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After reading article #1 by Cissik in the NSCA Performance training Journal




Question;After;reading article #1 by Cissik in the NSCA Performance training Journal;you are to compare and contrast the Principle of Specificity of Training;and the Principle of Progressive Overloading.What;are the differences between each approach? What are the benefits and;drawbacks? Have you used either or both of these approaches in the past;or do you have plans to use in the future?******************************************************************************Basic Principles of;Strength;Training and;Conditioning;John M. Cissik, MS, CSCS;it one;-;the This;cor-to effi-;-;the d.;NSCA?s Performance Training Journal 7 Volume;1 Number 4 |;Failing;to apply it will result in wasted energy and time, and it will result in;frustration as gains do not materialize.;When developing a;conditioning program, you should con-sider the following;the;movements to be trained;the muscles and joints to be trained, the;energy system(s) to be trained, and the speed of movement.;Strength and conditioning programs can be;designed to enhance movements that are performed in athletics. This is;important because this may improve an athlete?s perform-ance. It may do this by;strengthening the movement, it may also accomplish this by allowing the athlete;to practice the movement with resistance. It is also important because it can;maximize an athlete?s training time and be used to help pre-vent injuries in;the athletic event. A number of questions should be considered to help with;this;1.;Is the activity performed standing?;2.;What joints perform the activity?;3. Do the joints work together or sequentially? If;sequen-tially, what is the sequence of movement?;4.;What motions are performed by each joint?;For example, basketball;players want to become better verti-cal jumpers. The vertical jump is performed;stand-;include: the back squat, the front squat, the;power clean, the power snatch, and the jerk to name a few. While exercises like;the leg extension and the leg curl may strengthen the knee flexors and;extensors, they do not involve exerting force against the ground and do not;prepare the athlete to use his or her hips, knees, and ankles together.;While movements;are important, there are times when you may want to address specific muscles or;joints in a condi-tioning program. This may be to prevent injuries, to;rehabil-itate injuries, or to achieve a certain appearance. For example, a;baseball pitcher may want to train the rotator cuff muscles, or a sprinter may;want to address the hamstring muscles. You may want to target certain muscles;to make them hyper-trophy for appearance, for example a body builder?s biceps.;While movements are important for designing a condition-ing program, addressing;specific muscles or joints may be necessary at times.;Addressing;movements, muscles, or joints assists with select-ing exercises. Things like;workload, rest, and intensity are driven by the energy system(s) that you want;to train. Energy system training is critical to improving athletic;per-formance. Often performance is limited by your energy stores and your;ability to replenish them, both of which are trainable. You can design conditioning;programs to enhance the energy system(s) that are used in an athletic event. To;do this, consider the following;1.;How long does the event last?;2. Is the event performed continuously? Or does;the athlete get to rest?;-.;is;for;-;NSCA?s Performance Training Journal 8 Volume;1 Number 4 |;acid.;A hundred meter sprint that lasts ten seconds will rely heavily on the;available stores of ATP and will be limited by;the amount on hand.;The length of the event can deceptive, however.;For example, football game might last two Just looking at the length of might;seem to indicate that aerobic energy system needs;to be trained for football play-ers. In this;case one needs to consider if the athletes are moving continuously. In the case;of football the answer is the athletes rest between plays have a chance to;recover their gy stores. In this case one consider how much time the actually;spends moving before to rest. The average play may five or six seconds, which;would cate that the sport is dependant upon the levels of in the muscles.;Energy system training is important;consideration because it helps to dictate how much weight to use, how many;repeti tions to perform, and the amount of recovery time. If you interested in;increasing the stores of ATP, then training will involve heavy weight, low;repetitions, and lots of rest Glycolytic training will involve moderate reps;moderate weight, and little rest. Aerobic training means lighter weights, many;repeti-tions, and no rest.;A final consideration with specificity concerns;the velocity of movement. The gains from exer-cise are specific to;the velocities that the exercises are;performed;at. If exercises are performed at slow speeds, then we become stronger at slow;speeds, however, there is lit-tle transfer to faster speeds. If exercises are;performed stronger at faster athletics because few sports are performed;at slow;speeds.;If;one is designing a conditioning program for a sport that is;performed at high;then one will need to exercises that make ath-high speeds. These variations;of the clean, the snatch, and;exercises;and sprints.;specificity is;important gains are made. The because it ensures make gains from your;of;states that in;order from an exercise pro-some way to make it because bodies adapt to is that;once your workload, it will not unless the workload is you do not continue you;will plateau;is necessary to;make more difficult, one kept in mind: you must when applying the Performing a;set of a way of making the;difficult;but if you need phosphagen energy are violating speci-;NSCA?s Performance Training Journal 9 Volume;1 Number 4 |;There are a number of ways to apply the;over-load principle to a strength and condition-ing program;1. increase the weight lifted;2. increase the volume of work;3. change the exercis-es employed;4. modify the order of the exercises, and;5.;alter the rest periods.;Increasing the weight that the workout more;difficult. will force your muscles, bone and nervous system heavier weights;will also perform fewer repetitions;Increasing the volume of ber of sets, number of;combination thereof?will body having to adapt to it. main ways to elicit larger;nective tissue adaptation training. One should be;method of applying overload, is too great will;train the tem.;Changing the exercises;increase overload that many reluctant to use. Many exercises they are;performing ones that can elicit certain;so. Changing the exercises benefits, including;keeping interesting and requiring nervous system to adapt imposed in a totally;different;There are many exercises movement and the same;this;means that you do not have to rely on one exercise to train a given area. For;example, the back squat trains the muscles of the hip;knee;and ankle in a manner that involves exerting force against the ground, it loads;the bones;of the vertebral column and;body, and is;per-standing up. There are a exercises that do the same may be;substituted for;squats, and squats.;above exercises;may be lower-body strength also loads the bones of lower body and is per-;up.;exercises are per-way;to provide over-when exercises are make some exercises to perform and others;example, in your;current exercise order may look press, incline press, Now, let?s change the;exercises;so that the new like this: dumbbell flies, bench press. The result is that you;will be able weight on the dumbbell press, because they while you are;fresh-lift less weight on the;NSCA?s Performance Training Journal 10Volume 1 Number 4;;bench press, because it will be performed while;you are fatigued. Not only will you become stronger on the first two exercises;but you will also keep your workouts interesting and this will also help your;body to adapt in a different man-ner because you are focusing on the first two;exercises instead of the bench press.;A final way to provide overload is to modify;the amount of rest. This must be used carefully to ensure that you are;observing specificity. By increasing the amount of rest in between sets, you;allow your body to recover more complete-ly. This means you will be able to;lift heavier weights with a greater number of repetitions. The benefit oft this;approach to training is that it allows you to increase your strength on;exercises. Conversely, if you shorten the amount of rest in between sets, you;do not allow yourself as much recovery. It becomes more difficult to lift a;given amount of weight. While this does not do as good a job of increasing;strength, it does force the muscles to grow to adapt to the rest period.;Overload is not something that only needs to be;applied on a daily basis, it must be applied over a lifetime of training. The;final principle deals with the importance of applying over-load logically over;time.;The Principle of;Progressive Overload;Progressive overload involves two areas;The exercises that are employed in a training;program, and;The total amount of work that is done in a;training pro-gram.;The exercises that are performed by an;individual beginning his or her training career should be less complicated than;one who has been training for a longer period of time. A begin-ner should be;expected to master certain fundamental skills in the training program. Once;those skills are mastered, they may be applied to more complicated exercises.;Failure to master these skills may result in injury, wasted time in the weight;room, and incomplete development. Two examples of learning fundamental skills;before progressing to more com-plicated ones concern the back squat and the Olympic-style;lifts;The back squat is;typically learned before the front squat, overhead squat, or other variations.;This is because the back squat teaches correct posture when squatting, foot;placement, keeping the heels on the ground, squatting by pushing the hips back;and then flexing the knees, ascend-ing with the hips and shoulders moving up at;the same speed, etc. If one does not posses those skills then the;front squat;overhead squat, pause squat, eccentric squat, etc., will be much more difficult;to learn.;Generally the;Olympic-style lifts are learned from the top down. This breaks down a;complicated exercise and makes it easier to master. For example, by learning;the power clean initially with the bar above the knees, we learn to explosively;extend the hips while shrugging the shoulders up and plantar flexing the;ankles. We learn to receive the bar in a quarter squat and how to recover from;that position. This is difficult to learn. Adding correct starting posture with;the bar on the ground, lifting the bar from the ground to the knees, getting;the bar around the knees, and then explosively extending the hips while;shrugging the shoulders up and plantar flexing the ankles will prove too much;for many to master initially.;In order to make gains from training over time;you must find a way to perform more work. This may be more weight lift-ed, more;repetitions performed, more sets, or some combina-tion of the three. As we;discussed in the overload section, this is necessary to keep your body making;adaptations. This also needs to be conducted with caution, as progressing too;quickly can result in injury and burnout. The best way to do this is to apply;some type of systematic approach to training. The one most commonly used is;periodization of training, which essentially consists of breaking the training;process down into smaller, more manageable units. Periodization is a way to;organize your training over your career, this includes the weight lifted, the;volume of work, the exercises employed, rest, recovery methods, etc. All of;this is done in a way that ensures that you are in the best possible shape when;it counts?during the competition.;The principles of exercise that this article;have covered are very important for making sure that you get the most out of;your strength and conditioning programs. Applying speci-ficity means designing;conditioning programs to elicit the development of desired qualities. Applying;overload means that strength and conditioning programs will be difficult enough;to be effective. Applying progressive overload allows for strength and;conditioning programs to be effective over your training career.;About the Author;John M. Cissik, MS, CSCS is the Director of;Wellness Services at Texas Woman?s University. He also owns and operates;Fitness and Conditioning Enterprises, which provides speed and agility;instruction primarily to children and teens. He is the National Strength and;Conditioning Association?s State Director for Texas.;NSCA?s Performance Training Journal 11Volume 1 Number 4;


Paper#58264 | Written in 18-Jul-2015

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