental illness in the past year (39.2 percent) received mental health services during that period. Among those experiencing serious mental illness the rate of treatment was notably higher (60.8 percent).The report also noted that an estimated 8.7 million American adults had serious thoughts of suicide in the past year - among them 2.5 million made suicide plans and 1.1 million attempted suicide. Those in crisis or knowing someone they believe may be at immediate risk of attempting suicide are urged to call the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline 1-800-273-TALK (8255) or http:/www.suicidepreventionlifeline.org. This suicide prevention hotline network funded by SAMHSA provides immediate free and confidential crisis round-the-clock counseling to anyone in need throughout the country, everyday of the year.According to the report, rates for substance dependence were far higher for those who had experienced either any mental illness or serious mental illness than for the adult population which had not experienced mental illness in the past year. Adults experiencing any mental illness in the past year were more than three times as likely to have met the criteria for substance dependence or abuse in that period than those who had not experienced mental illness in the past year (20 percent versus 6.1 percent). Those who had experienced serious mental illness in the past year had even a higher rate of substance dependence or abuse (25.2 percent). "These data underscore the importance of substance abuse treatment as well," said SAMHSA Administrator Pamela S. Hyde."Mental illness is a significant public health problem in itself, but also because it is associated with chronic medical diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and cancer, as well as several risk behaviors including physical inactivity, smoking, excessive drinking, and insufficient sleep," said Ileana Arias, Ph.D., Principal Deputy Director of CDC. "Today's report issued by SAMHSA provides further evidence that we need to continue efforts to monitor levels of mental illness in the United States in order to effectively prevent this important public health problem and its negative impact on total health."The report also has important findings regarding mental health issues among those aged 12 to 17. According to the report 1.9 million youth aged 12 to 17 (8 percent of this population) had experienced a major depressive episode in the past year. A major depressive episode is defined as a period of at least 2 weeks when a person experienced a depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure in daily activities and had at least four of seven additional symptoms reflecting the criteria as described in the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV, American Psychiatric Association [APA], 1994).In addition, the report finds that young people aged 12 to 17 who experienced a major depressive episode in the past year have more than twice the rate of past year illicit drug use (37.2 percent) as their counterparts who had not experienced a major depressive episode during that period (17.8 percent).The complete survey findings from this report are available on the SAMHSA Web site at http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSDUH/2k10MH_Findings/. The 2010 National Survey on Drug Use and Health is a scientifically conducted annual survey of approximately 67,500 people throughout the country, aged 12 and older. Because of its statistical power, it is the nation's premier source of statistical information on the scope and nature of many behavioral health issues affecting the nation.Second ArticleAbout 20 percent of American adults suffer some sort of mental illness each year, and about 5 percent experience a serious disorder that disrupts work, family or social life, according to a government report released Thursday.The annual National Survey on Drug Use and Health sketches a now-familiar picture of a country where mental illness is common and the demand for treatment high.Mental illness is most prevalent in women, young adults, the unemployed and people with low incomes. Drug and alcohol abuse is more than twice as common in people with mental illness than those without it. About 4 percent of adults contemplate suicide each year.According to the study, slightly less than half the people with any mental illness - and only 60 percent of those with serious, disabling ones - get treatment each year. Whites and Native Americans are more likely to get treatment than blacks, Hispanics or Asians.In all, about 14 percent of American adults receive some sort of behavioral care each year - and one in five said he or she wanted more, the survey found. Of the people reporting an "unmet need" for mental-health care, about 40 percent said they couldn't afford it.Prescription medicine was the most common treatment, used by 12 percent of adults. Between 2002 and 2010, the percentage of adults getting outpatient counseling fell slightly (to 7 percent), while the fraction of adults using a prescription drug went up.The findings were drawn from interviews with about 68,500 randomly selected Americans living at homes, dormitories or shelters in 2010. It did not include people living on the street, active-duty members of the military, prisoners or hospital patients."This is a good picture of what the households in the country really look like," said Pete Delany, an official of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, the agency that oversees the survey.The survey was face to face, although the interview subjects answered many of the questions on a computer screen, a technique shown to increase candor about touchy subjects. The surveyors were not mental health professionals, although a sample of respondents were interviewed in greater detail by such people.The questions were designed to uncover a range of problems, such as depression, anxiety, psychosis and adjustment disorders. Although drug and alcohol abuse qualify as mental disorders in psychiatry's diagnostic manual, they weren't considered as such in this survey. That will allow researchers to see the extent to which substance abuse and specific mental illnesses occur simultaneously.Among the 46 million people age 18 and older who had a mental illness in 2010, 20 percent also met the criteria for substance abuse. For people ages 18 to 25, the rate was 32 percent. About 8 percent of Native Americans had both mental illness and substance abuse - twice the rate seen in blacks and whites."These should be taken as upper limits only," Allen Frances, a retired professor of psychiatry at Duke University, said of the numbers in the survey. "I am skeptical that rates this high make sense."Frances oversaw the revision of the profession's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders from 1987 to 1994. He said surveys generally lack the ability to judge the severity of symptoms, which is essential to deciding whether something qualifies as an illness.Daniel J. Carlat, a Massachusetts psychiatrist whose 2010 book "Unhinged: The Trouble With Psychiatry" criticized the profession's overreliance on prescription drugs, agreed "that there is a kind of alarmist quality to these reports." The disorders found could include spider-phobia and staying upset for a long time after arguing with one's spouse."There is a stigma about 'mental illness' that as soon as you hear the term people assume that it's something quite severe. The nuances of this type of data tend to be lost on people," he said. He added, however, that he doesn't doubt that 5 percent of the population has a serious mental disorder.Third articleMental illness does not discriminate, it affects people of all races and ages without exception. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), African Americans, however, are more likely to experience mental conditions than others and less likely to seek treatment.Why is this? According to David Satcher, who in 1998 was the second African American appointed U.S. Surgeon General, African Americans experience homelessness, incarceration, and violence at a disproportionately greater rate than other segments of the population. Vulnerability to these sociological factors means vulnerability to mental illness. Another reason is that despite an urgent need for comprehensive mental health services, many African Americans are less likely to receive help. Lack of funds, inadequate access to public assistance and the stigma of mental illness all combine to make this a frightening reality.Mental health disorders affect everyone, whether indirectly or through the experiences of loved ones. The National Institute of Mental Health estimates that more than 22 percent of adults have a mental health disorder in any one year. These disorders are related to everything from physical changes and brain chemistry, to major life changes, such as birth, death or loss of a job.Take depression, for example. You may think that depression is a character flaw, something people could just snap out of if they really wanted to. But in reality we know that depression is not the result of personal weakness or lack of character. It results from changes in brain chemistry or brain function, and medicines and psychotherapy often help people to recover, according to the National Alliance for Research on Schizophrenia and Depression (NARSAD).Treatments work, but only if a person receives them. When mental illnesses go untreated, they can have negative social side effects, leading to higher crime rates and substance abuse problems. According to the National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI), nearly a quarter of all state prison inmates have a recent history of a mental health disorder. And roughly 50 percent of individuals with severe mental disorders are affected by substance abuse, according to reports published in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA). For patients with co-occurring mental and substance abuse disorders, both must be addressed for successful treatment.The recent tragedy at Virginia Tech may falsely lead people to believe that those with mental health disorders are prone to violence. In reality, the U.S. Surgeon General has reported that the likelihood of violence by people with mental illness is low, in fact, "the overall contribution of mental disorders to the total level of violence in society is exceptionally small." More often, people living with mental illness are the victims, not the perpetrators, of violence.Many people are embarrassed to seek treatment for their mental health condition, thinking that it's "all in their head." Oftentimes, it's not. Harvard University found that each year as many as 8 million Americans who have serious mental illnesses do not receive adequate treatment. This can result in destructive behavior, involving criminal activity or suicide.And suicide is perhaps the most preventable outcome when it comes to mental health. According to the Suicide Prevention Resource Center (SPRC), 90 percent of people who die by suicide have a diagnosable mental illness or substance abuse disorder. Unfortunately, up to two-thirds of people who die by suicide are not receiving mental health or substance abuse treatment at the time of their death, and half have never seen a mental health professional, according to SPRC.These people are suffering in silence needlessly. The CDC states that 80 to 90 percent of mental conditions are treatable using medication and other therapies. The best treatments for serious mental illnesses today are highly effective, between 70 and 90 percent of individuals have significant reduction of symptoms and improved quality of life with a combination of treatments and supports, according to NAMI.We need to respect mental health issues for what they are - conditions that can be as disabling as cancer or heart disease in terms of premature death and lost productivity. For example, the American Psychological Association reports that stress - a common mental condition - is linked to the six leading causes of death: heart disease, cancer, lung ailments, accidents, cirrhosis of the liver and suicide.Depression is also the leading cause of disability for Americans ages 15-44, according to the Mayo Clinic, so catching warning signs early will allow people to get help when they need it most. For depression, signs include prolonged sadness, feelings of despair, anger, social withdrawal, weight loss or gain, and thoughts of death. Stress, which can be induced by death or illness, is physically and emotionally manifested much like depression.Michigan's Legislative Black Caucus and leading health care organizations in the state have done a tremendous job in addressing health disparities, but mental illness can still happen to anybody, regardless of race, age or gender.We're fortunate to live in a time when there are more treatments, services and community support systems than ever before. People with mental illnesses today lead active, productive lives.Early identification and treatment are of vital importance. By ensuring access to the treatment, recovery is accelerated and further harm is minimized. If you suffer from or suspect you may have a mental health condition, know that you are not alone and seek treatment from a qualified health professional. The Center for Mental Health Services offers a call center at (800) 789-2647 weekdays from 8:30 a.m. to 12:00 a.m. EST to answer your mental health questions. We need to treat our mental health as seriously as we do every other aspect of our well-being.People need to be aware that now, more than ever before, medicines offer hope to those battling mental disorders. We know a pill helps no one if a patient cannot afford it. For those who may need help paying for their medications, there is help available. More than 475 public and private assistance programs, 180 of which are sponsored by America's pharmaceutical companies, are available to eligible patients through the Partnership for Prescription Assistance (www.pparx.org or 1-888-4PPA-NOW). So far, more than 122,000 Michiganders, and more than 3.6 million people nationwide, have been matched to programs that offer free or nearly free medicines.

 

Paper#57681 | Written in 18-Jul-2015

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